INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty   Ghana Strategy Support ...
Outline• Introduction• Methodology    • PAM    • DEA•   Descriptive findings•   Observed versus profit-efficient productio...
Introduction• PAM was developed in 1980s and widely used to  evaluate private and social profitability of farmers     • Po...
Outline of Policy Analysis Matrix                                                                Costs                    ...
Identifying Efficient Farmers: Data                  Envelopment Analysis• Efficiency analysis: DEA versus SFA• DEA was in...
Formal DEA model for Profit MaximizationGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Graphical Illustration of DEA ConceptGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE           ...
Data• Data was collected by students from the  University of Hohenhiem (Germany) in 2010• Sample includes 256 farmers from...
Descriptive Findings: Maize                                                       Quantities                Price      Var...
Descriptive Findings: Rice                                                       Quantities                Price       Var...
Descriptive Findings: Soybean                                                       Quantities                Price       ...
Comparing average observed farmers versus          profit-efficient farmers• Computing profit-maximizing production plans ...
Comparing Production Plans of Average and         Efficient Farmers: Maize                                                ...
Comparing Production Plans of Average and          Efficient Farmers: Rice                                                ...
Comparing Production Plans of Average and        Efficient Farmers: Soybean                                               ...
Policy Assumptions for PAM Analysis• Import duty, taxes & fees (USDA 2011 & official sources)     •   Import duty: 20% for...
Price Calculations                                                             Private prices                   Social pri...
Monthly Wholesale Prices of Maize, Rice &      Soybean in Ghana (2000-2011)                   2000                   1500 ...
PAM for Maize: Including Family Labor in             Domestic Cost Factor                 PAM under observed productive pl...
PAM for Rice: Including Family Labor in               Domestic Cost Factor                  PAM under observed productive ...
PAM for Soybean: Including Family Labor in            Domestic Cost Factor            PAM matrix under observed productive...
PAM for Maize: Excluding Family               Labor from Domestic Cost Factor                   PAM under observed product...
PAM for Rice: Excluding Family                Labor from Domestic Cost Factor                  PAM under observed producti...
PAM for Soybean: Excluding Family                 Labor from Domestic Cost Factor                          PAM under obser...
Private and Social Profitability Indicators for                     Maize                      Including family labor in d...
Private and Social Profitability Indicators for                     Rice                      Including family labor in do...
Private and Social Profitability Indicators for                   Soybean                      Including family labor in d...
Summary of main findings: Maize• Including family labor in domestic cost factor     • Profitable for average farm in priva...
Summary of main findings: Rice• Including family labor in domestic cost factor     • Not profitable for average farm both ...
Summary of main findings: Soybean• Including family labor in domestic cost factor     • Not profitable for average farm bo...
Conclusions and Policy Implications•   Policy implications of findings are distinctively different under observed    and p...
Thank youGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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GSSP Seminar: Profitability of Maize, Rice, and Soybean

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Presentation given by Kamiljon Akramov at IFPRI's Ghana office on March 12, 2012 analyzing the profitability of maize, rice, and soybean in Ghana

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GSSP Seminar: Profitability of Maize, Rice, and Soybean

