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Structures of Writing:<br />Only write what is in this color.<br />Topic sentences, support, and the thesis.<br />
Topic Sentences: A reintroduction<br /><ul><li>Definition: the first sentence of a supporting paragraph, which outlines an...
Roles
relates the paragraph to the purpose of the piece
Offers a preview to the paragraph</li></ul>Example paragraph:<br />Many fast-food chains make their profits from adding a ...
Topic Sentences: Finding them<br />On the Kohl’s website, a customer may scroll through several screens of customer servic...
Interesting and effective topic sentences<br /><ul><li>Use power statements to indicate that a list follows:
A couple of, numerous, various, many, several, four, two
Ex: Three cities have major pollution problems.
Ex: I enjoy four kinds of music.
Ex: The policy should be changed for three reasons.
Avoid using “there are” in your topic sentences
Instead, start with a who, what, where, or when.
There are two people I call best friends.</li></ul>Who: Tamara and Eva are my two best friends.<br /><ul><li>There are thr...
Interesting and effective topic sentences<br /><ul><li>Use occasion/position topic sentences
Ex: Even though bike helmets can be unfashionable or uncomfortable, every cyclist should wear them.
Occasion and position
Occasion phrases begin with:
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Structures Of Writing

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This is a presentation I used in my junior English class for students who were unable to compose organized and effective essays.

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Transcript of "Structures Of Writing"

  1. 1. Structures of Writing:<br />Only write what is in this color.<br />Topic sentences, support, and the thesis.<br />
  2. 2. Topic Sentences: A reintroduction<br /><ul><li>Definition: the first sentence of a supporting paragraph, which outlines and organizes the rest of the paragraph
  3. 3. Roles
  4. 4. relates the paragraph to the purpose of the piece
  5. 5. Offers a preview to the paragraph</li></ul>Example paragraph:<br />Many fast-food chains make their profits from adding a special ingredient called “forget sauce” to their foods. Made largely from edible oil products, the condiment is never listed on the menu. In addition, this well-kept industry secret is the reason why ingredients are never listed on the packaging of victuals sold by these restaurants. &quot;Forget sauce&quot; has a chemical property which causes temporary amnesia in consumers. After spending too much money on barely edible food bereft of any nutritional value, most consumers swear they will never repeat such a disagreeable experience. Within a short period, however, the chemical in &quot;forget sauce&quot; takes effect, and they can be depended upon to return and spend, older but no wiser. <br />
  6. 6. Topic Sentences: Finding them<br />On the Kohl’s website, a customer may scroll through several screens of customer service information before they are given the email address to contact their customer service department. <br />Any online customer can quickly contact JCPenney by completing an online questionnaire detailing precisely what the customer needs.<br />JCPenney also has the advantage of offering direct customer service online. <br />On www.jcpenney.com a customer can click the “Customer Service” button and be taken to the main customer service page. <br />For JCPenney, a customer can make returns at any of the 1200 retail stores across the United States. <br />In this new environment of online shopping, a customer must also be aware that returns of merchandise are sometimes necessary. <br />With a high number of customer returns, problems with high shipping costs would emerge, since merchandise would often be sent back to stores. <br />Kohl’s, with only 300 stores, would have a greater degree of difficulty handling customer returns.<br />
  7. 7. Interesting and effective topic sentences<br /><ul><li>Use power statements to indicate that a list follows:
  8. 8. A couple of, numerous, various, many, several, four, two
  9. 9. Ex: Three cities have major pollution problems.
  10. 10. Ex: I enjoy four kinds of music.
  11. 11. Ex: The policy should be changed for three reasons.
  12. 12. Avoid using “there are” in your topic sentences
  13. 13. Instead, start with a who, what, where, or when.
  14. 14. There are two people I call best friends.</li></ul>Who: Tamara and Eva are my two best friends.<br /><ul><li>There are three things that “friendship” means to me.</li></ul>What: The word “friendship” means three things to me.<br /><ul><li>There are several friends of mine at school.</li></ul>Where: At school, I have several good friends.<br /><ul><li>There were many interesting places my friend Sam traveled to last summer.</li></ul>When: Last summer, my friend Sam traveled to various interesting places.<br />
  15. 15. Interesting and effective topic sentences<br /><ul><li>Use occasion/position topic sentences
  16. 16. Ex: Even though bike helmets can be unfashionable or uncomfortable, every cyclist should wear them.
