The Structure of Disparities: Advancing Structural Equality<br />john a powellKirwan Institute for theStudy of Race and Et...
	The problem [of equality] is so tenacious because, despite its virtues and attributes, America is deeply racist and its d...
Race in the U.S.<br />3<br />http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_reducingracialdisparity.pdf<br />
Framing Matters<br />Both these perspectives are true –how we frame issues of race matters.<br />Consider the false dichot...
<ul><li>Racial attitudes getting better, but disparities continue to persist -- how do we explain the persistence of dispa...
Move from de jure segregation to de facto segregation
Move from explicit racist laws/attitudes to seemingly neutral structures that reproduce disparities
Shifting the focus from attitudes to manifestation - stop focusing on racial intent as determining factor in talking about...
Colorblindness v. Color-Consciousness<br />Colorblindness<br />  The logic: Since we know race is socially constructed (no...
7<br />Disparities: Snapshots<br />African-American men were 1.8x more likely than white men to be unemployed in 1980, by ...
What’s happening now?<br />Video of unemployment growth in the United States<br />8<br />CLICKPICTURETOSTARTMOVIE<br />
What’s happening now?<br />But unemployment is not equal…..<br />9<br />
10<br />Disparities: Snapshots<br />The Black-White disparity in incarceration was close to 3-1 in 1930. Today it is highe...
11<br />Disparities: Snapshots<br />The typical Black family had 60% as much income as a white family in 1968, but only 58...
12<br />THE RACIAL LANDSCAPE HAS CHANGED DRASTICALLY FROM 1947-2006, YET INCOME DISPARITIES ARE ESSENTIALLY UNCHANGED<br />
Where are we at?<br />LOCALLY<br />INSERT MAPS/DATA ROCHESTER SPECIFIC<br />UPSTATE NY SPECIFIC<br />
Structural Racialization<br /><ul><li>How race works today: There are still practices, cultural norms and institutional ar...
Structural racialization addresses inter-institutionalarrangements and interactions.
It refers to the ways in which the joint operation of institutions produce racialized outcomes.
In this analysis, outcomes matter more than intent.</li></ul>14<br />
Term Clarification<br />15<br />
Structural Racialization Produces Racialized Outcomes<br />16<br />Adapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. ...
Structural Racialization Analysis Applied<br />17<br />Housing Challenges<br />
Understanding Structural Arrangements<br />Example:  A bird in a cage<br />Examining one wire cannot explain why a bird ca...
Situatedness<br />Different communities are situated differently with respect to institutions.<br />19<br />Example:  Univ...
Racialized Structures<br />Structures and policies are not neutral.  They unevenly distribute benefits and burdens.<br />2...
Introducing Systems Thinking<br />Relationships are neither static nor discrete.<br />21<br />
A<br />B<br />
Systems Thinking<br />23<br />  Lower Educational<br />Outcomes<br />School<br />Segregation &<br />Concentrated Poverty<b...
24<br />FHA Loans – Racialized Input<br />Post WWII FHA Loans - mostly available for whites only and new suburbs being bui...
Systems Thinking<br />25<br />
	Black ghettos have come to contain a disproportionate share of the nation's poor, creating an intensely disadvantaged env...
Who Lives in Concentrated Poverty Neighborhoods? <br />27<br />OVER 3.1 MILLION AFRICAN AMERICANS LIVED IN CONCENTRATED PO...
15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY    Newark, NJ  Chicago, IL   Cleveland...
15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY    Newark, NJChicago, IL   Cleveland-L...
15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY    Newark, NJChicago, IL   Cleveland-L...
15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY    Newark, NJChicago, IL   Cleveland-L...
15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY    Newark, NJChicago, IL   Cleveland-L...
What do these cities have in common?<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI Newark, NJCleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-...
Systems Thinking<br />Non-Linear <br />Small changes  large effects or large changes  no effects<br />Dynamic <br />Not ...
35<br />RACIAL <br />MEANING<br />RACE<br />RACIAL DISPARITIES<br />RACIAL <br />ATTITUDES<br />
Systems Thinking: Three Types of Problems<br />Easy, Complicated, Complex [messy]<br />Easy Problems -> baking a cake, fix...
Systems Thinking<br /><ul><li>Three types of problems
Following a Recipe• The recipe is essential•Recipes are tested to assure replicability of later efforts•No particular expe...
Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />
Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />
Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />
42<br />FHA Loans – Racialized Input<br />Post WWII FHA Loans - mostly available for whites only and new suburbs being bui...
Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />TODAY’S PROBLEMS WERE <br />OFTEN YESTERDAY’S SOLUTION<br />
Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />Widening Highways<br />Problem: Highways are too crowded <br />Solution: Make hi...
Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />Brown vs Board of ED<br />Strategy – If we could address educational disparities ...
Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />BAD OLD DAYS PICTURE<br />
Systems Thinking: Initial Disparities Reinforce Themselves<br />In 1980s -> lots of operating systems vying for dominance ...
Systems Thinking: Initial Disparities Reinforce Themselves<br />THEN CONTINUES INTERGENERATIONALLY<br />
Concluding Thoughts<br />49<br />
Eliminating Structural Racialization<br /><ul><li>A solely top-down approach to eliminating structural racialization will ...
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John A Powell Presentation Aug 26

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ABC brought john a. powell to Rochester last summer. This is a version of his presentation. You can see the video of his presentation here
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vY0fsOsUzAc

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  • Both perspectives are valid – framing matters.
  • John A Powell Presentation Aug 26

    1. 1. The Structure of Disparities: Advancing Structural Equality<br />john a powellKirwan Institute for theStudy of Race and Ethnicity<br />
    2. 2. The problem [of equality] is so tenacious because, despite its virtues and attributes, America is deeply racist and its democracy is flawed both economically and socially … justice for Black people cannot be achieved without radical changes in the structure of our society … <br />Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.<br />
    3. 3. Race in the U.S.<br />3<br />http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_reducingracialdisparity.pdf<br />
    4. 4. Framing Matters<br />Both these perspectives are true –how we frame issues of race matters.<br />Consider the false dichotomies we often use when we think and talk about race. These binaries are actually frames.<br />Black / White<br />Post-racialism / Civil Rights<br />Race is not important / Race matters<br />4<br />
    5. 5. <ul><li>Racial attitudes getting better, but disparities continue to persist -- how do we explain the persistence of disparities in a post-Civil Rights U.S.?
    6. 6. Move from de jure segregation to de facto segregation
    7. 7. Move from explicit racist laws/attitudes to seemingly neutral structures that reproduce disparities
    8. 8. Shifting the focus from attitudes to manifestation - stop focusing on racial intent as determining factor in talking about existence of “racism”</li></ul>5<br />Towards a Structural View<br />
    9. 9. Colorblindness v. Color-Consciousness<br />Colorblindness<br /> The logic: Since we know race is socially constructed (not scientific), we should eliminate racial categories<br /> This perspective assumes “that the major race problem in our society is race itself, rather than racism.”<br /> Attempting to ignore race is not the same as creating equality<br />Source: john a. powell. “The Colorblind Multiracial Dilemma: Racial Categories Reconsidered.” (1997)<br />
    10. 10. 7<br />Disparities: Snapshots<br />African-American men were 1.8x more likely than white men to be unemployed in 1980, by 2000 that had risen to 2.4x more likely – 2007 estimates indicate this has increased even further. If incarcerated populations are included in the jobless count, African-American men are now over 3x more likely than white men to be unemployed, a larger disparity than even the 1950s. <br />
    11. 11. What’s happening now?<br />Video of unemployment growth in the United States<br />8<br />CLICKPICTURETOSTARTMOVIE<br />
    12. 12. What’s happening now?<br />But unemployment is not equal…..<br />9<br />
    13. 13. 10<br />Disparities: Snapshots<br />The Black-White disparity in incarceration was close to 3-1 in 1930. Today it is higher than 8-1, and still increasing exponentially. Incarceration for drug-related offenses peaked at a 20-1 disparity in the mid 90s and is currently holding steady at 15-1. <br />(In 2007, nearly 7% of African-American children had one or both parents currently in prison, a higher percentage than ever before in history) <br />The likelihood of a poor African-American child living in concentrated poverty compared to her <br />white counterpart was about 3x in the 1960s, it is now 7.2<br />
    14. 14. 11<br />Disparities: Snapshots<br />The typical Black family had 60% as much income as a white family in 1968, but only 58% as much in 2002. <br />Black infants are almost two-and-a-half-times as likely as white infants to die before age one – a greater gap than in 1970. <br />At the slow rate that the Black-white under poverty gap has been narrowing since 1968, it would take until 2152, to close. <br />For every white dollar earned, African Americans earned 55 cents in 1968 – and only 57 cents in 2001. <br />IT’S NOT ONLY ABOUT DISPARITIES, BUT WE CAN’T IGNORE THEM <br />
    15. 15. 12<br />THE RACIAL LANDSCAPE HAS CHANGED DRASTICALLY FROM 1947-2006, YET INCOME DISPARITIES ARE ESSENTIALLY UNCHANGED<br />
    16. 16. Where are we at?<br />LOCALLY<br />INSERT MAPS/DATA ROCHESTER SPECIFIC<br />UPSTATE NY SPECIFIC<br />
    17. 17. Structural Racialization<br /><ul><li>How race works today: There are still practices, cultural norms and institutional arrangements that help create & maintain (disparate) racialized outcomes
    18. 18. Structural racialization addresses inter-institutionalarrangements and interactions.