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty Ghana Strategy Support ProgramAnalyzing Profitability of Maize, Rice and Soybean: PAM and DEA Results Kamiljon Akramov Mehrab Malek IFPRI, Washington, DC March 12, 2012 Accra, Ghana
  2. 2. Outline• Introduction• Methodology • PAM • DEA• Descriptive findings• Observed versus profit-efficient production plans• Results• Summary of main findings• Conclusions and Policy implicationsGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  3. 3. Introduction• PAM was developed in 1980s and widely used to evaluate private and social profitability of farmers • Portuguese agriculture (Pearson et al 1987; Monke and Pearson 1989) • Indonesian agriculture (Pearson et al. 2003)• Recently researchers start to combine PAM with technical efficiency analysis (Reig-Martinez 2008)• Winter-Nelson and Aggrey-Fynn (2008) applied conventional PAM for Ghana’s agriculture• We combine PAM with DEA to evaluate profitability of maize, rice and soybean farmers in GhanaGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  4. 4. Outline of Policy Analysis Matrix Costs Revenue Profits Domestic Tradable inputs factors Private prices A B C D Social prices E F G H Divergences I J K L• Definitions • Net policy transfers: L=D-H=I-J-K• Private profits: D=A-B-C Ratio indicators• Social profits: H=E-F-G • Private cost ratio: PCR=C/(A-B)• Output transfers: I=A-E • Domestic cost ratio: DCR=G/(E-F)• Input transfers: J=B-F • Subsidy ratio to producers: SRP=(D-• Factor transfers: K=C-G H)/E=L/E Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Source: Monke & Pearson (1989)
  5. 5. Identifying Efficient Farmers: Data Envelopment Analysis• Efficiency analysis: DEA versus SFA• DEA was introduced by Charnes et al (1978)• Main assumption: production outcomes are the result of profit-maximizing behavior• Objective: maximize short-term profit for given input & output prices• Evaluate the performance of peer farmers by comparing with best observed practicesGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  6. 6. Formal DEA model for Profit MaximizationGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  7. 7. Graphical Illustration of DEA ConceptGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Source: Young-bae & Lee 2010
  8. 8. Data• Data was collected by students from the University of Hohenhiem (Germany) in 2010• Sample includes 256 farmers from Tolon (60), Yendi (64), Nkronza (71) and Sissala East (61) districts• 418 crop budgets for three crops • 201 maize crop budgets • 130 rice crop budgets • 86 soya bean crop budgetsGhana Strategy Support Program Page 8INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  9. 9. Descriptive Findings: Maize Quantities Price Variable Units Mean SD (GHC per unit)Output kg 3,400.80 3745.1 0.39Cultivated land ha 2.36 3.04 ***Labor GHC 515.4 943.9 ***Capital GHC 29.1 30.6 ***Seeds GHC 21.8 49.1 0.56Fertilizer GHC 325.3 367.7 ***Agrochemicals GHC 55.4 81.5 6.42*Contracted GHC 341.7 471.9 ***services *Price per 1 liter bottle of herbicides Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  10. 10. Descriptive Findings: Rice Quantities Price Variable Units Mean SD (GHC per unit)Output kg 2630.1 2966.1 0.4Land Ha 1.46 2.41 ***Labor GHC 592.9 516.6 ***Capital GHC 33.8 48 ***Seeds GHC 41.3 60.1 0.56Fertilizer GHC 216.3 385.9 ***Agrochemicals GHC 56.4 122.1 6.67*Contracted GHC 284.2 523.4 ***Services*Price per 1 liter bottle of herbicides Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  11. 11. Descriptive Findings: Soybean Quantities Price Variable Units Mean SD (GHC per unit)Output kg 1628.3 2863.2 0.5Land Ha 1.44 2.88 ***Labor GHC 394.7 597.1 ***Capital GHC 29.6 51.8 ***Seeds GHC 42.1 106.8 0.69Fertilizer GHC 56.2 275.1 ***Agrochemicals GHC 34 86 6.98*Contracted GHC 150.6 284.9 ***services*Price per 1 liter bottle of herbicides Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  12. 12. Comparing average observed farmers versus profit-efficient farmers• Computing profit-maximizing production plans with DEA allows us to construct a farmer that is profit-efficient• Profit maximizing plans were computed using user- written data envelopment analysis command in Stata (Young-bae & Lee 2010)• Profit efficient-farmers earn higher revenues because they have significantly higher yields• They also have lower costs than the average farms in the sample because inputs are more efficiently managed• They also depend more on family labor than wage labor, especially in rice cultivationGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  13. 