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- 1. Highlights from PIRLS and TIMSS 2011 Jack Buckley National Center for Education Statistics Washington, DC December 11, 2012
- 2. OverviewWhat are PIRLS and TIMSS and which education systems participate in them?How are U.S. students performing compared to their international peers in: 4th-grade reading? 4th- and 8th-grade mathematics? 4th- and 8th-grade science?How are students performing in participating U.S. states? 2
- 3. What are…?• Progress in International Reading • Trends in International Mathematics Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Science Study (TIMSS)• 4th-grade reading assessment • 4th- and 8th-grade mathematics and science assessment• Developed by the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center at Boston College, under contract to the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) * In 1999, no grade 4 assessment. 3
- 4. 32 education systems26 education systems 53 2011 4
- 5. 375747 education systems44 education systems 74 2011 5
- 6. Participating states• 9 states participated as separate entities to obtain scores in PIRLS or TIMSS or bothPIRLS TIMSS grade 4 TIMSS grade 8Florida Florida Florida North Carolina North Carolina Alabama California Colorado Connecticut Indiana Massachusetts Minnesota• Each participated as part of the nation and on its own• NCES funded participation at grade 8 of all states except Florida as part of a study to statistically link NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) and TIMSS (Florida received other Education Department funding) 6
- 7. U.S. national sample size4th grade 4th gradeSchools: 370 Schools: 369Students: 12,726 Students: 12,569 8th grade Schools: 501 Students: 10,477 7
- 8. U.S. state sample sizes (public schools only)4th grade 4th grade(FL) (FL, NC)Schools: 77 Schools: 46 – 77Students: 2,598 Students: 1,792 – 2,661 8th grade (AL, CA, CO, CT, FL, IN, MA, MN, NC) Schools: 53 – 82 Students: 1,712 – 2,614 8
- 9. READING
- 10. PIRLS 2011 framework PIRLSDefinition The ability to understand and use those written language forms required by society and/or valued by the individual. Young readers can construct meaning from a variety of texts. They read to learn, to participate in communities of readers in school and everyday life, and for enjoyment.Content Literary and informational textsCognitive dimensions Focus on and retrieve Make straightforward inferences Interpret and integrate Examine and evaluate 10
- 11. What is on the PIRLS assessment? Percentage of 4th-graders answering correctly: U.S.: 90% Int’l Avg.: 89% 11
- 12. What is on the PIRLS assessment? Percentage of 4th-graders answering correctly: U.S.: 42% Int’l Avg.: 29% 12
- 13. U.S. average score (556) higherthan the PIRLS scale average (500) Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 13
- 14. U.S. average score (556) lower than in 5 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 14
- 15. U.S. average (556) not measurablydifferent than in 7 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 15
- 16. U.S. average score (556) higher than in 40 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 16
- 17. Average reading scores of 4th-grade students from 2006 to 2011 in 13 education systems, including the U.S. Hong Kong-CHN 7* Singapore 9* UNITED STATES 16* Denmark 8*Chinese Taipei-CHN 18* England-GBR 12* Slovenia 9* Poland 6* Norway 9* Georgia 17*Trinidad and Tobago 35*Iran, Islamic Rep. of 36* Indonesia 24* -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average reading score in 2011. 17
- 18. Average reading scores of 4th-grade students from 2006 to 2011 in 8 education systemsAlberta-CAN -12* Sweden -8* Italy -10* Germany -7* Hungary -12* Bulgaria -15* Austria -9* Lithuania -9* -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average reading score in 2011. 18
- 19. PIRLS international reading benchmarks Grade 4Advanced (625) Students can interpret figurative language, distinguish and interpret complex information from different parts of text, and integrate ideas across text to provide interpretations about characters’ feelings and behaviors.High (550) Students can recognize some textual features, make inferences on the basis of abstract or embedded information, and integrate information to recognize main ideas and provide explanations.Intermediate (475) Students can identify central events, make straightforward inferences from the text, and begin to make connections across parts of the text.Low (400) Students can retrieve explicitly stated details from literary and informational texts. 19
