Cebu Presentation: Climate Change Issues and Initiatives


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  • As seen from the slide, human-related releases of greenhouse gases contributed much to the global warming... and most vulnerable are developing countries. While working on a better solution, I believe momentarily that Solar Power is one of the better option. Philippines, being a tropical nation receives more sunlight during the year. Solar energy is (1) renewable, unlike oil which when consumed is gone, sunlight is expected the next day. We may not be able to use the power of the sun during night or on stormy and cloudy days, etc., but we can expect on the sun to be there the next day. We may also collect and store its power for use during rainy days and nights through a deep cycle battery. Also, unlike big generators we currently used to produce our power needs, it is (2) non-noise/non-poisonous gas pollutant, conducive to our thought of having a GREEN Mother Earth. It is also (3) very easy install and to maintain because solar power gadgets have no moving parts. But the most beneficial thing we get is that while installation may cost a little bit higher, this will be more than fully recovered in the long run as there will be then (4) no more expensive monthly bills for the next 25 to 30 years! For sure, this should be a win-win situation! IMAGINE, those who can afford to install one will then save on expensive electric bills for so many years ahead...... and following the law of supply and demand, electricity should then be also more affordable to our less fortunate consumer brothers! Unlike before where solar gadget supplies were hard to find aside from being expensive, these are now available locally at cost even lower than 50% of the current world market. Quality may not be an issue here as the solar cells used are imported from Germany & the USA and assembled in China using the latest manufacturing technology. All products are CU, TUV and RoHS certified. Further, if we think of an even more efficient one, there is a what we call 'hybrid' or a combination of solar & wind power.... now all locally!
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Cebu Presentation: Climate Change Issues and Initiatives

  1. 1. Forum and Workshop on Renewable Energy Responding to the Challenges of Climate Change Waterfront Hotel, Lahug, Cebu City March 6, 2009 Dr. Giovanni Tapang Philippine Climate Watch Alliance
  2. 2. Walkthrough Marginal Communities and climate change ● Philippine response to climate change ● Updates on international climate initiatives ●
  3. 3. Climate change Accelerated warming of surface due to human-related  releases of greenhouses gases Projections of Surface Temperature Change
  4. 4. Adverse Impacts Agriculture ● Productivity in tropics/subtropics; food shortage ● Water Resources ● Water availability + quality; floods and droughts; ● hydropower sources People's Health ● Vector and water borne disease, heat stress, ● nutrition, EWE deaths Coastal Areas and Fisheries ● Species and Natural Areas ● Biodiversity loss ● Forest cover loss ● Human Displacement ●
  5. 5. Hurricanes/Typhoons (Category 4/5) Source: Science Magazine, Sep 16, 2005
  6. 6. Developing countries are most vulnerable 100% Impacts are worse 80%  Percentage affected LDC 60% Low capacity to adapt Dev'ing − CIT 40% Dev'ed Lack of financial, − 20% institutional and technological capacity and 0% access to knowledge 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Impact disproportionately  upon the poorest countries and the poorest persons within countries Exacerbating inequities in health status and access to adequate − food, clean water and other resources.
  7. 7. The poor face greatest challenges from climate change 4,000 2 billion people in Number affected (Millions) 3,000  Dev'ed developing countries CIT 2,000 Dev'ing LDC affected by climate 1,000 related disaster in - the 1990s. 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s The rate has  doubled this decade.
  8. 8. Asymmetric responsibility and vulnerability Inverse relationship between  climate change vulnerability and responsibility Primary emitter countries must  change their production activities and consumption of energy and seek sustainable solutions. Basic human needs, economic  and social development need adequate energy and infrastructure.
  9. 9. Coastal systems and low-lying areas (IPCC-AR4, 2007) All coastal ecosystems are vulnerable ● to climate change and sea level rise Increases in sea surface temperature of ● about 1 to 3°C - more frequent coral bleaching events and widespread mortality Coastal wetlands including salt ● marshes and mangroves are projected to be negatively affected by sea-level rise Many millions more people are projected to ● be flooded every year due to sea-level rise by the 2080s in densely-populated and low- Fisherfolk lying areas, such as the mega-deltas of Asia ● and Africa and small islands. ●Coastal communities ●Small islands
  10. 10. Industry, Settlement and Society (IPCC-AR4, 2007) The most vulnerable ● industries, settlements and societies are generally those in coastal and river flood plains, in areas prone to extreme weather events, especially where rapid urbanization is occurring. Urban poor ● communities Poor communities can be ● especially vulnerable, in particular those concentrated in high-risk areas.
