Lecture 4 anxiety disorders

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Lecture 4 anxiety disorders

  1. 1. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY ANXIETY DISORDERS
  2. 2. ANXIETY DISORDERS  Anxiety is a future oriented state characterized by negative affect in which a person focuses on the possibility of uncontrollable danger or misfortune: in contrast, fear is a present oriented state characterized by strong escapist tendencies and a surge in the sympathetic branch of the autonomic system in response to current danger.
  3. 3. ANXIETY DISORDERS  A panic attack represents the alarm response of real fear, but there is no actual danger.  Panic attacks may be (1) UNEXPECTED (without warning), (2) SITUATIONALLY BOUND (always occurring in a specific situation), or (3) SITUATIONALLY PREDISPOSED (likely but unpredictable in a specific situation).
  4. 4. ANXIETY DISORDERS  Panic and anxiety combine to create different anxiety disorders.
  5. 5. DSM-IV-TR DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PANIC ATTACK  DSM TABLE 5.1  The predominant complaint is a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which at least four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes:  Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate  Sweating
  6. 6. PANIC ATTACK  Trembling or shaking  Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering  Feeling of choking  Chest pain or discomfort  Nausea or abdominal distress  Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint  Derealization (feelings of unreality) or deperzonalization (being detached from oneself)
  7. 7. PANIC ATTACK  Fear of dying  Paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations)  Chills or hot flushes
  8. 8. GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDERS (GAD)  Anxiety focuses on minor everyday events, not one major worry or concern.  Both genetic and psychological vulnerabilities seem to contribute to the development f GAD.
  9. 9. GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER  Although drug and psychological treatments may be effective in the short term, drug treatments are no more effective in the long term than placebo treatments. Successful treatment may help individuals with GAD focus on what is really threatening to them in their lives.
  10. 10. DSM-IV-TR TABLE 5.2 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER  A. Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities (such as work, or school performance).  B. The person finds it difficult to control the worry.
  11. 11. DSM-IV-TR TABLE 5.2 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER  C. The anxiety and worry are associated with at least three (or more) of the following six symptoms (with at least some symptoms present for more days than not for the past 6 months) (Note: Only one item is required in children):  1. Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge.  2. Being easily fatigued
  12. 12. DSM TABLE 5.2 GAD  3. Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank  4. Irritability  5. Muscle tension  6. Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless, unsatisfying sleep)
  13. 13. TABLE 5.2 GAD  D. The focus of anxiety and worry is not confined to features of an Axis I disorder; that is, the anxiety or worry is not about having a panic attack (as in panic disorder), being embarrassed in public (as in social phobia), being contaminated (as in obsessive-compulsive disorder), being away from home or close relatives (as in separation anxiety disorder), gaining weight (as in anorexic nervosa), or having a serious illness (as in hypochondriasis) , and is not part of post traumatic disorder.
  14. 14. TABLE 5.2 GAD  E. The anxiety, worry, or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  15. 15. TABLE 5.2 GAD  F. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., drugs of abuse (or) medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism), and does not occur exclusively during a mood disorder, psychotic disorder, or a pervasive developmental disorder.
  16. 16. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  In panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (a fear and avoidance of situations considered to be “unsafe”), anxiety is focused on the next panic attack.  We all have some genetic vulnerability to stress, and many of us have had a neurobiological overreaction to some stressful event – that is, a panic attack. Individuals who develop panic disorder then develop anxiety over the possibility of having another panic attack.
  17. 17. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  Both drug and psychological treatments have proved successful in the treatment of panic disorder. One psychological method, panic control treatment, concentrates on exposing patients to clusters of sensations that remind them of their panic attacks.
  18. 18. DSM TABLE 5.3 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PANIC DISORDER WITH AGORAPHOBIA  A. Both 1 and 2:  1. Recurrent unexpected panic attacks are present.  2. At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following: (a) persistent concern about having additional attacks, (b) worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack, “going crazy’), or ( c) a significant change in behavior related to the attacks.
