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Grammar Review
 

Grammar Review

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Provides a succinct overview of major grammar rules

Provides a succinct overview of major grammar rules

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    Grammar Review Grammar Review Presentation Transcript

    • Proofreading & Editing Grammar Skill Checks Gayla S. Keesee Education Specialist Mack Gipson, Jr. Tutorial & Enrichment Center 2/2007
    • Have You Ever?
      • Been penalized for too many errors on your paper?
        • Sharpen your eye for correct English. Make proofreading a habit.
      • Learned something and then found you couldn’t remember it?
        • Practice and application of skills help you remember.
    • Have You Ever?
      • Made a grammatical error but couldn’t explain why?
        • Learn how to identify common errors and ways to correct them—and why.
      • Questioned whether you will ever use what you are learning?
        • You will be writing to communicate for the rest of your life.
    • Errors = Social Markers
      • Speaking and writing errors signal
        • Social background
        • Educational background/level
        • One's concern for correctness
    • Common Errors
      • Spelling
      • Punctuation
      • Capitalization
      • Pronouns
      • Verbs
      • Sentence Fragments
      • Run-on Sentences
    • Common Errors
      • Usage
      • Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers
      • Parallel Structure
      • Homonyms
    • Spelling
      • Serious Errors: common words
      • Be aware of your “enemies”
        • Words you often misspell
      • Create mnemonic tricks
        • Help remember
    • Usage Errors
      • Usage— words often confused
        • Accept, except
        • Advice, advise
        • Affect, effect
        • Between, among
        • Lie, lay
        • Than, then
        • Really, real
        • Good, well
      • More errors
        • A lot alot
        • All right alright
        • Could have could of
        • From off of
        • Regardless irregardless
        • Through thru
    • Homonym Errors
      • Homonyms— similar sounds; different meanings
        • To, too, two
        • Their, they’re, there
        • Your, you’re
        • Whose, who’s
        • Coarse, course
        • Complement, compliment
        • Council, counsel
        • Principal, principle
    • Capitalization
      • Titles—all words 4+ letters long
      • First word in complete sentence
        • Including direct quotes
      • Proper nouns
      • Names with Titles—President Bush
      • Sacred Names—God, Allah
    • Capitalization
      • Seasons
        • Only when personified—Spring danced joyfully.
      • Directions
        • When naming specific regions—The North won.
      • School Subjects
        • Names of languages—French, English
        • Numbered courses--Biology I, History 211
    • Review: Sentence Elements
      • Subject
        • Who is doing the action
      • Verb
        • Action—State of being
      • Complete Thought
      • Independent Clause—IC
        • Stands alone
      • Dependent Clause—DC
        • Must be attached
    • Phrases
      • Prepositional phrase—most common
        • Mnemonic trick: Preposition = anything a plane can do to a cloud
          • To, From
          • Over, Under
          • Through, Around
          • Inside, Outside
      • The Subject will NOT be in a prep. phrase
    • Review: Sentence Structure
      • Who Did (What)
      • Subj. Verb Obj.
      • Tom hit the ball.
      Where? When? How? Why? Where? When? How? Why? (Optional) Moveable (Optional) Moveable
    • Punctuation
      • Commas
      • Apostrophes
      • Quotation marks
      • Underlining
      • Semi-colons
    • Comma Usage
      • Compound Sentence
        • IC ,conj IC (IC=Independent Clause=sentence)
      • Coordinating Conjunctions—see mnemonic device
        • F F or
        • A A nd
        • N N or
        • B B ut
        • O O r
        • Y Y et
        • S S o
      Tom hit the ball , and he ran the bases.
    • Comma Usage
      • Set off nonessential elements—not necessary to the meaning of the sentence
        • Phrases/clauses
          • Mary, who has a great deal of talent , is a senior.
          • Shaneka, wearing a jacket , walked into the room
        • Parenthetical expressions
          • however, of course, for example
            • Each student, however , expected a new computer.
    • Comma Usage
      • Separate items in a list—3+
        • The store sold potatoes , carrots , and beans .
        • Kevin ran , leaped , and pranced for joy.
        • She learned of her husband’s loss , of his great labor , and of other efforts to make amends.
      • Maintain Parallel Structure
    • Comma Usage
      • Who Did What
      • Subj. Verb Obj.
      • Tom hit the ball.
      Where When How Why Where, When, How, Why, At May Park , Saturday , With my bat , Because he was mad , Separate introductory words, phrases, and clauses with a comma.
    • Parallel Structure
      • Items joined by a conjunction must be expressed in the same grammatical form.
        • Word, word, and word
          • reading, dancing, and cooking
        • Phrase, phrase, or phrase
          • over the hill, under the bridge, and into the cave
          • either move to Kansas or move to Texas
    • Parallel Structure
      • The new school is large, rambling, and
      • it looks ugly.
      • The new school is large , rambling , and ugly .
      • All items needed to be adjectives. The last item was an IC.
      Wrong!
    • Parallel Structure
      • I enjoy reading, writing, and to dance.
      • I enjoy reading, writing, and dancing.
      • First two items end in –ing . The last item was an infinitive. (to + verb)
      Wrong!
    • Parallel Structure
      • Charlie is not only talented as a writer but also as an artist.
      • Charlie is talented not only as a writer but also as an artist.
      • Move verb to indicate both items.
      • Items following not only and but also must be worded exactly the same.
