Absolutism Global Trade Centralized government, bureaucracy, divine right Truly global – Americas EX: Hongwu, Tokugawa, Sultans, Mughal Columbian Exchange (Akbar), King Louis XIV, Osei Tutu (Asantehene) Indian, Atlantic, Pacific Oceans Rise of Europe Atlantic Slave Trade Portugal and Spain led the way Mercantilism Northern Europe looks outward Search for new trade routes Gold, God, GloryCultural and Intellectual Developments The Big Picture Colonization of Latin America Protestant Reformation/Counter Renaissance 1450-1750 Reformation Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Coercive Labor Humanism Slavery Exploration Neo-Confucianism Serfdom Sailing technology Consumerism Mita System Printing pressGunpowder developments Sugar, Silver, Slaves Mining
Rise in Power • Due to Black Plague, Yuan Dynasty weakened • Zhu Yuanzhang led military campaign to unify China (1368) • Proclaimed Ming Dynasty • Mongols retreated to Steppes • Zhu called himself the Hongwu Emperor Government• Development of the Forbidden City• Developed an imperial bureaucracy – officials appointed based on civil service exams• Local leaders worked on irrigation, reforestation, collected taxes• Purged many rivals – ruled through terror• Emperor had absolute power• Hongwu abolished chief minister position
• Efficient tax collection. Hongwu ordered surveys and censuses to collect data Economy• Ming began economic recovery – major products were silk, cotton, fine porcelain• Active traders in the Indian Ocean – ports of Hangzhou, Guangzhou• Yongle Emperor sent Zheng He to explore and collect tribute• Traded for silver with Europe and Japan• Stressed internal trade Social Aspects • Neo-Confucianism led to more rigid social structure. No dissension allowed • Social structure: Emperor, scholar-gentry, farmers, artisans, merchants • Established Confucian school to select officials • Population explosion, cities grew • Jesuit missionaries (Mateo Ricci) introduce European technology and beliefs. • Wider production of printed materials. Novels written in Chinese.
Chinese TimelineDo Now:Create a timeline on your handout ofmajor events in Chinese history 1. Kublai Khan, a Mongol, establishes the Yuan dynasty (1271 AD) 2. Shang dynasty established – oracle bones used (1766 BC) 3. Han Dynasty adopts Confucianism (206 BC) 4. China Experiences a Golden Age – Song Dynasty (907 AD) 5. China develops a feudal system during the Zhou dynasty (1122 BC) 6. The Qin dynasty adopts Legalism (221 BC) 7. The Ming dynasty restores Chinese rule in China (1368 AD) 8. Han Dynasty collapses (220 AD) 9. Tang Dynasty unites China (618 AD)
Major Events in Chinese History Timeline 221 BC 1368 Qin Ming Dynasty 1766 BC Dynasty 907 Restores Chinese 220 AD Song Dynasty Rule Shang adopts Han Dynasty Legalism Golden Age Dynastyestablished collapses 0 618 AD 1122 BC 206 BC Tang Dynasty 1271 Feudalism Han unites China Mongols under Zhou Dynasty Establish Adopts Yuan Confucianism Dynasty
Recovery in China Political Development Ming ChinaMongols collapsed in 1368. Hongwu established the Ming Dynasty. Erase memory of Mongol occupation. Confucian education and civil service reinstated. Intellectual Development Private merchants traded Neo-Confucianism promotedand manufactured porcelain, silk, and cotton. Yongle Encyclopedia promoted Chinese traditions. Ming “Brilliant” Dynasty lasted until 1644. Jesuit missionaries (Mateo Ricci) introduce European technology and beliefs. Wider production of printed materials. Novels written in Chinese.
Recovery in China Exploration Ming China “Comeback Back” Tours (7 between 1405 -1433).Massive naval and trade fleet headed by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim eunuch. Established tributary relations with regions throughout the eastern hemisphere. Voyages ended in 1433 as Confucian bureaucratsclaimed foreign interests had no value to China and military resources should be directed towards protecting northern frontier from attack.
Chinese Maritime TraditionG uess the Fib! 1. This ship cruised Chinese canals in 618 CE linking the southern “rice bowl” and the northern plains. You Guessed the FIB!2. The “Dragon Fleet” was used as an intimidating weapon and actually shot flames from its mouth. 3. Emperor Yang’s ship was pulled by 80,000 men, had 4 decks, a throne room, and 120 exquisitely decorated rooms for concubines.
Chinese maritime activities appear to have gained their footing near the end of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.).Artifacts, particularly ceramics, and archaeological evidence, primarily shipwrecks, indicate the presence of strongmaritime ties throughout Southeast Asia. There was extensive commerce from the eastern coast of China, to Korea, Japan and Australia.