    19. 19. It refers to the ways in which the joint operation of institutions produce racialized outcomes.
    20. 20. In this analysis, outcomes matter more than intent.</li></ul>14<br />
    21. 21. Term Clarification<br />15<br />
    22. 22. Structural Racialization Produces Racialized Outcomes<br />16<br />Adapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. “Structural Racism and Community Building.” June 2004<br />
    23. 23. Structural Racialization Analysis Applied<br />17<br />Housing Challenges<br />
    24. 24. Understanding Structural Arrangements<br />Example: A bird in a cage<br />Examining one wire cannot explain why a bird cannot fly.<br />But multiple wires, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird.<br />18<br />
    25. 25. Situatedness<br />Different communities are situated differently with respect to institutions.<br />19<br />Example: Universal Healthcare<br />Community B has no insurance, but there’s a hospital down the street.<br />Community C has access to both insurance an a hospital.<br />Community A has no insurance and no hospitals in the area.<br />
    26. 26. Racialized Structures<br />Structures and policies are not neutral. They unevenly distribute benefits and burdens.<br />20<br />Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/<br />
    27. 27. Introducing Systems Thinking<br />Relationships are neither static nor discrete.<br />21<br />
    28. 28. A<br />B<br />
    29. 29. Systems Thinking<br />23<br /> Lower Educational<br />Outcomes<br />School<br />Segregation &<br />Concentrated Poverty<br />Think in loops, not just<br />cause & effect<br />Disparities may be <br />reinforcing<br />Gains in one area are <br />often undone over time<br />because of structures – <br />not intent<br /> Increased Flight of Affluent <br />Families<br />Racial & Economic <br />Neighborhood <br />Segregation <br />Mutually<br />Reinforcing<br />
    30. 30. 24<br />FHA Loans – Racialized Input<br />Post WWII FHA Loans - mostly available for whites only and new suburbs being built had racial covenants - (less than 1% of African-American Households able to receive mortgages from 1930-1960)<br />By 1984, When GI Bill mortgages had mostly matured White net worth = $39,135 AA net worth = $3,397<br />By 2002 Avg white wealth = $88,000 and Avg AA wealth = $8,000<br />WEALTH DISPARITIES GROW EXPONENTIALLY <br />IN A CAPITALIST SOCIETY WITHOUT STRONG PROGRESSIVE TAXATION<br />
    31. 31. Systems Thinking<br />25<br />
    32. 32. Black ghettos have come to contain a disproportionate share of the nation's poor, creating an intensely disadvantaged environment that only blacks face. The key issue, in the end is not whether it is race or class that explains the plight of African-Americans in the late twentieth century but how race and class interact to produce barriers to black socioeconomic progress that are unique in their intensity, severity and durability.<br />Douglas Massey The Nation<br />Urban sprawl is the new face of Jim Crow<br />john powell <br />Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity<br />26<br />Spatial Aspects of Opportunity<br />
    33. 33. Who Lives in Concentrated Poverty Neighborhoods? <br />27<br />OVER 3.1 MILLION AFRICAN AMERICANS LIVED IN CONCENTRATED POVERTY NEIGHBORHOODS IN 2000, BLACKS AND LATINOS REPRESENT NEARLY 3 OUT OF 4 RESIDENTS IN THESE NEIGHBORHOODS<br />NEARLY 1 OUT OF 10 BLACKS LIVED IN A CONCENTRATED POVERTY NEIGHBORHOOD IN 1999, COMPARED TO 1 OUT OF 100 WHITES<br />
    34. 34. 15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY Newark, NJ Chicago, IL Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Cincinnati, OHSt. Louis, MONassau-Suffolk, NY Bergen-Passaic, NJPhiladelphia, PAIndianapolis, IN Miami, FL Kansas City, MO<br />
    35. 35. 15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY Newark, NJChicago, IL Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Cincinnati, OHSt. Louis, MONassau-Suffolk, NY Bergen-Passaic, NJPhiladelphia, PAIndianapolis, IN Miami, FL Kansas City, MO<br />BOLDED CITIES are <br />9 out of the 10<br />poorest major <br />metro areas in the US<br />
