INTRODUCTION TO GAME-BASED AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: COMPLIMENTARY AND SYNERGISTICINTEGRATION INTO YOUR SIMULATION CURRICULUMPresenters/Authors: Eric B. Bauman, ParvatiDev, Katie White, Wm. LeRoy Heinrichs, GeraldStapleton, Cindy Foronda IMSH 2013 | Orlando, Florida
Disclosure(s) Eric B. Bauman, PhD, RN, Paramedic1 Associate Director – Center for Simulation Excellence, DeVry, Inc. Healthcare Group Division Chief, EMS – Blooming Grove Fire Dept. Managing Member – Clinical Palyground, LLC Springer Publishing – Author Adjunct Faculty – CAE Healthcare Relevant Stock – CAE, Zynga, GE
Disclosure(s) Cindy Foronda, PhD, RN1 Assistant Professor University of Miami – School of Nursing & Health Studies A portion of this project was supported by funds from the Division of Nursing (DN), Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) under grant number D11HP19238, Nurse Education Practice and Retention, award amount of $721,912. The information or content and conclusions are those of the authors and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any official endorsement be inferred by, the DN, BHPr, HRSA, DHHS, or the US Government.
Disclosure(s) Gerald Stapleton, MS1 Director of Distance Education University of Illinois School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education Katie White, MD Assistant Professor – Internal Medicine University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa Healthcare
Disclosure(s) Parvati Dev, PhD1 President and CEO – Innovation in Learning, Inc. CliniSpaceTM Wm. LeRoy Heinrichs, MD, PhD Co-Founder and Executive Medical Director CliniSpaceTM Phil Bertulfo Associate Director – Distance Education University of Illinois, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education
Learning Objectives 1. Learners will develop an understanding of contemporary pedagogy and terminology related to6 game-based learning and virtual learning environments. 2. Learners will understand how game-based learning and digital environments engage contemporary learners and attend to the challenges associated modern clinical education. 3. Learners will identify strategies and opportunities to integrate game-based learning and digital environments into their simulation curriculum.
Overview of Main Topics Introduction to game-based and virtual7 environments Introduction to contemporary pedagogy and terminology Immersive play in virtual environments
Terminology Game-Based Learning:8 Learning that provides a system of rewards for accomplishing specific tasks and objectives. Many game-based learning environments also provide a narrative to engage learners. Digital Game-based platforms use virtual environments to stage the game. Not all virtual reality environments are game-based
Terminology Virtual World: an environment that hosts a synchronous digital9 environment, persistent network of people, represented as avatars, facilitated by networked computers (Bell, 2008). Game-Based Environment: An environment that provides a narrative and system of rewards for accomplishing specific tasks and objectives. Game-based platforms use virtual environments to stage the game. Not all virtual reality environments are game-based (Bauman, 2010, p.186).
Terminology Avatar or Player Character: The term avatar is originally from Greek mythology. The gods would10 take the shape of mortals in the form of human avatars to walk the earth. In video games and virtual environments, an avatar transcends two planes of existence: the real world and the in-world or virtual world. The avatar or player-character is the embodiment of the person playing the game. Players live in and interact with the virtual or game-based environment through their avatars. (Bauman 2010 p.183). Non-Player Character: In-world agents of and from the game or virtual environment. NPCs are a function of programming and do not exist outside of the game or virtual environment. NPCs are in-world characters that the players’ (learners’) avatars interact with. This term originated from paper-based role- playing games like Dungeons and Dragons. It is a narrower definition than bot; however, there is often a blurring between the definitions of bot and NPC (Bauman, 2010 p. 186)
Terminology VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) Voice Over Internet Protocol. VOIP is most commonly know for applications like Skype or Magic Jack, where it is used in place of a11 traditional telephone line. VOIP is also used in a number of other applications including web-based game or virtual world environments. Text-Based Communication Platform (i.e. in Second Life, Unity, Others) Text-Based Communication Platforms allow for written communication to occur via the internet and other communication tools. Short Message Service (SMS) is the most widely used data application used in the world (3.6B users). While most commonly used in the mobile phone industry, texting is an often found and used tool in web-based virtual worlds and game environments
Pedagogy Experiential Learning (Kolb) Novice to Expert – Thinking-in-Action (Benner) The quality of the clinicians decision making is influenced and12 improves over time based on previous experience within the profession Thinking-on-Action& Thinking-in-Action (Schön) Novices first learn to think on action reflecting on their past decision making process or experience. Later as students move towards proficiency and expertise they are able to think-in-action because they have a stable of experiences to draw on. The practitioner engages in a form of internal talk-back as an experience unfolds
Pedagogy Situated Cognition Socially Situated Cognition (Gee) Learning and eventually practice takes place in an inherently social context. The 13 how, why, perception of the learning space and eventual clinical space matters in terms of outcome Designed Experience (Squire) Learning and evaluation take place as a function of performance Created Space/Environment (Bauman) An environment that has been specifically engineered to replicate an actual existing environment, producing sufficient authenticity and environmental fidelity to allow for the suspension of disbelief Ecology of Culturally Competent Design (Games and Bauman) Addresses the rigors and challenges of accurately situating culture within virtual environments using a four-element model that emphasizes the importance of activities, contexts, narratives, and characters
Engagement Expectations Digital Native vs. Digital Immigrant 14 Digital immigrant: Refers to those of us have adopted digital technology as adults or later in life. Not all digital immigrants were born prior to the wide spread adoption of digital media and devices. The concept of the digital immigrant may not always map to a generational context and can relate to people just encountering innovative digital technology (Presnsky, 201). Digital native: Generally referring to those people who have always been part of the net (as in Internet) or digital generation. Digital natives are fluent in the language of the digital environment. They possess an innate sense of media literacy (Prensky, 2001).
Engagement Expectations Juxtaposition among and between15 Teachers and Students Today’s students/learners have a degree of technical and digital literacy that generally far exceed that of their instructors They have a host of expectations in how information dissemination, presentation, and transfer will take place Those institutions that fail to address these expectations will fail to attract and retain the best and brightest students
Leveraging Virtual Simulation Mass triage or disaster simulation19 Pre-post simulation for continuity Electronic Health Record / documentation Communication Capstone Clinical Visit Clinical Visits High-stakes testing Intra and interdisciplinary collaboration National and international education
Leveraging Virtual Simulation Enhance web-based instruction20 Hybrid- in conjunction with mannequin-based simulation Entrance testing Enhance lecture Assignments Simulation for clinical experiences difficult to arrange (i.e. high risk pediatrics) .
Virtual Environments to Compliment other forms of Simulation21 .
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