- 20. Percentages of U.S. 4th-grade studentsreaching PIRLS reading benchmarks werehigher than international medians in 2011Percent 98 UNITED STATES 100 95 86 International median 90 80 80 70 60 56 50 44 40 30 20 17 8 10 0 Low Intermediate High Advanced Benchmark NOTE: All U.S. percentages are significantly higher than the corresponding PIRLS international median at the .05 level of statistical significance. 20
- 21. Two systems had higher percentages of 4th-grade students reaching Advanced than the U.S. Singapore 24 Florida-USA 22 Russian Federation 19Northern Ireland-GBR 19 Finland 18 Higher than U.S. (p < .05) England-GBR 18 Not measurably different than U.S. (p < .05) Hong Kong-CHN 18 UNITED STATES 17 Ireland 16 Ontario-CAN 15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage reaching Advanced benchmark NOTE: Education systems with lower percentages of students reaching the Advanced benchmark than the percentage of U.S. students reaching the Advanced benchmark are not included in figure. 21
- 22. MATHEMATICS
- 23. TIMSS 2011 mathematics framework TIMSS mathematicsContent Grade 4dimensions Number Geometric Shapes and Measures Data Display Grade 8 Number Algebra Geometry Data and ChanceCognitive Knowingdimensions Applying Reasoning 23
- 24. What is on the TIMSS mathematics assessment? Percentage of 4th-gradersG answering correctly:R U.S.: 80%A Int’l Avg.: 54%DE4 24
- 25. What is on the TIMSS mathematics assessment?GRADE Percentage of 4th-4 graders answering correctly: U.S.: 76% Int’l Avg.: 65% 25
- 26. What is on the TIMSS mathematics assessment?GGRR Percentage of 8th-AA graders answeringD correctly:DE U.S.: 87%E Int’l Avg.: 70%88 26
- 27. What is on the TIMSS mathematics assessment?GR Percentage of 8th-A graders answeringD correctly:E U.S.: 66% Int’l Avg.: 45%8 27
- 28. U.S. average score (541) higher than the TIMSS scale average (500) Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 28
- 29. U.S. average score (541) lower than in 8 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 29
- 30. U.S. average (541) not measurablydifferent than in 6 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 30
- 31. U.S. average score (541) higher than in 42 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. Lower than U.S. 31
- 32. U.S. average score (509) higher than the TIMSS scale average (500)Higher than U.S.Not measurablydifferent than U.S. 32Lower than U.S.
- 33. U.S. average score (509) lower than in 11 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 33 Lower than U.S.
- 34. U.S. average (509) not measurablydifferent than in 12 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 34 Lower than U.S.
- 35. U.S. average score (509) higher than in 32 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 35 Lower than U.S.
- 36. Average mathematics scores of 4th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 12 education systems, including the U.S.Chinese Taipei-CHN 15* Japan 17* UNITED STATES 12* Denmark 14* Quebec-CAN 14* Slovenia 11* Czech Republic 24* Norway 22* Dubai-UAE 24* Georgia 12*Iran, Islamic Rep. of 28* Tunisia 32* -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average mathematics score in 2011. 36
- 37. Average mathematics scores of 8th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 10 education systems Korea, Rep. of 16* Singapore 18*Chinese Taipei-CHN 11* Russian Federation 27* UNITED STATES 1 Italy 19* Ukraine 17* Dubai-UAE 17* Georgia 22* Bahrain 11*Palestinian Natl Auth 37* -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average mathematics score in 2011. 37
- 38. Average mathematics scores of 8th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 6 education systems Hungary -12* Sweden -7* Malaysia -34* Thailand -14* Jordan -21*Syrian Arab Republic -15* -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average mathematics score in 2011. 38