13. Comparing Production Plans of Average and Efficient Farmers: Maize Profit-maximizing Variable Units Observed Variations (%) (22 farmers)Output Kg/ha 1614.6 1939.5 20.1Variable inputsLabor GHC/ha 254.4 179.4 -29.5 Family labor GHC/ha 165 137.5 -16.7 Hired labor GHC/ha 89.4 41.9 -53.1Capital GHC/ha 25 24.5 -2Seeds GHC/ha 10.7 9.3 -13.1Fertilizer GHC/ha 126.8 57.4 -54.7Agrochemicals GHC/ha 28.9 16.5 -42.9Contracted GHC/ha 161 145.2 -9.8services Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  14. 14. Comparing Production Plans of Average and Efficient Farmers: Rice Profit-maximizing Variable Units Observed Variations (%) (13 farmers)Output Kg/ha 2278.5 2656.4 16.6Variable inputsLabor GHC/ha 659.3 831.8 26.2 Family labor GHC/ha 376.3 772 105.2 Hired labor GHC/ha 282.9 59.8 -78.9Capital GHC/ha 27.1 14.8 -45.4Seeds GHC/ha 32.3 23.2 -28.2Fertilizer GHC/ha 113.2 10.6 -90.6Agrochemicals GHC/ha 42.1 34.8 -17.3Contracted GHC/ha 185.6 127.1 -31.5services Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  15. 15. Comparing Production Plans of Average and Efficient Farmers: Soybean Profit-maximizing Variable Units Observed Variations (10 farmers)Output Kg/ha 1109.4 1874.5 69Variable inputsLabor GHC/ha 363.2 318.2 -12.4 Family labor GHC/ha 253.6 237.2 -6.5 Hired labor GHC/ha 109.6 81 -26.1Capital GHC/ha 25.3 19.3 -23.7Seeds GHC/ha 26.2 30.1 14.9Fertilizer GHC/ha 27.5 20 -27.3Agrochemicals GHC/ha 22.3 19.6 -12.1Contracted GHC/ha 113.4 59.1 -47.9services Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  16. 16. Policy Assumptions for PAM Analysis• Import duty, taxes & fees (USDA 2011 & official sources) • Import duty: 20% for maize and rice; 10% for soybean • VAT – 12.5 % for all three cereals • NHI levy – 2.5% • ECOWAS levy – 0.5% and EDF Levy -0.5% • Inspection fee- 1% • Ghana Customs Network (GCNET) fee – 0.4%• RER overvaluation – 2% (IMF• Fertilizer subsidy – 30%• Social costs of labor and land assumed to be equal to their private costs• We consider two alternative profit functions: • Including family labor costs in factor costs • Not including family labor costs in factor costsGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  17. 17. Price Calculations Private prices Social prices Maize Rice Soybean Maize Rice SoybeanCIF Price Accra, US$/MT 407 560 406 407 560 406Exchange rate 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.45 1.45 1.45CIF Price Accra, GHC/MT 577.9 795.2 576.5 590.2 812.0 588.7Import duty 115.6 159.0 57.7 0.0 0.0 0.0ECOWAS Levy 2.9 4.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0EDFL 2.9 4.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0Processing fee 5.8 8.0 5.8 5.9 8.1 5.9Cost before VAT & NHIL (CIF+Import duty) 693.5 954.2 634.2 596.1 820.1 588.7VAT 86.7 119.3 79.3 0.0 0.0 0.0NHIL 17.3 23.9 15.9 14.9 20.5 14.7CIF+duty+tax+fees 809.1 1113.3 740.8 616.9 848.7 609.3Port fees and charges/1 238.8 328.6 238.2 243.9 335.5 243.3Cost landed into storage in Accra 1047.9 1441.9 979.0 860.7 1184.3 852.6Haulage to shared market 130.0 130.0 130.0 130.0 130.0 130.0Cost in shared market 1177.9 1571.9 1109.0 990.7 1314.3 982.6Haulage to production zone 170.0 170.0 170.0 170.0 170.0 170.0Value in production zone (import quality) 1007.9 1401.9 939.0 820.7 1144.3 812.6Quality adjustment 453.6 841.1 281.7 369.3 686.6 243.8Value in production zone (local quality) 554.4 560.7 657.3 451.4 457.7 568.8Haulage to farm 120.0 120 120.0 120.0 120 120.0Farm-gate price (calculated) 434.4 440.7 537.3 331.4 337.7 448.8Reported price 390.0 400.0 500.0 --- --- ---1/ Ghana Strategy Support Program Includes inspection fees, service charges and fees to the Ghana Shippers Council INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  18. 18. Monthly Wholesale Prices of Maize, Rice & Soybean in Ghana (2000-2011) 2000 1500 GHC per MT 1000 500 0 2000m1 2002m1 2004m1 2006m1 2008m1 2010m1 2012m1 Month rmaize rlrice ririce rsoybeanGhana Strategy Support Program Authors’ calculations using official data Page 18INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  19. 