  19. 19. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  B. The presence of agoraphobia in which the predominant complaint is anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may not be available in the event of unexpected or situationally predisposed attack or paniclike symptoms. Agoraphobic fears typically involved characteristic clusters of situations that include being outside the home alone; being in a crowd or standing in a line; being on a bridge; and travelling in a bus, train or automobile.
  20. 20. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  C. The panic attacks are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., drug abuse, medication) or a general medical condition (e.g. hyperthyroidism).  D. The panic attacks are not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as social phobia (e.g., occurring on exposure to a specific social situations), specific phobia (e.g., exposure to a specific social situations), obsessive-compulsive disorder (e.g., on exposure to dirt, in someone with an obsession about contamination), post traumatic disorder (e.g., in response to stimuli associated with a severe stressor, or separation anxiety disorder (e.g., in response to being away from home or close relatives).
  21. 21. SPECIFIC PHOBIA  In phobic disorders, the individual avoids situations that produce severe anxiety, panic, or both. In specific phobia, the fear is focused on a particular object or situation.  Phobias can be acquired by experiencing some traumatic event; they can also be learned vicariously or even be taught.  Treatment of phobias is rather straightforward, with a focus on constructed and consistent exposure-based exercises.
  22. 22. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SPECIFIC PHOBIA  A. Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by the presence or anticipation or a specific object or situation (e.g., flying, heights, animals, receiving an injection, seeing blood).  B. Exposure to the phobic stimulus almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response, which may take the form of a situationally predisposed panic attack. Note: In children, the anxiety may be expressed by crying, tantrums, freezing or clinging.
  23. 23. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  C. The person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Note: In children, this feature may be absent.  D. The phobic situation(s) is avoided or else is endured with intense anxiety or distress.
  24. 24. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  E. The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared situations interferes significantly with the person’s normal routine, occupational (or academic) functioning, or social activities or relationships, or there is marked distress about having the phobia.  F. In individual’s under age 18, the duration is at least 6 months.
  25. 25. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  G. The anxiety, panic attacks, or phobic avoidance associated with the specific object or situation are not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (e.g., fear of dirt, in someone with an obsession about contamination), post traumatic stress disorder (e.g., avoidance of stimuli associated with a severe stressor), separation anxiety disorder (e.g., avoidance of school), social phobia (e.g., avoidance of social situations because of fear of embarrassment), panic disorder with agoraphobia, or agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.
  26. 26. PANIC DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT AGORAPHOBIA  Specific Type:  1. Animal type  2. Natural Environment type (e.g., heights, storms, and water)  3. Blood-injection-injury type  4. Situational type (e.g., planets, elevators, or enclosed places)  Other type (e.g., phobic avoidance of situations that may lead to choking, vomiting, or contracting an illness; or in children, avoidance of loud sounds or costumed characters.
  27. 27. SOCIAL PHOBIA  Social phobia is a fear of being around others, particularly in situations that call for some kind of “performance” in front of other people.  Although, the causes of social phobia are similar to those of specific phobias, treatment has a different focus that includes rehearsing or role-playing socially phobic situations. In addition, drug treatments have been effective.
  28. 28. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  A. A marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. The individual fears that he or she will actin a way (or show anxiety symptoms) that will be humiliating or embarrassing. Note: In children, there must be evidence of the capacity for age-appropriate social relationships with familiar people and the anxiety must occur in peer settings, not just in interactions with adults.
  29. 29. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  Exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may take the form of a situationally bound or situationally predisposed panic attack. Note: In children, the anxiety maybe expressed by crying, freezing, or shrinking from social situations with unfamiliar people.
  30. 30. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  C. The person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Note: In children, the feature maybe absent.  D. The feared social or performance situations are avoided or are endured with intense anxiety or distress.
  31. 31. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  E. The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared social or performance situation(s) interferes significantly with the person’s normal routine, occupational (academic) functioning, or social activities or relationships, or there is marked distress about having the phobia.
  32. 32. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  F. In individual under age 18, duration is at least 6 months.  G. The fear of avoidance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., drug of abuse, medication), or a general medication, and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, separation anxiety disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, a pervasive developmental disorder, or schizoid personality disorder).
