Grammar Review Mnemonic


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Mnemonic developed to help students remember common errors when proofreading their papers

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Grammar Review Mnemonic

  1. 1. Proofreading Mnemonic An Introduction Presented by: Gayla S. Keesee Education Specialist 10/2006 Mack Gipson, Jr. Tutorial & Enrichment Center
  2. 2. S pecial P eople C an P roofread V ery S killfully. R emember, D on’t P anic! Learn the Proofreading Mnemonic
  3. 3. Common Errors <ul><li>S pelling </li></ul><ul><li>P unctuation </li></ul><ul><li>C apitalization </li></ul><ul><li>P ronouns </li></ul><ul><li>V erbs </li></ul><ul><li>S entence Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>R un-on Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>D angling/Misplaced Modifiers </li></ul><ul><li>P arallel Structure </li></ul>
  4. 4. Spelling <ul><li>Be aware of your “enemies” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words you often misspell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words sound the same (they’re, their, there) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words often confused (accept, except) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Capitalization <ul><li>Titles—all words 4+ letters long </li></ul><ul><li>First word in complete sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Proper nouns </li></ul><ul><li>School Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of languages—French, English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbered courses--Biology I, History 211 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronoun Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree with antecedent (noun referring to) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number—singular, plural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender—masculine, feminine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case—subject, object, possessive Pronoun Shifts (case) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not shift between person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1st, 2nd, 3rd person </li></ul></ul></ul>YOU
  7. 7. Verb Forms <ul><li>Subject-Verb Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here, there, it at the beginning of sentence not subj. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subj. will never be in a prepositional phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch out for indefinite pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn questions around = subj + verb + obj. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verb Tense—indicates time of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep tenses consistent </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sentence Fragments <ul><li>Missing one or more elements of an Independent Clause (IC). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add the element(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the fragment to the IC before or after it. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Run-On Sentences <ul><li>Two or more IC joined together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually with only a comma—comma splice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a period to separate the two sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add ,conj </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a semi-colon—esp. if they’re closely related. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrite the sentence completely. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers <ul><li>Modifiers—adjectives & adverbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be single words or phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be placed as close to word being described as possible </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Items joined by a conjunction must be expressed in the same grammatical form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word, word, and word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reading, dancing, and cooking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase, phrase, or phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over the hill, under the bridge, and into the cave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>either move to Kansas or move to Texas </li></ul></ul></ul>