B it was the subsequent M ut ongol emperors (the Yuan dynasty of c. 1271-1368) who commissioned the first imperial treasure fleets and founded trading posts in Sumatra, Ceylon, and southern India. W hen M arco P made his famous journey to the M olo ongol court, he described four-masted junks with 60 individualcabins for merchants, watertight bulkheads, and crews of up to 300.
Shipbuilding in the southern Fujian province was well established by the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644 A.D.). tTh e Por C ity of gzhouGuanThe Emperor, Wan Shengzi, was noted for his open-door trade policies with foreign nations. As a result, Chinese port cities grew in size and importance.
But the real peak in Chinese maritime prowess is symbolized in the extraordinary tale of one man: Admiral Zheng He.During his 28 year naval career, Admiral Zheng visited 37 countries, traveled around the tip of Africa into the Atlantic Ocean and commanded a single fleet whose numbers surpassed the combined fleets of all Europe.
Zheng He My Name is Zheng He and this is my story! I was born in 1371 to poor Muslim parents in Southwest China. I was captured as ayoung boy by the Chinese Army and castrated to become a Eunuch. Nonetheless, Idedicated myself to my studies, learning several languages and philosophy.
In 1382, at the age of 11, I was made a servant of a prince who would later become Yongle, Emperor of the Ming Dynasty! Zheng, as my most trusted servant, I willGuess make you Admiral of the Western the seas” if you “Guess the Fib!” Fib! 1. I rebuilt the Grand Canal and Great Wall. 2. I made peace with the Mongols You Guessed the FIB! developing a lucrative trade network throughout Asia. 3. I Built the Forbidden city at Beijing, which took 1 million laborers 15 yrs to complete. 4. I wrote a bestselling manuscript called the Yongle Encyclopedia.
T T he reasure Fleet Now, as Admiral of our fleet, you must sail to “the countries beyond the horizon,” all the way to the end of the earth. Your mission is to display the might of Chinese power and collect tribute from the "barbarians beyond the seas."I accepted Emperor Yongle’s missionand in 1405 began my first expedition!
No nation on earth had ever sent such a fleet onto the ocean. It included 62 large ships, some 600 feet long, larger than any other on the seas. Hundreds of smaller vessels accompanied them.A Chinese historian described them; "T ships which sail he the Southern Sea are like houses. W hen their sails are spread they are like great clouds in the sky."
T flagship of the fleet was a nine-masted vessel measuring he440 feet. In comparison, Columbus’ St. Maria was eighty-five feet.
M voyages became an example of the y power and greatness of the Chinese civilization. Click He re for A C loser look!W established many maritime inventions, including central e rudders, watertight compartments, various new types ofsails, paddle wheels and even armor plated boats. All these developments made long distance navigation possible.
T T he reasure Fleet Voyages M F naval expedition lasted y irst two years (1405-1407) and comprised of 317 ships with 27,870 men. M first port of y call was in Champa (Vietnam). I saw many Chinese who had emigrated from the coastal provinces since the time of the T ang Dynasty and had alreadyThese are my ships, as depicted in a Chinese spread Confucian ideals.woodblock print in the Champa’s ruler willingly offered early 17th century. tribute for the Chinese emperor.
FUN FAC T!W hile voyaging to India, the ships encountered a ferocioushurricane. Zheng H prayed to the T e aoist Goddess knownas the Celestial Spouse. In response, a "divine light" shone at the tips of the mast, and the storm subsided. T hisheavenly sign -- perhaps the static electrical phenomenon known as St. E lmos fire -- led Zheng H and his crew to e believe that his missions were under special divine protection.
B the time I returned to China, I sailed yto Java, Sri Lanka and Calicut, I battledand captured pirates, and I established massive warehouses in the Straits of Malacca. At each civilization I visited, I was to present gifts from the emperor and to exact tribute for the glory of the M ing. This is a painting depicting my return to China
One of my greatest Voyages was my fourth in 1413-1415.W 63 ships I reached H ith ormuz in the Persian Gulf. Many artisans strung together exquisite pearls and merchants dealt in precious stones and metals.
While I lingered in the city toamass treasure for the emperor, I sent Yang M to B in engal. H e Giraffe returned to China with a _______ that the B engali King received from the ruler of MGiraffe W alindi. hen the _______ arrived at the court in Nanjing, the scholars identified it as the fabled unicorn, an animal that symbolized an age of exceptional peace and prosperity. As the fleet laidtreasures from Arabia and India at the feet of the emperor, thisomen must surely have seemed fitting.
NFU T! W hen foreign ambassadors cameF AC to the Chinese court, they "kowtowed" as they approached the emperor. (T required he process of "kowtow" was to kneel three times and bow ones head to the floor three times at each kneeling.) In return for tribute from other countries, the emperor sent gifts and special seals that confirmed their rulers authority. These foreign kings were officially made part of the M Dynasty. ing
From 1405-1433, I made seven voyages reaching Southeast Asia, Sumatra, J ava,Ceylon, India, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, and East Africa.