- 39. TIMSS international mathematics benchmarks Grade 4 Grade 8Advanced (625) Students can apply their Students can reason with understanding and information, draw knowledge in a variety of conclusions, make relatively complex situations generalizations, and solve and explain their reasoning. linear equations.High (550) Students can apply their Students can apply their knowledge and understanding and knowledge understanding to solve in a variety of relatively problems. complex situations.Intermediate Students can apply basic Students can apply basic(475) mathematical knowledge in mathematical knowledge in straightforward situations. straightforward situations.Low (400) Students have some basic Students have some mathematical knowledge. knowledge of whole numbers and decimals, operations, and basic graphs. 39
- 40. Percentages of U.S. 4th-graders reaching TIMSS mathematics benchmarks werehigher than international medians in 2011Percent at or above 100 96 90 90 UNITED STATES 81 80 International median 69 70 60 50 47 40 28 30 20 13 10 4 0 Low Intermediate High Advanced Benchmark NOTE: All U.S. percentages are significantly higher than the corresponding TIMSS international median at the .05 level of statistical significance. 40
- 41. Seven systems had higher percentages of 4th- grade students reaching Advanced than the U.S. Singapore 43 Korea, Rep. of 39 Hong Kong-CHN 37 Chinese Taipei-CHN 34 Japan 30 Higher than U.S. (p < .05)Northern Ireland-GBR 24 Not measurably different England-GBR 18 than U.S. (p < .05) North Carolina-USA 16 Florida-USA 14 Russian Federation 13 UNITED STATES 13 Finland 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage reaching Advanced benchmark NOTE: Education systems with lower percentages of students reaching the Advanced benchmark than the percentage of U.S. students reaching the Advanced benchmark are not included in figure. 41
- 42. Percentages of U.S. 8th-graders reaching TIMSS mathematics benchmarks were higher than international medians in 2011Percent at or above 100 92 90 80 75 UNITED STATES 70 68 International median 60 50 46 40 30 30 20 17 10 7 3 0 Low Intermediate High Advanced Benchmark NOTE: All U.S. percentages are significantly higher than the corresponding TIMSS international median at the .05 level of statistical significance. 42
- 43. Eleven systems had higher percentages of 8th- graders reaching Advanced than the U.S.Chinese Taipei-CHN 49 Singapore 48 Korea, Rep. of 47 Hong Kong-CHN 34 Japan 27Massachusetts-USA 19 Russian Federation 14North Carolina-USA 14 Minnesota-USA 13 Israel 12 Connecticut-USA 10 Australia 9 England-GBR 8 Florida-USA 8 Colorado-USA 8 Hungary 8 Turkey 7 Indiana-USA 7 UNITED STATES 7 Quebec-CAN 6 Higher than U.S. (p < .05) Romania 5 Lithuania 5 Not measurably different New Zealand 5 than U.S. (p < .05) Dubai-UAE 5 California-USA 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage reaching Advanced benchmark NOTE: Education systems with lower percentages of students reaching the Advanced benchmark than the percentage of U.S. students reaching the Advanced benchmark are not included in figure. 43
- 44. SCIENCE
- 45. TIMSS 2011 science framework TIMSS scienceContent dimensions Grade 4 Earth science Life science Physical science Grade 8 Biology Chemistry Earth science PhysicsCognitive Knowingdimensions Applying Reasoning 45
- 46. What is on the TIMSS science assessment?GRAD Percentage of 4th-E graders answering correctly: U.S.: 96%4 Int’l Avg.: 83% 46
- 47. What is on the TIMSS science assessment?GRAD Percentage of 4th-E graders answering correctly:4 U.S.: 90% Int’l Avg.: 73% 47
- 48. What is on the TIMSS science assessment?GR Percentage of 8th- graders answeringA correctly:D U.S.: 28%E Int’l Avg.: 27%8 48
- 49. What is on the TIMSS science assessment?GR Percentage of 8th-A graders answeringD correctly:E U.S.: 76% Int’l Avg.: 61%8 49
- 50. U.S. average score (544) higher than the TIMSS scale average (500) Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 50 Lower than U.S.
- 51. U.S. average score (544) lower than in 6 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 51 Lower than U.S.
- 52. U.S. average (544) not measurablydifferent than in 3 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 52 Lower than U.S.
- 53. U.S. average score (544) higher than in 47 education systems Higher than U.S. Not measurably different than U.S. 53 Lower than U.S.
