• Save
SGP Body Language
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

SGP Body Language

on

  • 6,417 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
6,417
Views on SlideShare
6,408
Embed Views
9

Actions

Likes
15
Downloads
0
Comments
1

1 Embed 9

http://www.slideshare.net 9

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Congratulations !!! This is an excellent work.Thank you for sharing. We have selected your presentation for the reference in our group Slideshare 'HUMAN RESOURCES, WELL BEING, PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT' . We would be honored by your support through your membership. You are invited to join us ! I wish you a nice day. Greetings from France.

    http://www.slideshare.net/group/human-resources-well-being-personal-development

    PS: I also added you Slidecast to our others groups :

    - FOR A BETTER WORLD - http://www.slideshare.net/group/for-a-better-world

    - BANK OF KNOWLEDGE - http://www.slideshare.net/group/bank-of-knowledge

    etc.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • CitationTeacher’s Outlet
  • CitationPic- (“Word Press”)
  • CitationPic-(“NASA Blue Marble”)
  • This slide is important because I want people to understand what nonverbal communication is before I present on it.Nonverbal communication involves everything that doesn’t have to do with spoken wordsIf nonverbal and verbal are out of sync it normally a sign of deceptionCitation(Miller 6),(Lambert)
  • This slide is important because it shows how important nonverbal communication is compared to verbal7% of communication is verbalThe other 93% of communication is nonverbal with 55% being BL and 38% being in the voiceWithout words it would be much harder to lie if we didn’t have wordsCitation (Millar), (Brougham)
  • This slide is important because it shows the importance of nonverbal communicationWords can only say so much. It is also easy to lie with our words, nonverbal is more honest because you can’t control itNVC is also powerful because it often says what words fail to or it can reinforce what is being saidNVC is more genuine because its not controlled so it shows true feelingsCitation (Miller 11)Pic- (“Association Times”)
  • This slide is important because Paul Ekman is the leading expert in this fieldThis is a private university in New York, its one of the oldest institutions, founded in 1863American Psychological Association Consultant for FOX TV show Lie to MeMapped 43 facial muscles responsible for 7 microexpressions, then coded them for FACSHe identified over 3000 FE in his researchCitations ("The Study of Facial Expressions”)Pic- (“Word Press”)
  • This slide is important because is is explains all the aspects of BLCommon misconception is that specific behaviors indicate same thought for all people. Different people have different tells. For example some people project anger for sadness but if you look closely you can still see the sadness. It is better to have more than one to identify emotion There are many forms of nonverbal communication and here some examples
  • P- distance between individuals. People generally sit/stand near people they like. ADD MORE NOTESCitation(Beall),(Wagner) Pic- (“Travel Pod”), (“Punch Stock”)
  • Basically covered by FE it has to do with the faceADD NOTESCitation("The 8 Aspects of Body Language”), (Wagner) Pic- (“Draftsman”)
  • E- show whom or what people are most interested in or like, example kid is toy store. Normally first piece of FE others noticeCitation("The 8 Aspects of Body Language”) Pic- (“Flickr”)
  • RO- degree to which people face one another. Parallel orientationindicates interest. When body is turned away it indicates disinterest and normally the body point to where it wants to go. Also when moving forward could indicate dominance or intimacy, moving away can indicate avoidance or submission Citation(Beall), (Wagner) Pic- (“Jupiter Images”), (“Flickr”)
  • C- the frequency and amount of physical contact shows closeness, familiarity and degree of liking. Citation(Wagner) Pic- (“Word Press”)
  • IG- sometimes indicates person’s mind is not in sync with what is being said verbally. People gesture more when they are excited. When people are demoralized, nervous, or concerned Impression they tend to gesture less. Or if they do it tends to be jerky or uncoordinated with verbal (Clinton ML?)Citation(Beall)Pic- (“Shutter Stock”)
