Bureau of Parliamentary Studies & Training Tuesday, 20 th  January, 2009 Overview of Computer and Internet Laws in India
Computer & Internet Crimes An Introduction <ul><li>Computer or Internet Crime is where the target or source of crime is ei...
Types of Computer or Internet Crimes <ul><li>Hacking </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading of Viruses & Worms </li></ul><ul><li>Data...
Types of Computer or Internet Crimes Contd.. <ul><li>Invasion of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Child Pornography </li></ul><ul...
Tackling Computer or Internet Crimes – Indian Perspective <ul><li>Enacted First Law in the year 2000 termed as “Informatio...
Information Technology Act, 2000 <ul><li>Act to Apply to the offence or contravention committed outside India – S. 75 </li...
Information Technology Act, 2000 <ul><li>Contraventions under the Act – S. 43 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever  without permi...
Indian Penal Code, 1860 <ul><li>Defamation – S.499/500 </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Intimidation – S. 503 </li></ul><ul><li>...
Intellectual Property Issues <ul><li>Domain Name Registration using well known Trade Marks (Cyber-squatting) </li></ul><ul...
Intellectual Property Issues <ul><li>Copyright Violations by copying same content on different sites </li></ul><ul><li>Cop...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S.43 - destroys, deletes or alters any information residing in a comput...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 43A - Compensation for failure to protect data </li></ul><ul><li>“ W...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66 - Computer Related Offences  </li></ul><ul><li>“ If any person, d...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S.66A - Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66B - Punishment for dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource ...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66C - Punishment for identity theft </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever, fra...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66D - Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resou...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66E - Punishment for violation of privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoev...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66 F - Punishment for cyber terrorism  </li></ul><ul><li>“ (1) Whoev...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 67 A - Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material contain...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 67 B - Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicti...
Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 67 C - Preservation and Retention of information by intermediaries. ...
Conclusion <ul><li>“ Indian Laws are well drafted and are capable of handling all kinds of challenges as posed by cyber cr...
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Overview of Computer & Internet Crimes in India

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Overview of Computer & Internet Crimes in India

  1. 1. Bureau of Parliamentary Studies & Training Tuesday, 20 th January, 2009 Overview of Computer and Internet Laws in India
  2. 2. Computer & Internet Crimes An Introduction <ul><li>Computer or Internet Crime is where the target or source of crime is either computer or network of computers termed as Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Criminals feel safe to commit crimes from the privacy of their homes. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more cyber criminals than cyber cops </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop laws to combat latest technologies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Computer or Internet Crimes <ul><li>Hacking </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading of Viruses & Worms </li></ul><ul><li>Data Theft </li></ul><ul><li>Credit Card Frauds </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Money Laundering </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Stalking </li></ul><ul><li>Defamation </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Theft </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Theft Contd… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Computer or Internet Crimes Contd.. <ul><li>Invasion of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Child Pornography </li></ul><ul><li>Online Gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Online Gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Online Frauds ( 419 Scams, Lottery Scams) </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of illegal articles </li></ul><ul><li>Tampering of Source Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Frauds </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tackling Computer or Internet Crimes – Indian Perspective <ul><li>Enacted First Law in the year 2000 termed as “Information Technology Act, 2000”. </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecution of internet or computer crimes under Indian Penal Code, 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Other Legislations such as Contract Act, Trademarks Act, Copyright Act, Companies Act etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment to ITA 2000 termed as Information Technology Amendment Act of 2008 (Yet to be notified) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information Technology Act, 2000 <ul><li>Act to Apply to the offence or contravention committed outside India – S. 75 </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for Criminal Prosecution for offenses like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tampering of Source Documents – S.65 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacking – S.66 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography – S.67 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Information Technology Act, 2000 <ul><li>Contraventions under the Act – S. 43 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever without permission of owner of the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secures Access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloads, Copies or extracts any data, computer database or any information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce or causes to be introduce any virus or contaminant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupts or causes disruption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denies or causes denial of access to any person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by tampering with or manipulating any computer, computer system, or computer network, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation not exceeding one crore rupees to the person so affected </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Indian Penal Code, 1860 <ul><li>Defamation – S.499/500 </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Intimidation – S. 503 </li></ul><ul><li>Forgery – S. 463/470/471 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating – S. 420 </li></ul><ul><li>Theft – S. 378 </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Breach of Trust – S. 405/406 </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Document – S. 204 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Intellectual Property Issues <ul><li>Domain Name Registration using well known Trade Marks (Cyber-squatting) </li></ul><ul><li>Online Trademark Abuse using keyword based advertising on Search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Meta Tag Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Counterfeiting </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark Violations on Social Networking Sites </li></ul>
  10. 10. Intellectual Property Issues <ul><li>Copyright Violations by copying same content on different sites </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Violations in terms of Website layouts </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright violations by pirating music and videos online </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Violations by copying Databases </li></ul>