19. PAM for Maize: Including Family Labor in Domestic Cost Factor PAM under observed productive plans: Maize (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate 629.7 10.7 126.8 28.9 254.4 25 161 22.9valueSocial 537.5 10.9 167.4 29.5 254.4 25 161 -110.7valueTransfers 92.2 -0.2 -40.6 -0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 133.6 PAM under profit-efficient productive plans: Maize (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate 756.4 9.3 57.4 16.5 179.4 24.5 145.2 324.1valueSocial 645.7 9.5 75.8 16.8 179.4 24.5 145.2 194.5valueTransfers 110.7 -0.2 -18.4 -0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 129.6 Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  20. 20. PAM for Rice: Including Family Labor in Domestic Cost Factor PAM under observed productive plans: Rice (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate value 911.4 32.3 113.2 42.1 659.3 27.1 185.6 -148.2Social value 759.2 32.9 149.4 42.9 659.3 27.1 185.6 -338.1Transfers 152.2 -0.6 -36.2 -0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 189.9 PAM under profit-efficient productive plans: Rice (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate value 1062.6 23.2 10.6 34.8 831.8 14.8 127.1 20.3Social value 885.1 23.7 14.0 35.5 831.8 14.8 127.1 -161.7Transfers 177.4 -0.5 -3.4 -0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 182.0 Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  21. 21. PAM for Soybean: Including Family Labor in Domestic Cost Factor PAM matrix under observed productive plans: Soya bean (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate 554.7 26.2 27.5 22.3 363.2 25.3 113.4 -23.2valueSocial 492.1 26.7 36.3 22.7 363.2 25.3 113.4 -95.5valueTransfers 62.6 -0.5 -8.8 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 72.3 PAM under profit-efficient productive plans: Soya bean (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate 937.3 30.1 20 19.6 318.2 19.3 59.1 471.0valueSocial 831.5 30.7 26.4 20.0 318.2 19.3 59.1 357.8value Ghana Strategy Support ProgramTransfers 105.7 -0.6 -6.4 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 113.1 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  22. 22. PAM for Maize: Excluding Family Labor from Domestic Cost Factor PAM under observed productive plans: Maize (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate 629.7 10.7 126.8 28.9 89.4 25 161 187.9valueSocial value 537.5 10.9 167.4 29.5 89.4 25 161 54.3Transfers 92.2 -0.2 -40.6 -0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 133.6 PAM under profit-efficient productive plans: Maize (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate 756.4 9.3 57.4 16.5 41.9 24.5 145.2 461.6valueSocial value 645.7 9.5 75.8 16.8 41.9 24.5 145.2 332.0Transfers 110.7 -0.2 -18.4 -0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 129.6 Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  23. 23. PAM for Rice: Excluding Family Labor from Domestic Cost Factor PAM under observed productive plans: Rice (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate value 911.4 32.3 113.2 42.1 282.9 27.1 185.6 228.2Social value 759.2 32.9 149.4 42.9 282.9 27.1 185.6 38.3Transfers 152.2 -0.6 -36.2 -0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 189.9 PAM under profit-efficient productive plans: Rice (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate value 1062.6 23.2 10.6 34.8 59.8 14.8 127.1 792.3Social value 885.1 23.7 14.0 35.5 59.8 14.8 127.1 610.3Transfers 177.4 -0.5 -3.4 -0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 182.0 Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  24. 24. PAM for Soybean: Excluding Family Labor from Domestic Cost Factor PAM under observed productive plans: Soybean (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate value 554.7 26.2 27.5 22.3 109.6 25.3 113.4 230.4Social value 492.1 26.7 36.3 22.7 109.6 25.3 113.4 158.1Transfers 62.6 -0.5 -8.8 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 72.3 PAM under profit-efficient productive plans: Soybean (GHC/ha) Costs Revenue Tradable inputs Domestic factors Profits Seed Fertilizer Chemicals Labor Capital ServicesPrivate value 937.3 30.1 20 19.6 81 19.3 59.1 708.2Social value 831.5 30.7 26.4 20.0 81 19.3 59.1 595.0Transfers 105.7 -0.6 -6.4 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 113.1 Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  25. 