  • Paralinguistic is another word for vocal communication. Speech errors signify discomfort/ anxiety, reveals emotions. Tone, volume, emotion, pace influence messageCitation(Beall), (Wagner) Pic- (“Grosmont College”)
  • EoA- examples playing with rings, hair, pen. Occur when people are stressed, they release bodily tension Citation(Wagner) Pic- (“Veer”)
  • Appearance includes choice of clothing, hairstyles etcCitation(Beall)Pic- (“Groove Job”)
  • This slide is important because it explains what FE is1. Forehead/eyebrows, eyes/upper part of nose, lower face (nose, cheeks, mouth, chin)1. Movement of the facial muscles are spontaneous and uncontrollable therefore a better indicator of what someone’s feelings2. Other than words FE gives the most info on what we’re thinking or feeling3. Eye contact is included with facial expression because the eyes are apart of the face and move according to different emotions4. Brief, involuntary, lasts for 1/25 of a second, most people are unaware of it, occurs when one is trying to hide feelings. The internal response may last for minute or so the expression only lasts for 2 or 3 secondsCitation(Miller),("The Study of Facial Expressions”)Pic- (“How Stuff Works”)
  • This slide is important because it shows the universality of FEThis quote explains the universality of FE. Language is a barrier but everyone can understand the faceFE aren’t learned they are genetically inbornMention that sometimes Contempt isn’t mentioned as a universal FE. Contempt is when the lips tighten and one half curves up in a smirk4. Discovered by Paul Ekman. He went to Papua New Guinea and Japan and found that the people could identify and express the same emotions as American people.Citation("The Study of Facial Expressions”)(Lambert)
  • This slide is important because it explains what happiness is and how to recognize itThis basically forms a smileEyelids tightenThe outside of the brows pull downCitation("The Study of Facial Expressions”),(Duenwald) Pic- (“Stock Photo”), (“Life is a Twist”)
  • Whole face slack and unanimated appearanceMouth droops at the corners with chin pulled up, lips may quiver if on the verge of tearsInner ends of eyebrows rise to make triangle between them and the rot of the nose, sometimes there are wrinkles in middle of foreheadEyes may glisten with unshed tearsThe whole body slacks and the voice isn’t animatedCitation(Lambert),("Using Body Language"), ("The Study of Facial Expressions”)Pic- (“Well Press”)
  • Eyebrows curve and shoot upward,Wrinkles on the foreheadMouth may stay open of a small period of timeBL may include backward movementCitation(Lambert),("Using Body Language")Pic- (“Formula 1”)
  • Eyes narrow (animal instinct), eyebrows are down and inward, vertical wrinkles between eyebrowsLips tightly closed and straight, turned down at cornersNostrils flareCitation(Lambert),("Using Body Language”), ("The Study of Facial Expressions”)Pic- (“Word Press”)
  • Similar to surpriseEB rise and pull together wrinkles in middle of foreheadUpper eyelids rise, lower eyelids tense and riseLips tensely pulled around open mouthOther clues- dry mouth: licking lips, rubbing throatCitation(Lambert),("Using Body Language")Pic- (“The Soko”)
  • Lower eyelids rise and lines appear belowMouth both lips rise or lips make slight poutWrinkle nose and cheeks move upDowncast with eyes narrowingCitation(Lambert),("The Study of Facial Expressions”)Pic- (“Telepac”)
  • This slide it important because it shows that there are cultural differences In some countries it is disrespectful to look someone directly in the eye. In countries like Japan it is disrespectful to look someone directly in the eye. Direct eye contact conveys dislike for someone else.Proximity is influenced by social norms, situational factors, personal characteristics and level of familiarity (SHOULD THIS GO HERE?)In American most men don’t like contact with unfamiliar males but In some cultures men fully embraced other male strangers. This is common in the Latin American areas.In America it is common to let other through the door before you as a polite gesture. But in the Middle East appearance is important and to them the last person through the door is the most important. (INSERT CLIP)In the clip Clinton and Israeli and Pakistani leaders are at a peace conference and the leaders struggle for who is going to go through the door lastCitation(Beall),(Wagner)Pic- (“UTSA Today”)