  11. 11. People's Health (IPCC-AR4, 2007) Projected climate change-related exposures are ● likely to affect the health status of millions of people, particularly those with low adaptive capacity, through: increases in malnutrition and consequent disorders, with ● implications for child growth and development; increased deaths, disease and injury due to heat waves, ● floods, storms, fires and droughts; the increased burden of diarrhoeal disease; altered ● spatial distribution of some infectious disease vectors. risk of dengue increases to 3.5 billion people, by 2085, ● worldwide
  12. 12. Regional: Small Islands (IPCC-AR4, 2007) Small islands are especially vulnerable to ● the effects of climate change, sea level rise and extreme events: Deterioration in coastal conditions (erosion of ● beaches and coral bleaching), is expected to affect fisheries, tourism, etc Storm surge, coastal inundation, erosion, etc. ● to be exacerbated by sea-level rise Reduced water resources in many small ● islands, by mid-century (insufficient to meet demand during low rainfall periods)
  13. 13. Vulnerability of the Philippines to Climate Change Strong signals: start of climate change process already evident in the country Increasing trends in ● temperature, sea level rise, etc, are consistent with the global trends. ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES IN THE PHILIPPINES Recent extreme events on ● 2.5 2.0 typhoons, floods, drought, TEM PERATURE ANOM ALY 1.5 y = 0.0143x - 0.206 1.0 0.5 flash floods, landslides 0.0 -0.5 (Albay, South- ern Leyte, -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 Ormoc, etc) -2.5 -3.0 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 YEAR Source: CAB/PAGASA From Dr. Amadore's Slides
  14. 14. Vulnerability of the Philippines to Climate Change Sectors/Systems ● • Disastrous extreme most vulnerable to weather events (strong climate change typhoons, heavy - Agriculture and food precipitations, security droughts, etc) are - Water resources occurring more often - Coastal and marine • Sea level rise will resources adversely affect many - Health and human coastal communities settlements From Dr. Amadore's Slides
  15. 15. Vulnerability of the Philippines to Climate Change Agriculture and food • Percent of Typhoon damage to GDP & Agric. security are adversely affected by extreme weather events Increases in water- ● borne diseases (dengue fever, malaria, cholera) - associated with extremes of rainfall (droughts and floods) From Dr. Amadore's Slides
  16. 16. Effect of Sea Warming on Coastal (Marine) Resources • The diversity of corals could be affected with the branching corals (e.g., staghorn coral) decreasing or becoming locally extinct and the massive corals (e.g., brain corals) increasing (WGII TAR, 2001) • Massive coral bleaching in various reefs through- out the Philippines during the severe 1997- 98 ENSO episode (Arceo, H.O. et al., 2001) • Fish kills and high mortality of cultured giant clams, severe red tide outbreaks after strong El Niño periods. The worst incidence of red tide in Manila Bay occurred in 1992, another El Niño period. From Dr. Amadore's Slides
  17. 17. Philippines’ Response to Address Climate Change Created the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change  (IACCC) in May 1991 Signed the UNFCCC on June 1992 and ratified it on  August 2, 1994 Signed the Kyoto Protocol on April 15, 1998 and ratified it on  November 20, 2003 Designated the DENR as the National Authority for CDM on  June 25, 2004 by virtue of Executive Order No. 320 Issued DENR Adm. Order 2005-17 last August 2005 on the  Implementing Rules and Regulations Governing E.O. 320 Presidential Administrative Order No. 171 Signed by 20  February 2007, Presidential Task Force on Climate Change In the Senate, proposals for a Climate Change Commission  (by the ad-hoc Committee on Climate Change)
  18. 18. The Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC)  Created by virtue of Presidential A.O. 220 on May 8, 1991  Composed of government agencies and NGO representatives  Chaired by the Secretary of the DENR, and co-chaired by the Secretary of the DOST  EMB – acts as IACCC Secretariat Functions of the IACCC  Coordinate, develop, and monitor implementation of various climate change related activities.  Coordinate representation(s) and formulated the Philippine position(s) to international negotiations, conferences, and meetings on climate change  Formulate and recommend climate change related policies and actions  Serve as technical committee for the review and evaluation of project proposals for GEF funding.
  19. 19. Registered Projects by Host Party 1. 360: India 2. 289: China 3. 146: Brazil 4. 107: Mexico 5. 33: Malaysia 6. 26: Chile 7. 20: RP 1.67% of TOTAL: 1,197
  20. 20. Multiple and fragmented response Multiple and fragmented response ● IACCC ● PTFCC ● CCC ● Implementing CDM projects ● Adaptation measures ● Mitigation measures ● Renewables (RE Bill) ● Conservation ● Conflicting policies ●
  21. 21. Grand mega-sale of energy resources Expected foreign investments energy ● P295 billion in investments ● P177 billion potential investment in the ● renewable energy sector for 2004-2013 EPIRA ● IPPs ● SPUG ● SPEX in Malampaya ● 45 % Shell, 45 % ChevronTexaco ● 10% to be sold ● Tanon strait ● BNPP Revival? ●
  22. 22. Copenhagen 2009 and beyond
  23. 23. UNFCCC @ Poznan These events drew over 9250 participants, ● including almost 4000 government officials, 4500 representatives of UN bodies and agencies, intergovernmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations, and more than 800 accredited members of the media. These included around 1,500 industry or corporate lobbyists
  24. 24. Key Issues in COP 15 (Copenhagen) Key Issue People’s Agenda Northern Elite Agenda Not without binding Drastic reductions in GHG Mitigation commitments on the part of emissions, particularly from “large developing countries” advanced industrialized countries Rich countries must pay their Voluntary contributions Adaptation/ ecological debt to the poor according to aid framework Financing majority of the world, esp. most (donor-recipient relationship); vulnerable communities accdg. greater reliance on private to principle of PPP, restorative investments (carbon markets) justice Shift to low-carbon economies Encourage private sector Technology with unhampered technology investment in “clean transfer to developing countries technologies” (with IPR protection) + trade & investment liberalization in EGS (c/o WTO) People’s sovereignty & Industrial tree plantations as Deforestation stewardship over natural carbon offsets for carbon resources trading; biofuels
  25. 25. Towards Copenhagen National Grassroots Conference ● Manila ● April 2009 ● Organized by PCWA ● Other activities (class suit?) ● Asian Grassroots Conference ● Bangkok ● September 2009 ● COP+15 ● Copenhagen ● Replacement to Kyoto? ● December 2009 ●
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