  11. 11. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S.43 - destroys, deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means </li></ul><ul><li>Steals, conceals, destroys or alters or causes any person to steal, conceal, destroy or alter any computer source code used for a computer resource with an intention to cause damage </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum of compensation to be decided on case to case basis </li></ul>
  12. 12. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 43A - Compensation for failure to protect data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Where a body corporate, possessing, dealing or handling any sensitive personal data or information in a computer resource which it owns, controls or operates, is negligent in implementing and maintaining reasonable security practices and procedures and thereby causes wrongful loss or wrongful gain to any person, such body corporate shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation to the person so affected” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66 - Computer Related Offences </li></ul><ul><li>“ If any person, dishonestly, or fraudulently, does any act referred to in section 43, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two three years or with fine which may extend to five lakh rupees or with both.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S.66A - Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication service, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Any person who sends, by means of a computer resource or a communication device,- </li></ul><ul><li>a) any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character; or </li></ul><ul><li>b) any information which he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience, danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred, or ill will, persistently makes by making use of such computer resource or a communication device, </li></ul><ul><li>c) any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages </li></ul><ul><li>shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66B - Punishment for dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource or communication device </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever dishonestly receives or retains any stolen computer resource or communication device knowing or having reason to believe the same to be stolen computer resource or communication device, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to rupees one lakh or with both.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66C - Punishment for identity theft </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly make use of the electronic signature, password or any other unique identification feature of any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to rupees one lakh” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66D - Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resource </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever, by means of any communication device or computer resource cheats by personation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to one lakh rupees. “ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66E - Punishment for violation of privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever, intentionally or knowingly captures, publishes or transmits the image of a private area of any person without his or her consent, under circumstances violating the privacy of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years or with fine not exceeding two lakh rupees, or with both” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 66 F - Punishment for cyber terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>“ (1) Whoever, </li></ul><ul><li>(A) with intent to threaten the unity, integrity, security or sovereignty of India or to strike terror in the people or any section of the people by – </li></ul><ul><li>(i) denying or cause the denial of access to any person authorized to access computer resource; or </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) attempting to penetrate or access a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorized access; or </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) introducing or causing to introduce any Computer Contaminant. </li></ul><ul><li>and by means of such conduct causes or is likely to cause death or injuries to persons or damage to or destruction of property or disrupts or knowing that it is likely to cause damage or disruption of supplies or services essential to the life of the community or adversely affect the critical information infrastructure specified under section 70, or </li></ul><ul><li>(B) knowingly or intentionally penetrates or accesses a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorized access, and by means of such conduct obtains access to information, data or computer database that is restricted for reasons of the security of the State or foreign relations; or any restricted information, data or computer database, with reasons to believe that such information, data or computer database so obtained may be used to cause or likely to cause injury to the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, group of individuals or otherwise, </li></ul><ul><li>commits the offence of cyber terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Whoever commits or conspires to commit cyber terrorism shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to imprisonment for life’ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 67 A - Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act,etc. in electronic form </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted in the electronic form any material which contains sexually explicit act or conduct shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 67 B - Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whoever,- </li></ul><ul><li>(a) publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted material in any electronic form which depicts children engaged in sexually explicit act or conduct or </li></ul><ul><li>(b) creates text or digital images, collects, seeks, browses, downloads, advertises, promotes, exchanges or distributes material in any electronic form depicting children in obscene or indecent or sexually explicit manner or </li></ul><ul><li>(c) cultivates, entices or induces children to online relationship with one or more children for and on sexually explicit act or in a manner that may offend a reasonable adult on the computer resource or </li></ul><ul><li>(d) facilitates abusing children online or </li></ul><ul><li>(e) records in any electronic form own abuse or that of others pertaining to sexually explicit act with children, </li></ul><ul><li>shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with a fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees </li></ul>
  22. 22. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 <ul><li>S. 67 C - Preservation and Retention of information by intermediaries. </li></ul><ul><li>“ (1) Intermediary shall preserve and retain such information as may be specified for such duration and in such manner and format as the Central Government may prescribe. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Any intermediary who intentionally or knowingly contravenes the provisions of sub section (1) shall be punished with an imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>“ Indian Laws are well drafted and are capable of handling all kinds of challenges as posed by cyber criminals. However, the enforcement agencies are required to be well versed with the changing technologies and Laws.” </li></ul><ul><li>Gurpreet Singh </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Law Head </li></ul><ul><li>Amarjit & Associates </li></ul><ul><li>Suite 404 Law Arcade </li></ul><ul><li>18 – Pusa Road </li></ul><ul><li>New Delhi – 110005. </li></ul><ul><li>E-Mail : [email_address] & [email_address] </li></ul>
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