Process of FGD


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Process of FGD

  1. 1. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 1 Process of Focus Group Discussion ( FGD) Outlines Definitions FGD in Research Design Understanding FGD Features of FGD Features of FGD Some Criticisms on FGD FGD Experience of two Graduate References
  2. 2. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 2 Definitions “An informal discussion among selected individuals about specific topics relevant to the situation in hand.” •Beck, Trombetta and Share (1986) “An organized group discussion which are focused around a single theme.” •Krueger(1986)
  3. 3. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 3 FGD in Research Design World view or Philosophical Consideration Positivistic Non-positivistic Approach Quantitative Qualitative Research Methods Survey, Experiment Ethnography, Grounded theory, Case study, Phenomenology Data Collection Strategy Questionnaire or Close ended questions Observation, one to one interview, Documents studies or FGD
  4. 4. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 4 Understanding FGD • “A way of listening to people and learning from them’ (Morgan, 1998). • ‘Collective conversations’, which can be small or large (Kamberelis & Dimitriadis, 2008) • ‘A mean to set up a negotiation of meanings through intra- and inter-personal debates’ (Cook & Crang, 1995) • ‘Involves more than one participant per data collection session’. As such, the focus group method is sometimes referred to as a focus group interview, a group interview, or a group depth interview (Wilkinson, 2004)
  5. 5. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 5 Features of FGD • There are two broad types of focus groups – a structured approach which is employed more in market research; and a less rigid and structured approach which has emerged from focus group research in the social sciences. Morgan (2002). • Enables in-depth discussions and involves a relatively small number participants. • Focused on a specific area of interest, discuss the topic in a great detail. • The ‘group effect’ which assist people to explore and clarify their points of view.
  6. 6. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 6 Contd.. A moderator, the researcher, introduces the topic and assists the participants to discuss it, encouraging interaction and guiding the conversation, can be two, one moderator and the remained as facilitator…
  7. 7. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 7 Methodologically, FGD involves • A group of 6–8 people •Similar social and cultural backgrounds or who have similar experiences or concerns. • Gather together to discuss a specific issue with the help of a moderator •Particular setting, feel comfortable ,engage in a dynamic discussion for one or two hours. •FGD do not aim to reach consensus on the discussed issues. •‘Encourage a range of responses which provide a greater understanding of the attitudes, behavior, opinions or perceptions of participants on the research issues’ (Hennink, 2007).
  8. 8. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 8 FGD in Different Settings In Urban setting In the rural setting
  9. 9. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 9 Some Criticisms on FGD • Useless in exploring participants knowledge on too personal experiences (e.g. HIV/AIDS, Financial Status, Abortion, Divorce, Sexuality, Contraceptives use etc). • Difficulties associated with strong or opposing opinions. • Only offering a shallower understanding of an issue than those obtained from individual interviews (Hopkins 2007; Krueger & Casey 2009) – Hopkins got different information in personal in-depth interview and FGD of the same participants on the experience of Racial Experiences of Muslim Youths in Scotland. • Difficult to avoid dominant and aggressive participants , social settings which may have domination there.
  10. 10. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 10 Criticism Contd… • Focus group interview provides greater numbers of participants than in-depth interviews (Willis et al. 2009). So, Its ‘quick and easy’. • opportunistic participants are a popular means of tapping into people’s values, beliefs, perceptions and experiences • cost-conscious contracting organizations • ‘overuse of impressionistic focus group’ research may impair the value of the methodology. • lead to the perception that ‘focus groups are an easy but low level research approach, high quality evidence • “well designed and well conducted’ (Willis et al. 2009: 132).
  11. 11. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 11 FGD Experience of two Graduates • 5 participants ( 2 Tharu / 3 Nepali speaking teachers) • Conducted 2 hours • Found difficulties to communicate in Nepali language for Tharu speakers • Balancing the discussion was difficult as Nepali speaking teachers shared free but Tharu speaking teachers felt reluctant • Researcher provoked them. • Still they faced difficulty to make their case strong • Then researcher compensated an interview for Tharu speaking teachers to share their ideas. Exploring Monolingual School Practices in Multilingual Nepal DUE, 2004 • Participants 12 MBA students • In a classroom of the university • No annexes with guidelines • No experience, feeling shared Brand Equity of Higher Education: a case of MBA academic program in Nepal ( KU, PhD, 2011)
  12. 12. 05/23/14 Laxman Sharma, MPhil, 2014 12 References Beck, F.J. Trombetta, W.L. & Share, S. (1986) . Using focus group sessions before decisions are made. North Carolina Medical Journal. 47(2), 73-74 Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design Choosing among five approaches, (p.140). (2nd Ed) Sage publication, New Delhi, India Hennink, M.M. (2007). International focus group research: A handbook for the health and social sciences. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Krueger, R.A. (1986). Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research. Newbury park, CA:Sage. Morgan, D.L. (2002). Focus group interviewing. In J.F. Gubrium & J.A. Holstein (eds.), Handbook of interviewing research: Context & method (pp. 141–159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Wilkinson, S. (2004). Focus groups: A feminist method. In S.N. Hesse-Biber & L. Yaiser (eds.), Feminist perspectives on social research (pp. 271– 295).New York: Oxford University Press. Google search
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