  • This slide is important because it shows the physical symptoms of lying. Increase sweating is a sign that they are scared of being found outThis goes along with perspirationWith the increase of pulse there can also be an appearance of veins in head, neck, or throatWith dry mouth/tongue comes excessive swallowing and licking of the lipsSide note- people find it harder to lie when their personal space is invadedCitation(Brougham)
  • This slide is important because it explains the signs of lying When a child tells a lie he may cover his mouth with his hands to stop the deceitful words from coming out, if he doesn’t want to listen to a reprimanding parent he will cover his ears, or when he sees something he doesn’t want to look at he covers his eyes. When a person gets older these actions become less obviousHands cover mouth and thumb against cheek, few finger over mouth, or closed fist over mouth. Done so no more deceitful words come out or so they won’t say any more liesMore sophisticated form of mouth guard. More subtle Attempt to block out deceit, avoid seeing the face of person they lied toScratch below earlobe, signal of doubt or uncertaintyRubbing, pullingearCitation(Verma)Pic- (“USF Education”)
  • This slide is important because it shows more signs of detecting when someone is lyingIf someone’s face is calm but there is active motion in the arms, hands, legs and feet it’s a good sign they’re lying. Specifically if they rotate their hand at the wrist indicates uncertainty. Shoulder shrugs are also a common sign of a lie. (GIVE EXAMPLES WITH VIDEO?)Truthful people gesture away from their body while liars gesture toward themselves.Grooming gestures and clothing adjustments that keep their hands busy allows for a delay answering questions.For example lying to someone about a new hair cut vs. lying about committing a crimeCitation(Brougham),("Body Language." BBC)
  • ADD VIDEO
  • This slide is important because is shows the the FE of lyingFE are normally spontaneous where the muscle movement is the same on both sides but when someone is lying the movement is deliberate so the face muscles aren’t even. When a person is making deliberate movements the cortex that’s involved with making the motions is stronger connected to the left side. So there will be more motion on the left side when someone is deliberately making the FENo eye contactInternal stress causes the eyes to open wider.Citation(Brougham),("Body Language- Understanding Non-Verbal Communication”)Pic- (“UTSA Today”)
  • The slide is important because is explains how the voice can give a liar away How something is said can give a liar away1. Pitch, loudness, and quality could change because of lie2. Space fillers like (uh or um) also they may begin to stutter3. They will also offer less info and speech rate may slow and long hesitations before answeringCitation(Brougham)Pic- (“Word Press”)
  • This slide is important because it shows that one has to know the context to understand the BL1. Some people have tells on when they’re lying or feeling a certain way. Easier to spot lies if one knows the person2. You have to determine if the body language someone is showing is appropriate for a situation. If someone shows contempt when the should be showing sadness there’s probably something wrong3. Its better for someone to have a baseline to better understand how another’s BL works4. A hotspot are FE that are at odds with what is being said or is not expected in situation(INSERT VIDEO)This video is of Paris Hilton being released from jail. She’s not acting like she normally would she’s showing that she’s learned her lesson and is now a “good girl”Citation(Millar)
  • This slide is important because it shows how someone can try to fake emotions and how to spot them INSERT CLIPIn this clip Marion Jones, a track and field star, in 2004 is denying accusations of her using sports enhancement drugs. She says that the events have led her “more in sadness than anger” but she doesn’t show sadness or anger.In this second clip from the same conference there is a lot of eyebrow action but what she is displaying isn’t anger or sadness it’s more fear. At the very end she shows sadness, that is an example of a hotspot, another would be the lack of anger 3 years later Marion Jones was convicted of using sports enhancing drugs