  33. 33. DSM TABLE 5.4 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  G. If a general medical condition or another mental disorder is present, the fear in criterion A is unrelated to it: e.g. the fear is not of stuttering, trembling in Parkinson’s disease or exhibiting abnormal eating behavior in anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.  Specify if: Generalized: If the fears include most social situations (also consider the additional diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder)
  34. 34. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)  Posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on avoiding thoughts or images of a past traumatic experiences.  The underlying cause of PTSD is obvious – a traumatic experience. But mere exposure is not enough. The intensity of experience seems to be a factor in whether an individual develops PTSD; biological vulnerabilities, as well as social and cultural factors, appear to play a role as well.  Treatment involves reexposing the victim to the trauma to overcome the debilitating effects of PTSD.
  35. 35. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  A. The person has been exposed to a traumatic event in which both of the following are present:  1. The person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others.  2. The person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Note: In children, it maybe expressed instead by disorganized or agitated behavior.
  36. 36. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  B. The traumatic event is persistently reexpereinced in one (or more) of the following ways:  1. Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, including images, thoughts, or perceptions. Note: in young children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed.  2. Recurrent distressing dreams of the event. Note: in children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.
  37. 37. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  3. Acting or feelings as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a sense of reliving the experiences, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociative flashbacks episodes, including those that occur on awakening or when intoxicated). Note: In young children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur.
  38. 38. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  4. Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.  5. Physiologic reactivity on exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
  39. 39. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  C. Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness (not present before the trauma), as indicated by three (or more) of the following:  1. Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings or conversations associated with the trauma.  2. Efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma.
  40. 40. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  3. Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma.  4. Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities.  5. Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others.  6. Restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)  7. Sense of foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span).
  41. 41. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  D. Persistent symptoms of increased arousal (not present before the trauma), as indicated by two (or more)n of the following:  1. Difficulty falling or staying asleep.  2. Irritability or outbursts of anger  3. Difficulty concentrating  4. Hypervigilance  5. Exaggerated startle response
  42. 42. DSM TABLE 5.5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER  E. Duration of the disturbance (symptoms in B,C, and D) is more than one month.  F. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Specify if:  1. Acute: If duration of symptoms is less than 3 months  2. Chronic: If duration of symptoms is 3 months or more Specify if: With delayed onset: If onset of symptoms at least 6 months after the stressor.
  43. 43. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) focuses on avoiding frightening ore repulsive intrusive thoughts (obsessions) or neutralizing these thoughts through the use of ritualistic behavior (compulsions).
  44. 44. DSM TABLE 5.6 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  A. Either obsessions or compulsions.  Obsessions are defined by 1, 2, 3, and 4.  1. Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety or distress.  2. The thoughts, impulses, or images are not simply excessive worries about real life problems.
  45. 45. DSM TABLE 5.6 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  3. The person attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, impulses, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action.  4.The person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of his or her own mind (not imposed from without as in thought insertion)
  46. 46. DSM TABLE 5.6 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  Compulsion as defined by 1 and 2:  1. Repetitive behaviors (e.g, handwashing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (e.g. praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession , or according to rules that must be applied rigidly.  2. The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive.
  47. 47. DSM TABLE 5.6 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  B. At some point during the course of the disorder, the person has recognized that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. Note: This does not apply to children.  C. The obsessions or compulsions caused marked distress, are time consuming (take more than 1 hour a day), or significantly interfere with the person’s normal routine, occupational (or academic) functioning, or usual social activities or relationships.
  48. 48. DSM TABLE 5.6 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  D. If another Axis 1 disorder is present, the contents of the obsessions or compulsions is not restricted to it (e.g., preoccupation with food in the presence of an eating disorder; hair pulling in the presence of body dysmorphic disroder; preoccupation with drugs in the presence of a substance use disorder; preoccupation with having a serious illness in the presenceof hypochondriasis, preoccupation with sexual urges or fantasies in the presence of major depressive disorder).  Specify if:  With poor insight: If, for most of the time during the current episode, the person does not recognize that the obsessions and compulsions are excessive or unreasonable.
  49. 49. THANK YOU!!!

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