  17. 17. Occasion and position
  18. 18. Occasion phrases begin with:
  19. 19. Unless
  20. 20. Although
  21. 21. As long as
  22. 22. In order to
  23. 23. While
  24. 24. Since
  25. 25. Until
  26. 26. The position states your purpose.</li></li></ul><li>Interesting and effective topic sentences<br />Although baseball cards are just pieces of cardboard with pictures on them, some of them are worth a lot of money.<br />Unless pictures of my grandparents were shown, you would never know that I am actually French.<br />Although Japan is located on the other side of the Pacific Ocean, many people have crossed the Pacific to become American citizens.<br />
  27. 27. Topic sentence practice<br />1) Write your own Power Statement for this paragraph:<br />2) Write your own occasion/position statement for this paragraph:<br />I considered a few cost benefits before switching from my sports car to my van.<br />Even though the school year is already 182 days, we could benefit from more class time.<br />Although the van costs about the same as a sports car, the insurance costs were less. I&apos;m guessing the insurance underwriters think that if you are carrying your children with you, you would be less likely to &quot;stomp&quot; on the gas to beat the traffic. Repairs and maintenance were also equal, but gas mileage was not as good in the van.<br />Increasing school days in number would allow teachers to cover more content and subject matter. These longer school years would also reduce the amount of information and skills students forget over the summer time. Longer school days would allow students to spend more time being productive in the classroom instead of wasting time playing video games or getting into trouble.<br />
  28. 28. Exit Slip<br /><ul><li>Write an topic sentence using one of the methods we practiced today for the following paragraph:</li></ul>The actors do a splendid job staying in character; we never see them slip. The medical emergencies are realistic and interesting, without being overdone. Finally, the show itself is named after a specific source within medicine: Anatomy, a book written by Henry Gray.<br /><ul><li>Underline and identify the part of the topic sentence or the type of topic sentence.</li></li></ul><li>Frequent Topic Sentence Problems<br />Mentions details stated within the paragraph:<br />Although the actors do a splendid job staying in character, we never see them slip. <br />Irrelevant:<br />The actors of Grey’s Anatomy have numerous talents.<br />Too broad:<br />Shows in the medical field are very great shows for many reasons.<br />Too specific:<br />Although some people may think soap operas have cheesy actors, Grey’s Anatomy actors that do a splendid job staying in character; we never see them slip.<br />
  29. 29. Examples of good topic sentences<br />There are several aspects of the show that make Grey’s Anatomy worth watching.<br />Provides a relevant overview/intro to the paragraph w/o giving details.<br />Although most medical shows are overdone and boring, Grey’s Anatomy is a very well-made show.<br />Provides a relevant overview/intro to the paragraph without giving details.<br />Power Statement<br />Occasion/Position Statement<br />
  30. 30. More Practice (Daily points)<br />Power Statement<br />Occasion/Position Statement<br />Although both spiders are dangerously poisonous, their webs create different opportunities for attacking humans.<br />In North America, five species of widow spiders exist.<br />There is the brown widow, which is the one species of latrodectus that is found world wide. There is also the red widow spider that is indigenous to the palmetto leaves of south and central Florida. The other three widows of North America all used to be considered a single species: the western black widow, the northern black widow and the southern black widow. The western black widow doesn’t live in Kentucky, but the other two do. Both species are very abundant in population. The only difference between the two is that the southern black widow has an unbroken hour glass marking. They both pose the same amount of threat to humans.<br />The black widow makes a tangle web and is more likely to exist near wood or in outdoor areas. The brown recluse makes an untidy looking web. The web’s untidy structure makes it look vacant or abandoned. People are more likely to clean or go near a brown recluse web than a black widow web because it looks abandoned. This leads to more unexpected bites by the brown recluse spider.<br />
