Grammar Review

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Provides a succinct overview of major grammar rules

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Grammar Review

  1. 1. Proofreading & Editing Grammar Skill Checks Gayla S. Keesee Education Specialist Mack Gipson, Jr. Tutorial & Enrichment Center 2/2007
  2. 2. Have You Ever? <ul><li>Been penalized for too many errors on your paper? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpen your eye for correct English. Make proofreading a habit. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learned something and then found you couldn’t remember it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice and application of skills help you remember. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Have You Ever? <ul><li>Made a grammatical error but couldn’t explain why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to identify common errors and ways to correct them—and why. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questioned whether you will ever use what you are learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will be writing to communicate for the rest of your life. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Errors = Social Markers <ul><li>Speaking and writing errors signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational background/level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One's concern for correctness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Common Errors <ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Run-on Sentences </li></ul>
  6. 6. Common Errors <ul><li>Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Homonyms </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spelling <ul><li>Serious Errors: common words </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of your “enemies” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words you often misspell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create mnemonic tricks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help remember </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Usage Errors <ul><li>Usage— words often confused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept, except </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice, advise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect, effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between, among </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie, lay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Than, then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Really, real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good, well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot alot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All right alright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could have could of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From off of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless irregardless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through thru </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Homonym Errors <ul><li>Homonyms— similar sounds; different meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To, too, two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their, they’re, there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your, you’re </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose, who’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse, course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement, compliment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council, counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal, principle </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Capitalization <ul><li>Titles—all words 4+ letters long </li></ul><ul><li>First word in complete sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including direct quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Names with Titles—President Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Names—God, Allah </li></ul>
  11. 11. Capitalization <ul><li>Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only when personified—Spring danced joyfully. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When naming specific regions—The North won. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of languages—French, English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbered courses--Biology I, History 211 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Review: Sentence Elements <ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is doing the action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action—State of being </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Clause—IC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Clause—DC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be attached </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phrases <ul><li>Prepositional phrase—most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonic trick: Preposition = anything a plane can do to a cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To, From </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over, Under </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through, Around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside, Outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Subject will NOT be in a prep. phrase </li></ul>
  14. 14. Review: Sentence Structure <ul><li>Who Did (What) </li></ul><ul><li>Subj. Verb Obj. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom hit the ball. </li></ul>Where? When? How? Why? Where? When? How? Why? (Optional) Moveable (Optional) Moveable
  15. 15. Punctuation <ul><li>Commas </li></ul><ul><li>Apostrophes </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation marks </li></ul><ul><li>Underlining </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-colons </li></ul>
  16. 16. Comma Usage <ul><li>Compound Sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IC ,conj IC (IC=Independent Clause=sentence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordinating Conjunctions—see mnemonic device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F F or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A A nd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N N or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B B ut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O O r </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y Y et </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S S o </li></ul></ul>Tom hit the ball , and he ran the bases.
  17. 17. Comma Usage <ul><li>Set off nonessential elements—not necessary to the meaning of the sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrases/clauses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mary, who has a great deal of talent , is a senior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaneka, wearing a jacket , walked into the room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthetical expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>however, of course, for example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each student, however , expected a new computer. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Comma Usage <ul><li>Separate items in a list—3+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The store sold potatoes , carrots , and beans . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kevin ran , leaped , and pranced for joy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She learned of her husband’s loss , of his great labor , and of other efforts to make amends. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain Parallel Structure </li></ul>
  19. 19. Comma Usage <ul><li>Who Did What </li></ul><ul><li>Subj. Verb Obj. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom hit the ball. </li></ul>Where When How Why Where, When, How, Why, At May Park , Saturday , With my bat , Because he was mad , Separate introductory words, phrases, and clauses with a comma.
  20. 20. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Items joined by a conjunction must be expressed in the same grammatical form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word, word, and word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reading, dancing, and cooking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase, phrase, or phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over the hill, under the bridge, and into the cave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>either move to Kansas or move to Texas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Parallel Structure <ul><li>The new school is large, rambling, and </li></ul><ul><li>it looks ugly. </li></ul><ul><li>The new school is large , rambling , and ugly . </li></ul><ul><li>All items needed to be adjectives. The last item was an IC. </li></ul>Wrong!
  22. 22. Parallel Structure <ul><li>I enjoy reading, writing, and to dance. </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy reading, writing, and dancing. </li></ul><ul><li>First two items end in –ing . The last item was an infinitive. (to + verb) </li></ul>Wrong!
  23. 23. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Charlie is not only talented as a writer but also as an artist. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlie is talented not only as a writer but also as an artist. </li></ul><ul><li>Move verb to indicate both items. </li></ul><ul><li>Items following not only and but also must be worded exactly the same. </li></ul>Wrong!
