Learning Theories & The Net Generation
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Learning Theories & The Net Generation






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Learning Theories & The Net Generation Learning Theories & The Net Generation Presentation Transcript

  • Learning Theories & The Net Generation
  • Knowledge is specific content Learners are empty vessels to be filled with knowledge
  • Knowledge is created Learning is a collaborative social endeavor View slide
  • A Paradigm Shift Tools for Supporting Individuals Tools for Supporting Relationships View slide
  • Motivation? Relevance? Authenticity?
    • Turned off to school
    • Focused on passing the next test
    • Not excited by the classroom
    • No application to life after school
    • Discouraged from following their own interests
    • From an article by Roger Shank, Engines for Education
    • http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/NODE-44-pg.html
  • 1 st Year College Student
    • Knowledge = gradual accumulation of right answers acquired through effort and obedience to the instructor
      • Role of the instructor is to TEACH them
      • Right answers for everything exist
    • Focused on passing the next test
    • Turned off to school
    • Discouraged from following their own interests
    • No application to life after school
    Where did this thinking come from?
  • Traditional Classroom
    • Prescribed Curriculum
    • Chalkboards
    • Desks in rows
    • Books and worksheets
    • Paper & pencil
    • Focus on the front (teacher)
    • Read, take notes
    • Study as an individual
    • Take tests to measure learning
  • Behaviorism
    • Current educational system built on the beliefs of Behaviorism
      • Conditioning—Pavlov, Skinner
      • Stimulus-Reinforcement-Consequences
    Antecedent Stimulus that prompts behavior Behavior Action that follows stimulus Consequence Response that follows behavior
  • Assumptions
    • Learning = behavior change
    • Learning = related to changes in the environment
    • Learning demonstrated as response to external stimulus
    • Learning contingent on reinforcement
    • All species interact with environment in the same way
  • In Education
    • Observable and measurable outcomes (learning objectives)
      • conditions under which the behavior is to take place
      • task(s) learner to perform
      • series of actions learner is to be able to carry out to indicate understanding
      • actions described using verb that denotes some observable behavior
      • criterion defines acceptable level of performance
  • Linear Approach Original model Updated model Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • In Education
    • Reinforcements
      • Tangible rewards
      • Consequences
      • Interval of rewards/consequences
    • Mastery Learning
      • Sequencing of instruction
      • Use of cues, prompts, practice
  • Roles
    • Instructor
      • Teacher-centered
      • Determines desired behavior
      • Develops environmental conditions to elicit behavior
    • Learner
      • Passive recipient
      • Memorization, regurgitation emphasized
  • Activities
    • Reading , review , and analysis of provided text and materials
    • Individual work submitted directly to instructor for review
    • Structured assignments directly linked to learning objectives.
    • Little or no cohort discussion.
  • Cognitivism
    • Learning = change in knowledge stored in memory
    • Learning results when information is stored in memory in organized, meaningful manner
      • Developing schema
      • Making connections to prior knowledge
    • Metacognition—what & how learned
  • In Education
      • Present information to help learners attend to , encode and retrieve information
      • Mental planning
      • Goal-setting
      • Organization strategies
  • Activities
    • Explanations
    • Demonstrations
    • Examples/non-examples
    • Advance Organizers
    • Graphic organizers/diagrams
    • Practice
    • Feedback
  • Roles
    • Instructor
      • Teacher-centered with student input
      • Help learners memorize information
      • Organize information
      • Connect to prior knowledge
    • Learner
      • Learners motivated when event, object, or experience conflicts with what already know
  • Constructivism
    • Learning = creating meaning from experience
    • Knowledge cannot be “transmitted”
    • Learners must create own meanings based on individual experiences and interactions
      • Authentic context
      • Relevant to student’s experience
  • In Education
    • Emphasis on interaction, reflection & collaboration
    • Learners need opportunity to define for themselves goals and objectives for the course
    • Focus more on process and interaction , less on what is specifically to be accomplished
    • Outcomes defined more in terms of a new common perspective rather than particular tasks/actions that individuals able to perform
    • Assumes learners motivated by common interest in problem or issue
  • Activities
    • Application of principles—case studies and projects
    • Open-ended assignments linked to changing learning objectives
    • Assignments reflect "real world" conditions and requirements
  • Roles
    • Instructor
      • Facilitator, Guide, Coach, Mentor
      • Co-learner
    • Learner
      • Active participant—explore information & environment
      • Make connections—make own meaning
      • Apply knowledge in personally meaningful contexts
  • Connectivism
    • Recent Theory- developed by George Siemens
    • Behaviorism, cognitivism, & constructivism developed in a time when learning was not impacted by/through technology
    • Internet & speed new information being discovered and documented
    • Knowing how to find information is becoming more important than knowing the information
  • Acquiring 21st century skills such as higher level thinking , stronger communication abilities , and collaborative learning will encourage student engagement and increase academic achievement (Department of Education, 2002)
  • Generational Experiences
    • Video games
    • PC
    • Email
    • CDs
    • Individualist
    Generation X
    • Web
    • Cell phone
    • IM
    • MP3s
    • Online communities
    Net Gen Baby Boomers
    • TV generation
    • Typewriters
    • Telephone
    • Memos
    • Family focus
  • Immigrant or Native
    • Do you turn to the Internet first or second for information?
    • Do you use a manual to learn a program, or is it intuitive.
    • Do you print out your e-mail, or have your secretary print it out?
    • Do you need to print out a document in order to edit it?
    • Do you call people into your office to see an interesting website rather than sending the link via e-mail?
    • Do you make the “Did you get my e-mail?” phone call?
  • Digital Natives
    • Ctrl + Alt + Del is as basic as ABC
    • They have never been able to find the “return” key
    • Computers have always fit in their backpacks
    • They have always had a personal identification number
    • Photographs have always been processed in an hour or less
    • Bert and Ernie are old enough to be their parents
    • Gas has always been unleaded
    • Rogaine has always been available for the follicularly challenged
    --Beloit College, 2003, 2004
  • Faces of the Future
  • The Net Generation
    • Born in or after 1982
    • Gravitate toward group activity
    • 8 out of 10 say “it’s cool to be smart”
    • Focused on grades and performance
    • Busy with extracurricular activities
    • Identify with parents ’ values; feel close to parents
    • Respectful of social conventions and institutions
    • Fascination with new technologies
    • Racially and ethnically diverse
    ― Howe & Strauss, 2003
  • Today’s learners
    • Digital
    • Connected
    • Experiential
    • Immediate
    • Social
  • Net gen learning preferences
    • Teams, peer-to-peer
    • Engagement & experience
    • Visual & kinesthetic
    • Things that matter
  • What can you do?
    • Make learning interactive & experiential
    • Consider peer-to-peer approaches
    • Utilize real-world applications
    • Emphasize information literacy in courses
    • Encourage reflection
    • Incorporate collaborative learning
    • Use informal learning opportunities
    • Create opportunities for synthesis
  • Decide what’s important
    • Technology does not drive choices
    • Learning outcomes drive choices
      • Knowledge construction
      • Interactivity
      • Relevance
      • Authentic contexts
    Adaptation : It is not about whether you are a digital native but whether you can adapt to those whose style does not match your own – Dede, 2005
  • Find the Right Balance Action Reflection Visual Text Social Individual Process Content Speed Deliberation Peer-to-peer Peer review