  • This slide is important because it explains defensive BL so one knows how to recognize it Vulnerable spots include covering throat with chin or covering groin area with knees, hands or objectCreating a barrier puts object in front of self and other person so it makes it harder for the other person to come toward them. Can include crossed arms or holding an objectHuddle in a smaller position to go unnoticedChurchill is covering vulnerable spot because he’s not really involved and is afraid of what might happen after the warCitation(“Using Body Language”),("Body Language- Understanding Non-Verbal Communication”)Pic- (“CIA”)
  • This slide is important because it explains the signs of flirtingSomeone wanting to attract the opposite sex sends out distinct signalsSuccess depends on how well you interpret the other persons BL Females display more signals than males and are better at spotting signals from males. They also give off subtler signalsMales tend to be less subtle than females and are also slower to pick up signals from womenCitation(Lambert)Pic- (“Word Press”)
  • This slide is important because it explains the signs of flirtingSomeone can touch the person they’re attracted to. People sometimes touch themselves where they want to be touched by the other person. Ex: caress their face, arms or legsThe body points to what its most interested in EC- look, look away look back, Shy Di- head dipped while looking up. EC lasts longer. Includes sideways glances Smiling pretty obvious Leaning toward the person is an obvious sign of interestAgain closeness is a good sign of interestWhen someone is interested in something their pupils dilateFlirting signals mean nothing unless the other person receives themCitation("Body Language." BBC),("Using Body Language")Pic- (“Kingdom Women Ministry”)
  • This slide is important because is explains the BL of someone who is interested it what one is sayingShows person how interested you are in what they are sayingAll of these show interest in what a speaker is saying. Citation("Using Body Language") Pic- (“The Daily Sentinel”)
  • This slide is important because it shows when people aren’t paying attentionEyes glazed, eyes somewhere else, looking at clockFiddling with pens, playing with hair, writing or doodlingCitation("Body Language- Understanding Non-Verbal Communication”),("Using Body Language") Pic- (“Syncrat”)
  • This slide is important because it shows aggressive BL and how its useful in the real worldAggressive somewhat resembles angerClenched fists indicate that they might punch someone Aggression often leads to violence so it is important to be able to spot these clues especially for law enforcementCitation("Using Body Language"), (Millar)Pic- (“Anger Solution”)
  • ADD VIDEO (CHECK IF VOICE ON VIDEO)This slide is important because it is proof of concept for the previous slideThis is a police tape of what should be a routine stop in Georgia 1998 caught on camera by a dashboard cameraThe first sign of something wrong is when the person gets out of the car. This means one of two things he’s going to attack officer or he’s trying to separate himself with what’s in the vehicle Then he hesitates to do what the officer says because he has a plan in mindThe person is also displaying nervous gestures: he’s playing with his coat and his hands are in pockets, he may also have something in his pockets to harm the officer The dancing around shows the officer that he’s not in charge, its also to maybe intimidate him because he doesn’t have authority Right after the dancing around he claps his hands is an aggressive gesture, it gets the blood flowing so he’s ready to fightOff camera the person fights with the officer and then goes back to his truck to get a gun and shoot the officer dead
  • This slide is important because it explains how to be confident in an interviewStanding/sitting tall with shoulders backSolid eye contact normally with smiling faceGestures with arms and hands are purposeful and deliberateSpeech is slow and deliberateTone of voice is moderate to lowCitation("Body Language- Understanding Non-Verbal Communication”)

