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euix6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Madara Doniņa & Irina Narozhnova 1st year Bachelor degree students Faculty of electrical and power engineering Riga Technical University 2008
  • 2.  
  • 3. Climate change 'tipping point' within 100 years
  • 4. The nine tipping elements Collapse of the Indian summer monsoon Greening of the Sahara/Sahel and disruption of the West African monsoon Melting of Arctic sea-ice Dieback of the Amazon rainforest Dieback of the Boreal Forest Collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation Increase in the El Nino Southern Oscillation Decay of the Greenland ice sheet Collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet
  • 5. Collapse of the Indian summer monsoon (approx 1 year) ! Air pollution and land-use tend to weaken the Indian summer monsoon, it could become erratic...
  • 6. Greening of the Sahara/Sahel and disruption of the West African monsoon (approx 10 years)
    • The reason : global warming of three to five degrees Celsius
    • 3 scenarios:
    • Drying of the Sahel
    • Wetting due to increased inflow from the West
    • Doubling of anomalously dry years
  • 7. Melting of the Arctic sea- ice (approx 10 years) ! As the sea-ice melts, it exposes a much darker ocean surface, which absorbs more radiation than the white sea-ice, so that the warming is amplified. ! This causes more rapid melting in summer and decreases ice formation in winter.
  • 8. doubling of anomalously dry years
  • 9.  
  • 10. Dieback of the Amazon rainforest (approx 50 years)
  • 11. Rain forest covers only 6 % of the Earth's surface, but it contains MORE THAN 1/2 of the world's plant and animal species.
  • 12. Global warming and deforestation will probably reduce rainfall in the region by up to 30 percent. Lengthening of the dry season would make it difficult for the forest to re-establish Three to four degrees Celsius global warming  dieback of the Amazon rainforest.
  • 13. Dieback of the Boreal Forest (approx 50 years ) The boreal forest is the biggest terrestrial ecosystem in the world
  • 14. Under climate change the trees would be exposed to increasing water stress and peak summer heat and would be more vulnerable to diseases.
  • 15. Collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (approx 100 years) There are three main processes that make the oceans circulate: tidal forces, wind stress, and density differences A global mean warming of three to five degrees Celsius could push the element past the tipping point so that deep water formation stops. Under these conditions the North Atlantic current would be disrupted, sea level in the North Atlantic region would rise and the tropical rain belt would be shifted.
  • 16.  
  • 17. Increase in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (approx 100 years) El Nino process is controlled by the layering of water of different temperatures in the Pacific Ocean and the temperature gradient across the equator. In response to a warmer stabilized climate, the most realistic models simulate increased El Niño amplitude with no clear change in frequency.
  • 18. Decay of the Greenland ice sheet (more than 300 years ) The Greenland Ice Sheet has experienced record melting in recent years and is likely to contribute substantially to sea level rise as well as to possible changes in ocean circulation in the future.
  • 19.  
  • 20. Local warming of more than three degrees Celsius could cause the ice sheet to disappear within 300 years. This would result in a rise of sea level of up to seven meters.
  • 21. Collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (more than 300 years )
  • 22. A worst case scenario shows the ice sheet could collapse within 300 years, possibly raising sea level by as much as five meters.
  • 23. It is not a fantasy..., it is a reality of the near future. Global warming is in a process now. Our task is to find effective solutions how to make it slower, and eliminate the drastic consequences of the climate change. The question is: what can each of us do? Believe us, there are a lot of things ...
  • 24.  
  • 25. Thank You!