  31. 31. More Practice (Exit Slip)<br />1.) Power Statement<br />2.) Occasion/Position Statement<br />In 1997 an important study appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine. The authors, Donald Redelmeier and Robert Tibshirani, studied 699 volunteers who made their cell phone bills available in order to confirm the times when they had placed calls. The participants agreed to report any nonfatal collision in which they were involved. By comparing the time of a collision with the phone records, the researchers assessed the dangers of driving while phoning. The results are unsettling.<br />In 1997 an important study appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine. The authors, Donald Redelmeier and Robert Tibshirani, studied 699 volunteers who made their cell phone bills available in order to confirm the times when they had placed calls. The participants agreed to report any nonfatal collision in which they were involved. By comparing the time of a collision with the phone records, the researchers assessed the dangers of driving while phoning. The results are unsettling.<br />
  32. 32. Supporting a topic sentence<br />In order to write well-developed paragraphs, we’re going to help the audience SEE.<br />S: Say it– your topic sentence<br />E: Example– give one.<br />E: Explain it.<br />While writing them may be cumbersome, thank-you cards are the best way to let a person know that you appreciate their kindness. When Sally received her card from Jennifer, she was overjoyed. The thank-you card was personal, hand-written, and funny. This made Jennifer feel appreciated and acknowledged. There may be other gifts a person can buy to make a person feel appreciated; however, Jennifer never felt happier than when she opened and read the letter.<br />
  33. 33. A little more on the “E”s of SEE:<br />True story<br />Hypothetical story (anecdote)<br />Fact<br />Theory<br />Other example<br />Expert opinion<br />Proven statistic<br />Additional details<br />Discuss importance<br />Define terms<br />Other explanations, as necessary<br />Examples<br />Explanations<br />
  34. 34. SEE identification practice<br />If you like technology, the Student Technology Leadership Club is just the club for you. STLP students are involved in much more than computer hardware and software. Students can participate in raising money for the One Laptop Per Child foundation, presenting technology-related projects at regional and state levels, and even advocating for changes in technology available in our schools. STLP students are more than computer gurus. <br />Very few people make purchases they can actually afford. Consumers put the things they want on credit cards or they finance the items. They do this because they think they will have the money later or because they have never witnessed their own parents buying things with cash or check. They seem to think that credit is the only way to go. After maxing out their credit, consumers find that they cannot even afford the payments on their purchases.<br />A discussion of how people cannot afford to put the things they want on credit cards:<br /><ul><li>They think they’ll have the money later
  35. 35. They learned this from their parents, who didn’t use cash or checks, either
  36. 36. Payments become too much to handle.</li></ul>Examples of ways students are involved in more than just computer hardware and software:<br /><ul><li>Raising money for OLPC
  37. 37. Competing at regional/state
  38. 38. Making a difference</li></li></ul><li>Your turn to practice (exit slip)<br />For the following topic sentence, write a supporting paragraph. Be sure to copy down the topic sentence.<br />Very few students want the class change to last four minutes.<br /><ul><li>Use your notes, not your partner. </li></li></ul><li>Topics coming soon<br />Support<br />SEE: Say it, give an Example, Explain it.<br />State the fact<br />Example of something relevant to the fact<br />Statistics<br />Story<br />Expert opinion<br />Explain how it is relevant, what it means, when it happened and any other information relevant<br />Persuasion:<br />Methods of persuasion<br />Transitioning within supportive paragraphs:<br />And, but, or statements<br />However statements<br />Thesis:<br />Picking a topic<br />Relevant, interest, information<br />Methods<br />List statements<br />However statements<br />Outlining: a method of organizing a paper<br />Examples<br />Difference b/t outlines and papers<br />Writing the introduction<br />Creating interest<br />Introducing the topic<br />Leading into the thesis<br />Writing the body of the paper<br />Three statements to support the thesis<br />Those three statements become the topic sentence<br />Support the topic sentence<br />Writing the conclusion to the paper<br />Wrapping back to the introduction<br />Don’t introduce new facts, ideas, opinions<br />Don’t add humor if the rest of the paper was not humorous<br />
  39. 39. Works Cited<br />Isaacs, Becky. &quot;Untitled Document.&quot; IWS2.CCCCD.EDU - Collin County Community College District. 10 Mar. 2009 &lt;http://ftp.ccccd.edu/andrade/1301/sitescomp.htm&gt;.<br />&quot;Untitled Document.&quot; IWS2.CCCCD.EDU - Collin County Community College District. 10 Mar. 2009 &lt;http://ftp.ccccd.edu/andrade/1301/compcars.htm&gt;.<br />&quot;Writing Topic Sentences.&quot; Université d&apos;Ottawa - University of Ottawa. 16 Aug. 2007. University of Ottowa. 10 Mar. 2009 &lt;http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/partopic.html&gt;.<br />
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