SGP Body Language SGP Body Language Presentation Transcript

  • Non-Verbal Communication
    By: Genavie Spence
  • Thesis
    Nonverbal communication, specifically body language and facial expressions, is an important part of how humans interact. Understanding this communication can help people better understand each other by knowing what they aren’t saying.
  • Overview
    Personal/World Relevance
    Definitions/Explanations
    Universal Facial Expressions
    Lying
    Other Important Body Language to Recognize
    Application
    Class Activity
  • Personal Relevance
    I choose this topic because I’ve always had an interest in body language. I’m a intuitive person so I can already somewhat interpret what other are not saying. I also enjoy the TV show Lie to Me.
  • World Relevance
    This topic is important to you and the world because it can help you to understand people better. This knowledge also helps to discover when people are lying whether it be people of power or criminals.
  • Definition of Non-Verbal Communication
    Convey information through conscious or subconscious gestures
    “Communication without words”
    Most effective when verbal and non-verbal are in sync
  • Non-Verbal Communication
  • Reasons for Non-Verbal Communication
    Words have limitations
    Powerful
    More genuine
    “Words distract us from what faces would tell us if we paid attention” (Coniff)
  • Paul Ekman
    PhD from Adelphi University
    APA most influential psychologists of 20th century
    Leader in facial analysis
    Facial Action Coding System
    “Paul Ekman has identified over 3,000 facial expressions” (Millar)
  • Types of Non-Verbal Communication
    “A whole cluster is more reliable than just one part” (“Using Body Language”)
  • Proximity
  • Expression
  • Eyes
  • Relative oRientation
  • Contact
  • Individual Gestures
  • Paralinguistic
  • Existence of Adaptors
  • Appearance
  • Facial Expressions
    3 independent mobile parts of the face
    Spontaneous muscle movement
    Primary source of information
    Includes eye contact
    Microexpressions
  • Universal Facial Expressions
    “Facial expressions are the universal language of the human soul” (Coniff)
    Inborn rather than learned
    7 universal facial expression
    Happiness
    Sadness
    Fear
    Anger
    Surprise
    Disgust
    Contempt
  • Happiness
    Facial Expressions
    Raised lip corners and cheeks
    Narrowing eyelids to produce crows feet
    Outside brows pull down
    “Happiness is hard to fake… you need more than a smile” (Millar)
  • Sadness
    Facial Expressions
    Mouth
    Eyebrows & forehead
    Create triangle
    Eyes
    Other Clues
    Body droops
    Flat speech tone
  • Surprise
    Facial Expressions
    Forehead & eyebrows
    Eyes widen
    Jaw drops
    Other Clues
    Backward movement
  • Anger
    Facial Expressions
    Eyes & eyebrows
    Mouth
    Nose
    Other Clues
    Face turns red
    Baring teeth
    Clenched fists
  • Fear
    Facial Expressions
    Eyebrows/forehead
    Eyes
    Mouth
    Other Clues
    Cold sweat
    Pale face
    Dry mouth
    Holding breath
  • Disgust
    Facial Expressions
    Eyes
    Mouth
    Nose/cheeks
    Eyebrows
  • Cultural Differences
    Eye Contact
    “It’s disrespectful to look a person of importance directly in the eye” (Millar)
    Physical Contact
    Proximity
    Walking through doors
  • Physiological Symptoms of Lying
    Perspiration
    Flushing/paleness of skin
    Increase pulse
    Dry mouth/tongue
    “…as long ago as 900 B.C., one observer wrote the following description of a liar on a piece of papyrus: ‘He does not answer questions, or gives evasive answers; he speaks nonsense, rubs the great toe along the ground, and shivers, he rubs the roots of his hair with his fingers.’”
  • Signs of Lying
    Mouth Guard
    Nose Touch
    Eye Rub
    Neck Scratch
    Ear Rub
    “See no evil, speak no evil, hear no evil”
  • Signs of Lying- Body Movements
    Calm face with motion of limbs
    Gesture toward themselves
    Grooming gestures
    “Lies are harder to cover up when emotion is involved”
    (Duenwald)
  • Lying Gestures
  • Signs of Lying- Facial Expressions
    Muscle movement on face is deliberate
    Blink rate increase
    Eyes may open wider
    “Gestures are like words they can have more than one meaning. As the context changes, the meaning changes too.” (Spraling)
  • Paralanguage of Lying
    Pitch
    Loudness
    Quality
    Space fillers
    Stutter
    Less volunteered information
    “Humans experience few problems or anxieties when they speak the truth”
  • Body Language “Norming”
    Some people have tells
    Context of Body Language
    “Decide what body language is acceptable at certain time”
    View how person act during normal questions
    “Hot Spot”
  • Faking Expressions
    “It’s not what you see, it’s what you don’t see”
    (Millar)
  • Defensive Body Language
    • Covering vulnerable spots