    36. 36. 15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY Newark, NJChicago, IL Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Cincinnati, OHSt. Louis, MONassau-Suffolk, NY Bergen-Passaic, NJPhiladelphia, PAIndianapolis, IN Miami, FL Kansas City, MO<br />A few other stats……<br />PERCENTAGE OFBLACKS LIVING UNDER POVERTY<br />MIAMI (1)<br />BUFFALO (9)ST LOUIS (11)CLEVELAND (13)CINCINNATI (15)MILWAUKEE (16)NEWARK (18)<br />
    37. 37. 15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY Newark, NJChicago, IL Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Cincinnati, OHSt. Louis, MONassau-Suffolk, NY Bergen-Passaic, NJPhiladelphia, PAIndianapolis, IN Miami, FL Kansas City, MO<br />A few other stats……<br />WORST CHILDHOOD WELLBEING<br />DETROIT (1)NEWARK (4)CLEVELAND (7)<br />ST LOUIS (8)<br />BUFFALO (12)<br />CINCINNATI (13)MILWAUKEE (14)PHILLY (17)<br />
    38. 38. 15 most segregated metro areas<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI New York, NY Newark, NJChicago, IL Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Cincinnati, OHSt. Louis, MONassau-Suffolk, NY Bergen-Passaic, NJPhiladelphia, PAIndianapolis, IN Miami, FL Kansas City, MO<br />A few other stats……<br />MOST VIOLENT CRIMES<br />PER CAPITA<br />ST LOUIS (1)DETROIT (2)PHILLY (7)<br />MIAMI (8)<br />CLEVELAND (19)<br />BUFFALO (21)<br />
    39. 39. What do these cities have in common?<br />Detroit, MI Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI Newark, NJCleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OHBuffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Cincinnati, OHSt. Louis, MOPhiladelphia, PA<br />Highly Segregated<br />“Northern”<br />Rapid Expansion into Suburbs in 1950s<br />De-industrialization // “Rust Belt”<br />Jurisdictional Fragmentation<br />Mostly African-American Urban Core<br />
    40. 40. Systems Thinking<br />Non-Linear <br />Small changes  large effects or large changes  no effects<br />Dynamic <br />Not only are the parts always changing, but so is the relationship between the parts and how they effect each other<br />Not concerned with “prime cause”, concerned with relationships and structure<br />Good for answering questions about complex/messy problems<br />
    41. 41. 35<br />RACIAL <br />MEANING<br />RACE<br />RACIAL DISPARITIES<br />RACIAL <br />ATTITUDES<br />
    42. 42. Systems Thinking: Three Types of Problems<br />Easy, Complicated, Complex [messy]<br />Easy Problems -> baking a cake, fixing a car, diagnosing an illness<br />Complicated problems -> building a rocketship, designing a statewide curriculu, managing a hospital<br />Compelx <br />
    43. 43. Systems Thinking<br /><ul><li>Three types of problems
    44. 44. Following a Recipe• The recipe is essential•Recipes are tested to assure replicability of later efforts•No particular expertise; knowing how to cook increases success•Recipe notes the quantity and nature of “parts” needed•Recipes produce standard products•Certainty of same results every timeComplicated (Problem)A Rocket to the Moon␣ Formulae are critical ␣ and necessary␣ Sending one rocket␣ increases assurance that next will be ok␣ High level of expertise ␣ in many specialized fields + coordination␣ Separate into parts␣ and then coordinate␣ Rockets similar in␣Complex (Mess)Raising a ChildFormulae have only a limited applicationRaising one child gives no assurance of success with the nextExpertise can help but is not sufficient; relationships are keyCan’t separate parts from the wholeEvery child is uniquecritical ways␣ High degree of certainty of outcome␣ Uncertainty of outcome remains</li></li></ul><li>Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />Think of a guitar and speaker and microphone<br />Guitar -> Speaker -> Microphone -> Speaker -> Microphone <br />Not only can note continue “playing” long after someone set the guitar down, it can continue to get louder<br />
    45. 45. Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />
    46. 46. Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />
    47. 47. Systems Thinking: Input lingers through feedback effects<br />
    48. 48. 42<br />FHA Loans – Racialized Input<br />Post WWII FHA Loans - mostly available for whites only and new suburbs being built had racial covenants - (less than 1% of African-American Households able to receive mortgages from 1930-1960)<br />By 1984, When GI Bill mortgages had mostly matured White net worth = $39,135 AA net worth = $3,397<br />By 2002 Avg white wealth = $88,000 and Avg AA wealth = $8,000<br />