25. Private and Social Profitability Indicators for Maize Including family labor in domestic Excluding family labor in domestic cost factor cost factor Indicator PAM on observed PAM on profit- PAM on observed PAM on profit- data efficient data data efficient dataPrivate cost ratio 0.95 0.52 0.59 0.31Domestic cost 1.34 0.64 0.84 0.39ratioSubsidy ratio to 0.25 0.20 0.25 0.20producers Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  26. 26. Private and Social Profitability Indicators for Rice Including family labor in domestic Excluding family labor from cost factor domestic cost factor Indicator PAM on observed PAM on profit- PAM on observed PAM on profit- data efficient data data efficient dataPrivate cost ratio 1.20 0.98 0.68 0.20Domestic cost 1.63 1.20 0.93 0.25ratioSubsidy ratio to 0.25 0.21 0.25 0.21producers Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  27. 27. Private and Social Profitability Indicators for Soybean Including family labor in domestic Excluding family labor from cost factor domestic cost factor Indicator PAM on observed PAM on profit- PAM on observed PAM on profit- data efficient data data efficient dataPrivate cost ratio 1.05 0.46 0.52 0.18Domestic cost 1.24 0.53 0.61 0.21ratioSubsidy ratio to 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.14producers Ghana Strategy Support Program INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  28. 28. Summary of main findings: Maize• Including family labor in domestic cost factor • Profitable for average farm in private prices but not profitable in social prices • Profitable for profit efficient farms both in private and social prices• Excluding family labor from domestic cost factor • Profitable for both average and profit efficient farms in both private and social prices• Subsidy ratio for producers • 25% for an average farmer • 20% for a profit efficient farmerGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  29. 29. Summary of main findings: Rice• Including family labor in domestic cost factor • Not profitable for average farm both in private and social prices • Profitable for profit efficient farms in private prices and not profitable in social prices• Excluding family labor from domestic cost factor • Profitable for both average and profit efficient farms in both private and social prices• Subsidy ratio for producers • 25% for an average farmer • 21% for a profit efficient farmerGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  30. 30. Summary of main findings: Soybean• Including family labor in domestic cost factor • Not profitable for average farm both in private and social prices • Profitable for profit efficient farms both in private and social prices• Excluding family labor from domestic cost factor • Profitable for both average and profit efficient farms in both private and social prices• Subsidy ratio for producers • 15% for an average farmer • 14% for a profit efficient farmerGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  31. 31. Conclusions and Policy Implications• Policy implications of findings are distinctively different under observed and profit-maximizing scenarios• One may argue that average maize, rice and soybean farmers are not viable in the long-run because they are making losses at social prices• But an efficient PAM findings suggest that efficient farmers make substantial positive profits and the society also makes welfare gains from resources allocated to maize and soybean production • Policies based on dissemination of best practices could improve overall efficiency of these cropping systems • Bridging the gap between average and efficient farmers shifts average farm from a net loss of GHC111 (GHC96) per ha to a net profit of GHC196 (GHC358) for maize (soybean)• Rice production seems not profitable in social prices even for efficient farmers• Including family labor in net revenue provides different perspective pointing to the ability of maize, rice and soybean production to create value for farmers and also to add welfare gains to the societyGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  32. 32. Thank youGhana Strategy Support ProgramINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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