    • Create barrier
    • Reduce Size
    • Minimal facial expression/eye contact
    “A typical defense move is to cross ones arms” ("Body Language- Understanding Non-Verbal Communication”)
  • Flirting
    Distinct body signals
    “When one is trying to gain the interest of the opposite sex they display distinct signals” ("Body Language." BBC)
    Success depends
    Female
    Male
  • Flirting Signals
    Touch
    Bodies point
    Eye contact
    Smiling
    Leaning toward person
    Standing/sitting close
    Pupils dilate
    “The most important message is message received”
  • Attentive Body Language
    Ignore distractions
    Stillness
    Lean forward
    Tilt head
    Constant gaze
    Slow nods
  • Bored Body Language
    Head down
    Eyes
    Fidgeting
    Slumped in chair
    “It’s hard to pay attention when your not interested in the subject” (Miller 3)
  • Aggressive Body Language
    • Disapproving frowns
    • Pursed lips, sneer, snarl
    • Clenched fist
    • Red face
  • Aggressive Body Language Example
  • Confident Body Language
    Posture
    Eye contact
    Gestures
    Speech
    Tone of voice
    “Confident people know
    what they are doing is right”
    (Sparling)
  • Conclusion
    I learned that even though body language doesn’t seem important it is because we pick up on it subconsciously and affects how we act toward others
    I’m now more conscious of subtle body language that I would ignore normally
  • Class activity
    Go on to my page on the Ning and click the link to the Lie to Me quiz site
  • Works cited
    Arbor, Ann. “Communication Skills.” Tach Directions. Prakken Publications, 2010. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. <http://www.techdirections.com/>.
    Beall, Anne E. “Body Language Speaks: Reading and Responding More Effectively to Hidden Communication.” Student Resource Center Gold. N.p., 21 Feb. 2004. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com//.do?prodId=IPS& userGroupName=king46652>.
    “Body Language.” BBC h2g2. BBC, 9 Nov. 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk//g2/>.
    “Body Language and the Interview Process.” Body Language Experts. N.p., 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.bodylanguageexpert.co.uk/.htm>.
    “Body Language in Communication.” Body Language Magic. N.p., 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.improvementtower.com/‌bodylanguage/_Language_in_Communication.html>.
  • Works Cited
    “Body Language- Understanding Non-Verbal Communication.” Mind Tools. N.p., 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.mindtools.com/‌pages//_Language.htm>.
    Bohannon, Lisa Frederiken. “Is Your Body Language on Your Side?” Student Resource Center Gold. N.p., 21 Nov. 2000. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com//.do?prodId=IPS& userGroupName=king46652>.
    Brougham, Charles G. “Nonverbal Communication: Can What They Don’t Say Give Them Away?” Student Resource Center Gold. N.p., 16 July 1992. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com//.do?prodId=IPS& userGroupName=king46652>.
    Coniff, Richard. “Yes, You Can Read A Woman’s Mind.” Health Source: Consumer Edition. N.p., Apr. 2009. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.
    Duenwald, Mary. “Is She Hiding Something?” History Reference Center. N.p., 2005. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. <http://wf2dnvr9.webfeat.org/‌sqT6N1131/=http://web.ebscohost.org>.
    “The 8 Aspects of Body Language.” Body Language Experts. N.p., 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.bodylanguageexpert.co.uk/‌KeyElementsOfBodyLanguage.htm>.
  • Works Cited
    “Examples of Body Language.” S.P.A.R.C.N.p., 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.deltabravo.net//.php>.
    Millar, James, dir. Secrets of Body Language. A&E Television Networks, 2008. AVI file.
    Miller, Patrick W. “Body Language in the Classroom.” Gale Virtual Reference Library. N.p., Nov.-Dec. 2005. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com//.do? &contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=SRC-1 &docId=A139206499&source=gale&srcprod=SRCG&userGroupName=king46652 &version=1.0>.
    “Paul Ekman.” Word Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. <http://reesemarcelo.files.wordpress.com/‌/‌/ekman1.jpg>.
  • Works Cited
    Sparling, Polly. “Say...What?” Student Resource Center Gold. N.p., Oct. 2005. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com//.do?prodId=IPS& userGroupName=king46652>.
    “The Study of Facial Expressions.” Body Language Expert. N.p., 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.bodylanguageexpert.co.uk/‌study-facial-expressions>.
    “Understanding Body Language.” Body Language Magic. N.p., 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://www.improvementtower.com//_Body_Language.html>.
  • Slides I need to add
    Application Portion
    Works Cited (when finished delete unused sources)