Grammar Review Mnemonic

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Mnemonic developed to help students remember common errors when proofreading their papers

Mnemonic developed to help students remember common errors when proofreading their papers

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  • 1. Proofreading Mnemonic An Introduction Presented by: Gayla S. Keesee Education Specialist 10/2006 Mack Gipson, Jr. Tutorial & Enrichment Center
  • 2. S pecial P eople C an P roofread V ery S killfully. R emember, D on’t P anic! Learn the Proofreading Mnemonic
  • 3. Common Errors
    • S pelling
    • P unctuation
    • C apitalization
    • P ronouns
    • V erbs
    • S entence Fragments
    • R un-on Sentences
    • D angling/Misplaced Modifiers
    • P arallel Structure
  • 4. Spelling
    • Be aware of your “enemies”
      • Words you often misspell
    • Homonyms
      • Words sound the same (they’re, their, there)
    • Usage
      • Words often confused (accept, except)
  • 5. Capitalization
    • Titles—all words 4+ letters long
    • First word in complete sentence
    • Proper nouns
    • School Subjects
      • Names of languages—French, English
      • Numbered courses--Biology I, History 211
  • 6. Pronouns
    • Pronoun Agreement
      • Agree with antecedent (noun referring to)
        • Number—singular, plural
        • Gender—masculine, feminine
        • Case—subject, object, possessive Pronoun Shifts (case)
      • Do not shift between person
        • 1st, 2nd, 3rd person
    YOU
  • 7. Verb Forms
    • Subject-Verb Agreement
      • Here, there, it at the beginning of sentence not subj.
      • Subj. will never be in a prepositional phrase
      • Watch out for indefinite pronouns
      • Turn questions around = subj + verb + obj.
    • Verb Tense—indicates time of action
      • Keep tenses consistent
  • 8. Sentence Fragments
    • Missing one or more elements of an Independent Clause (IC).
      • Subject
      • Verb
      • Complete Thought
    • Corrections:
      • Add the element(s)
      • Attach the fragment to the IC before or after it.
  • 9. Run-On Sentences
    • Two or more IC joined together
      • usually with only a comma—comma splice
    • Corrections:
      • Use a period to separate the two sentences.
      • Add ,conj
      • Use a semi-colon—esp. if they’re closely related.
      • Rewrite the sentence completely.
  • 10. Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers
    • Modifiers—adjectives & adverbs
      • May be single words or phrases
      • Must be placed as close to word being described as possible
  • 11. Parallel Structure
    • Items joined by a conjunction must be expressed in the same grammatical form.
      • Word, word, and word
        • reading, dancing, and cooking
      • Phrase, phrase, or phrase
        • over the hill, under the bridge, and into the cave
        • either move to Kansas or move to Texas