- 54. U.S. average score (525) higher than the TIMSS scale average (500)Higher than U.S.Not measurablydifferent than U.S.Lower than U.S. 54
- 55. U.S. average score (525) lower than in 12 education systemsHigher than U.S.Not measurablydifferent than U.S.Lower than U.S. 55
- 56. U.S. average (525) not measurably different than in 10 education systemsHigher than U.S.Not measurablydifferent than U.S.Lower than U.S. 56
- 57. U.S. average score (525) higher than in 33 education systemsHigher than U.S.Not measurablydifferent than U.S.Lower than U.S. 57
- 58. Average science scores of 4th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 9 education systems Japan 11* UNITED STATES 5 Czech Republic 21* Sweden 9* Netherlands 8* Denmark 11* Norway 17* Georgia 37*Iran, Islamic Rep. of 17* Tunisia 27* -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average science score in 2011. 58
- 59. Average science scores of 4th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 5 education systemsHong Kong-CHN -19* England-GBR -13* Italy -11* Australia -12* New Zealand -7* -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average science score in 2011. 59
- 60. Average science scores of 8th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 9 education systems Singapore 23* Korea, Rep. of 7* Minnesota-USA 15* Russian Federation 13* UNITED STATES 5 Quebec-CAN 13* Ukraine 16* Norway 8* Iran, Islamic Rep. of 15*Palestinian Natl Auth 16* -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average science score in 2011. 60
- 61. Average science scores of 8th-grade students from 2007 to 2011 in 7 education systems Hungary -17* Bahrain -15* Thailand -20* Jordan -33* Malaysia -44*Syrian Arab Republic -26* Indonesia -21* -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 Change in average score *p < .05. Change in average scores is significant. NOTE: Education systems ordered according to average science score in 2011. 61
- 62. TIMSS international science benchmarks Grade 4 Grade 8Advanced (625) Students can apply knowledge Students communicate an and understanding of scientific understanding of complex and processes and relationships abstract concepts in biology, and show some knowledge of chemistry, physics, and earth the process of scientific inquiry. science.High (550) Students apply their Students demonstrate knowledge and understanding understanding of concepts of the sciences to explain related to science cycles, phenomena in everyday and systems, and principles. abstract contexts.Intermediate Students have basic Students recognize and apply(475) knowledge and understanding their understanding of basic of practical situations in the scientific knowledge in various sciences. contexts.Low (400) Students have some Students can recognize some elementary knowledge of life basic facts from the life and science and physical science. physical sciences. 62
- 63. Percentages of U.S. 4th-graders reachingTIMSS science benchmarks were higher than international medians in 2011Percent at or above UNITED STATES 100 96 92 International median 90 81 80 72 70 60 49 50 40 32 30 20 15 10 5 0 Low Intermediate High Advanced Benchmark NOTE: All U.S. percentages are significantly higher than the corresponding TIMSS international median at the .05 level of statistical significance. 63
- 64. Three systems had higher percentages of 4th- grade students reaching Advanced than the U.S. Singapore 33 Korea, Rep. of 29 Finland 20Russian Federation 16 Higher than U.S. (p < .05) Not measurably differentChinese Taipei-CHN 15 than U.S. (p < .05) UNITED STATES 15 Japan 14 Florida-USA 14 Hungary 13North Carolina-USA 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage reaching Advanced benchmark NOTE: Education systems with lower percentages of students reaching the Advanced benchmark than the percentage of U.S. students reaching the Advanced benchmark are not included in figure. 64
- 65. Percentages of U.S. 8th-graders reaching TIMSS science benchmarks were higher than international medians in 2011Percent at or above 100 93 90 79 UNITED STATES 80 73 70 International median 60 52 50 40 40 30 21 20 10 10 4 0 Low Intermediate High Advanced Benchmark NOTE: All U.S. percentages are significantly higher than the corresponding TIMSS international median at the .05 level of statistical significance. 65
- 66. Twelve systems had higher percentages of 8th- graders reaching Advanced than the U.S. Singapore 40Massachusetts-USA 24Chinese Taipei-CHN 24 Korea, Rep. of 20 Japan 18 Minnesota-USA 16 Colorado-USA 14 Connecticut-USA 14Russian Federation 14 Higher than U.S. (p < .05) England-GBR 14 Not measurably different Slovenia 13 than U.S. (p < .05) Florida-USA 13 Finland 13North Carolina-USA 12 Alberta-CAN 12 Israel 11 Australia 11 Indiana-USA 10 UNITED STATES 10 Hong Kong-GBR 9 New Zealand 9 Hungary 9 Turkey 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage reaching Advanced benchmark NOTE: Education systems with lower percentages of students reaching the Advanced benchmark than the percentage of U.S. students reaching the Advanced benchmark are not included in figure. 66
- 67. Summary of change in average U.S. scores over time Grade 4 PIRLS TIMSS TIMSS Reading Mathematics Science 2006-2011 2007-2011 2007-2011 Grade 8 TIMSS TIMSS Mathematics Science 2007-2011 2007-2011 Change over time in U.S. average scores was statistically significant. Change over time in U.S. average scores was not measurably different. 67
- 68. For more information PIRLS at NCES: TIMSS at NCES: http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pirls/ http://nces.ed.gov/timss/ International Data Explorer: International Data Explorer:http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pirls/idepirls/ http://nces.ed.gov/timss/idetimss/ Contact: Contact: Sheila Thompson Stephen Provasnik NCES NCES Sheila.Thompson@ed.gov Stephen.Provasnik@ed.gov 202-502-7425 202-502-7480 68

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