    49. 49. Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />TODAY’S PROBLEMS WERE <br />OFTEN YESTERDAY’S SOLUTION<br />
    50. 50. Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />Widening Highways<br />Problem: Highways are too crowded <br />Solution: Make highways wider <br />Result: Highways are less crowded -> driving becomes more desirable -> more people drive -><br />Problem: Highways are too crowded again<br />TODAY’S PROBLEMS WERE <br />OFTEN YESTERDAY’S SOLUTION<br />
    51. 51. Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />Brown vs Board of ED<br />Strategy – If we could address educational disparities from very young, other disparities would start to work themselves out<br />Schools seen as key battleground for both Civil Rights activists and Civil Rights opponents<br />What else was happening at the time?<br />Suburbanization and beginnings of urban sprawl<br />Jurisdictional Fragmentation<br />Construction of a myth of “America = Suburb” <br />50 years later -> do we still have white schools? Do we still have unequal schools?<br />
    52. 52. Systems Thinking: Policy Resistance<br />BAD OLD DAYS PICTURE<br />
    53. 53. Systems Thinking: Initial Disparities Reinforce Themselves<br />In 1980s -> lots of operating systems vying for dominance -><br />Microsoft Windows starts being used in some businesses<br />Other businesses start using MS to make compatibility easier<br />Soon – computers coming with Windows preinstalled, all corporations using Windows<br />Until -> major disruptions -> <br />mobile computing<br />OS becomes less important<br />
    54. 54. Systems Thinking: Initial Disparities Reinforce Themselves<br />THEN CONTINUES INTERGENERATIONALLY<br />
    55. 55. Concluding Thoughts<br />49<br />
    56. 56. Eliminating Structural Racialization<br /><ul><li>A solely top-down approach to eliminating structural racialization will not work…but neither will a solely bottom-up.</li></ul>Community members must be involved and given a voice to help shape a new paradigm.<br />Hence, coalition and community building are key elements in any strategy for challenging structural racialization.<br />50<br />
    57. 57. A Transformative Agenda<br /> Transformative change in the racial paradigm in the U.S. requires substantive efforts in three areas:<br />Talking about race: Understanding how language and messages shape reality and the perception of reality<br />Thinking about race: Understanding how framing and priming impact information processing in both the explicit and the implicit mind<br />Linking these understandings to the way that we act on race and how we arrange our institutions and policies<br />51<br />
    58. 58. US has one of the highest percentages of childhood poverty, infant mortality, and incarceration in the world, despite its affluence as a country. It has lower life expectancies than most industrialized countries, and the least social mobility of any industrialized country.<br /> The single largest predictor of wealth in the United States is the wealth of your parents<br /> The US is in the “top” countries for the average wealth of a national elected representative compared to the average wealth of its citizens.<br /> The US has one of the highest rates of income inequality and wealth inequality (Gini Coefficient) in the industrialized world.<br />52<br />
    59. 59. Wrapping it Up<br />Political Structures are not subordinate to us as individuals – nor are our values in a vacuum<br />53<br />
    60. 60. Linked Fates…Transformative Change<br /> Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconnected, especially through the categories of race, class, gender, nationality, religion…<br /> We need to consider ourselves connected to - instead of isolated from -“thy neighbor”<br />54<br />
    61. 61. “We need to look at the individual in terms of many different relationships to him/herself, many things in relationship to his/her community and to the larger community, not just in isolation. If we take this approach seriously, it affects how we see the world, how we experience ourselves, how we do our work, and helps move us to a truly inclusive paradigm.”<br />55<br />~john a. powell<br />
    62. 62. 56<br />www.KirwanInstitute.org<br />www.race-talk.org<br />KirwanInstitute on:<br />

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