      Wrong!
    • Parallel Structure
      • The juniors decided that they neither found the dance nor the breakfast enjoyable.
      • The juniors decided that they found neither the dance nor the breakfast enjoyable.
      • Place neither and nor directly in front of ideas that are parallel.
      Wrong!
    • Apostrophes
      • Possessives
        • ‘ s singular noun
        • dog’s Mary’s
        • s’ plural noun or ends in -s
        • dogs’ Charles’
      • Contractions
        • Did not = didn’t
        • Are not = aren’t
        • It is = it’s
      Do Not Add an ‘ to a possessive pronoun—your’s Do Not Add an ‘ to form the plural of a noun—paper’s
    • Quotation Marks
      • Direct Quotations
        • Mary said, “You will be hungry because it’s late.”
        • “ You will be hungry,” Mary said, “because it’s late.
        • Are you going to New York?” asked Bernie.
        • “ I remember that she said, “Turn here,’” said Al.
    • Titles
      • Underline the titles of long works
        • Books
        • Magazines
        • Newspapers
        • Movies
      • “ Quotes” around titles of short works
        • Short stories
        • Poems
        • Chapters
        • Magazine articles
        • Songs
        • Essays
    • Semicolons
      • Between IC not joined by a ,conj
      • Between IC joined by one of the following:
        • However, therefore, consequently, moreover
      • Between series of items if those items contain commas
        • The Student Council elected its officers: Sarah Long, president ; Megan Wright, vice-president ; and Peg Miller, secretary/treasurer.
    • Capitalization
      • Titles—all words 4+ letters long
      • First word in complete sentence
        • Including direct quotes
      • Specific nouns
      • Names with Titles—President Bush
      • Sacred Names—God, Allah
    • Capitalization
      • Seasons
        • When personified—Spring danced joyfully.
      • Directions
        • When naming specific regions—The North won.
      • School Subjects
        • Names of languages—French, English
        • Numbered courses--Biology I, History 211
    • Pronouns
      • Pronoun Shifts
        • Do not shift between person
          • I, we, us
          • He, she, it, they, them
      • Pronoun Reference
        • Make sure clear
          • She was one of those people who is always helping others.
      YOU
    • Pronouns
      • Pronoun Agreement
        • Agree with antecedent
          • Number—singular, plural
          • Gender—masculine, feminine
          • Case—subject, object, possessive
      • Pronouns ending in –one , –body , or –thing
        • Always singular
          • Has everyone brought his/her book?
    • Verb Forms
      • Subject-Verb Agreement
        • Problem areas—finding the subject
          • Prepositional phrases
          • Sentences beginning with It, There, Here
          • Questions—verb before subject
          • Appositive phrases
        • Problem areas—deciding number
          • Indefinite pronouns—anybody, few, some
          • Collective nouns—faculty, team, class
          • Compound subjects—Tom and Shaneka
    • Verb Forms
      • Verb Tense—indicates time of action
        • Keep tenses consistent
        • Past perfect tense (had done, had left…)
          • Indicates which of two actions took place earlier
          • When we entered the room, the fire started.
          • When we entered the room, the fire had started.
        • -ing verbs must have a helping verb
    • Sentence Fragments
      • Missing one or more elements of an IC.
        • Phrase
        • Dependent Clause
      • Corrections:
        • Add the element(s)
        • Attach the fragment to the IC before or after it.
    • Correcting Sentence Fragments
      • She lived in China. Where her parents were missionaries.
      • She lived in China, where her parents were missionaries.
    • Correcting Sentence Fragments
      • Our country has many famous musicians. Such as Pearl Bailey and Bing Crosby.
      • Our country has many famous musicians such as Pearl Bailey and Bing Crosby.
    • Correcting Sentence Fragments
      • Because she was too tall.
      • Because she was too tall, Anna had to duck to enter the room.
    • Correcting Sentence Fragments
      • I saw him carrying a package. A big one with a red bow.
      • I saw him carrying a package, a big one with a red bow.
    • Run-On Sentences
      • Two or more sentences joined together (usually with only a comma)
      • Corrections:
        • Use a period to separate the two sentences.
        • Add ,conj
        • Use a semi-colon—esp. if they’re closely related.
        • Rewrite the sentence completely.
    • Usage Errors
      • Usage— words often confused
        • Accept, except
        • Advice, advise
        • Affect, effect
        • Between, among
        • Lie, lay
        • Than, then
        • Really, real
        • Good, well
      • More errors
        • A lot alot
        • All right alright
        • Could have could of
        • From off of
        • Regardless irregardless
        • Through thru
    • Homonym Errors
      • Homonyms— similar sounds; different meanings
        • To, too, two
        • Their, they’re, there
        • Your, you’re
        • Whose, who’s
        • Coarse, course
        • Complement, compliment
        • Council, counsel
        • Principal, principle
    • Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers
      • Modifiers—adjectives & adverbs
        • Adjectives + nouns/pronouns
          • Which one?
          • How many?
          • What kind?
        • Adj, Adj + noun
          • The small, blue hat
          • Driving down the street, I ran over a bag of trash.
    • Dangling/Misplaced Modifiers
      • Modifiers—adjectives, adverbs
        • Must be placed as close to word being described as possible
          • Running down the hall , his jacket caught on a nail.
          • At the age of four , Alice’s family moved to Texas.
          • To improve our wrestling team , new weight equipment was purchased by the school.