  24. 24. Parallel Structure <ul><li>The juniors decided that they neither found the dance nor the breakfast enjoyable. </li></ul><ul><li>The juniors decided that they found neither the dance nor the breakfast enjoyable. </li></ul><ul><li>Place neither and nor directly in front of ideas that are parallel. </li></ul>Wrong!
  25. 25. Apostrophes <ul><li>Possessives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ s singular noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dog’s Mary’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s’ plural noun or ends in -s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dogs’ Charles’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not = didn’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are not = aren’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is = it’s </li></ul></ul>Do Not Add an ‘ to a possessive pronoun—your’s Do Not Add an ‘ to form the plural of a noun—paper’s
  26. 26. Quotation Marks <ul><li>Direct Quotations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary said, “You will be hungry because it’s late.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You will be hungry,” Mary said, “because it’s late. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you going to New York?” asked Bernie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I remember that she said, “Turn here,’” said Al. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Titles <ul><li>Underline the titles of long works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Quotes” around titles of short works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazine articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essays </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Semicolons <ul><li>Between IC not joined by a ,conj </li></ul><ul><li>Between IC joined by one of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, therefore, consequently, moreover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between series of items if those items contain commas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Student Council elected its officers: Sarah Long, president ; Megan Wright, vice-president ; and Peg Miller, secretary/treasurer. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Capitalization <ul><li>Titles—all words 4+ letters long </li></ul><ul><li>First word in complete sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including direct quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Names with Titles—President Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Names—God, Allah </li></ul>
  30. 30. Capitalization <ul><li>Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When personified—Spring danced joyfully. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When naming specific regions—The North won. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of languages—French, English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbered courses--Biology I, History 211 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronoun Shifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not shift between person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I, we, us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He, she, it, they, them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronoun Reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She was one of those people who is always helping others. </li></ul></ul></ul>YOU
  32. 32. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronoun Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree with antecedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number—singular, plural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender—masculine, feminine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case—subject, object, possessive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronouns ending in –one , –body , or –thing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always singular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has everyone brought his/her book? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Verb Forms <ul><li>Subject-Verb Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem areas—finding the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sentences beginning with It, There, Here </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questions—verb before subject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appositive phrases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem areas—deciding number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite pronouns—anybody, few, some </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective nouns—faculty, team, class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compound subjects—Tom and Shaneka </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Verb Forms <ul><li>Verb Tense—indicates time of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep tenses consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past perfect tense (had done, had left…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates which of two actions took place earlier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When we entered the room, the fire started. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When we entered the room, the fire had started. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-ing verbs must have a helping verb </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Sentence Fragments <ul><li>Missing one or more elements of an IC. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add the element(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the fragment to the IC before or after it. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Correcting Sentence Fragments <ul><li>She lived in China. Where her parents were missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>She lived in China, where her parents were missionaries. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Correcting Sentence Fragments <ul><li>Our country has many famous musicians. Such as Pearl Bailey and Bing Crosby. </li></ul><ul><li>Our country has many famous musicians such as Pearl Bailey and Bing Crosby. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Correcting Sentence Fragments <ul><li>Because she was too tall. </li></ul><ul><li>Because she was too tall, Anna had to duck to enter the room. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Correcting Sentence Fragments <ul><li>I saw him carrying a package. A big one with a red bow. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw him carrying a package, a big one with a red bow. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Run-On Sentences <ul><li>Two or more sentences joined together (usually with only a comma) </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a period to separate the two sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add ,conj </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a semi-colon—esp. if they’re closely related. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrite the sentence completely. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Usage Errors <ul><li>Usage— words often confused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept, except </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice, advise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect, effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between, among </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie, lay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Than, then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Really, real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good, well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot alot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All right alright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could have could of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From off of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless irregardless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through thru </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Homonym Errors <ul><li>Homonyms— similar sounds; different meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To, too, two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their, they’re, there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your, you’re </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose, who’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse, course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement, compliment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council, counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal, principle </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers <ul><li>Modifiers—adjectives & adverbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives + nouns/pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which one? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What kind? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adj, Adj + noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The small, blue hat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driving down the street, I ran over a bag of trash. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers <ul><li>Modifiers—adjectives, adverbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be placed as close to word being described as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Running down the hall , his jacket caught on a nail. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the age of four , Alice’s family moved to Texas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To improve our wrestling team , new weight equipment was purchased by the school. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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