Unfortunately, Emperor Yongle died in 1424, ending all naval expeditions until 1431. T hen, during my seventh and final voyage in 1431-33, I died returning from Sri Lanka. A stamp depicting the manyvoyages of my Treasure fleet.
After Zheng He died, the Treasure Fleets were dismantled and banned from being used. Government sponsored voyages ceased and all official records of Zheng He’s travels were destroyed. Why do you think the Chinese decided to isolatethemselves and discontinue the Treasure Fleet voyages?
Chinese influence on the world ceased, thus opening the door for the rise of European superpowers . B the year y1500, Columbus had discovered the New W orld and Vasco da Gama, the P ortuguese sailor, had entered the Indian Ocean and laid the groundwork for an era of Asian colonization by E uropean naval powers
N ! FU T F ACToday, Zheng he is honored throughout the world including this statue in Singapore and Chinese gold coin.
New Findings? Did the M E ing mpire actually reach the West? Wow! If this Theory is true, it will rewrite history! Zheng H story has recently drawn much popular e’sattention because of a new book published in 2002 by Gavin M enzies, a B ritish former submariner. 1421: T Year China Discovered America. T he he book claims, among other things, that Zheng H e“discovered” America and circumnavigated the earth much earlier than the E uropeans.
Neoconfucianism and Chinese ExpansionI. Politics – Arguments for ending voyages EunuchA. Scholar-Gentry saw exploration as a _____________ projectB. Exploration was just one man’s interest (Emperor Yongle) not the push of an entire civilization. CostlyC. Trips were extremely ____________________. Self-SufficientD. Some Chinese believed China was already _______________ and there was no need for exploration.E. Suspicious of outside trade – could cause instability and undermine authority – creates problems, not opportunity.F. Scholar-Gentry thought money and focus should be on Mongol protecting the northern border from _________ invasions.
“If the People are underfed, it is because the merchants have prospered and agriculture has been neglected.”II. Culture – Arguments for ending voyages landA. Scholar-Gentry believed ________ was primary form of wealthB. Farming was more noble than trading. Family Shrine 1. Merchants could not keep up a ________________ (against neoconfucian ideals). 2. Merchants could not perform religious rituals for ancestors overseas 3. Merchants live off other people’s hard work - parasites
Why did the Confucian Scholar-Gentry believe it was embarassing for Chinese diplomats to travel to foreign lands?C. Scholars thought that inferiors should seek superiors MissionaryD. Neoconfucianism did not have _______________ impulse of Christianity or Islam.E. Role of Women – did not want women in market place 1. Strict role for women as homemakers Footbinding 2. Practiced __________________ on elite women
Decline of Power• Poor leaders took over• Poor conditions of the people – bad crops, high taxes• Taxes inspired rebellions• Silver trade led to inflation – halt of silver trade led to decline in 1630s• Manchus from the north claim power and set up Qing Dynasty
T T he reasure Fleet ClickHer e for pFi lm Cli What would you need if you were preparing a journey into unknown territory? H would you plan on meeting those crucial needs? ow
Recovery and Renaissance in Asia and Europe, 1450 Political Developments Europe By 1400, regional states weredeveloping into powerful monarchies. Taxed citizens directly and maintained standing armies.Spanish Reconquista put Spain backin the hands of Iberian Catholics and not the Moors.Italian city states grew wealthy from trade. Florence, Milan, Venice. Competition between nations led to Reconquista de Granadainnovative weapons, ships, and other technology that would allow Europe to exert its influence world wide. The stage was being set for a GLOBAL SHIFT IN POWER STILL FELT TODAY.
Recovery and Renaissance in Asia and Europe, 1450 Intellectual Development Europe The Renaissance / “Rebirth” Sparked by renewed contactwith classical Greek and Roman heritage via the Islamic world and trade. Increased wealth led to moreresources begin devoted to the arts. Humanism: Stressed the Davinciimportance of human existence. Reflected in art and literature.Italy’s favorable trading location gave rise to the Renaissance. Medici family of Florence.Painting, science, and sculpture flourished. Michelangelo
Recovery and Renaissance in Asia and Europe, 1450 Europe European Exploration Questioning spirit of Renaissance inspired Europeans to look outward and explore. Major Motivations: GLORY, GOLD, GOD. Portuguese: Find a trade route bypassing the Middle East and middlemen. Prince Henry the Navigator promoted expeditions along African coast. Portugal was first European nation to sail around tip of Africa and into Indian Ocean for trade. Spanish: Ferdinand and Isabella and Columbus’ journey. Western Route to Asia, 1492.Columbus at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella