The Great War (World War I) The War to End All Wars <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the impact of propaganda during WWI </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how Industrialization, new weapons and techniques employed the awesome technology of modern warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how feelings and portrayals of war changed during World War I? </li></ul>
RISE OF INTERNATIONALISM <ul><li>Imperialists thought that _____________________ was bringing new enlightenment to inferior peoples of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>1864 – Geneva Conference established __________ to offer humanitarian aid during wartime. </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic and Postal Unions set international procedures for exchanges of letters and messages. </li></ul><ul><li>International exhibits in science, industry, sports developed. </li></ul><ul><li>(World’s fair, Olympics) </li></ul><ul><li>International socialist movement began to spread </li></ul><ul><li>1899 – ______________ at The Hague was established </li></ul>World Court Western Leadership Red Cross
Weaknesses of Internationalism <ul><li>Internationalism was heavily based on Western dominance and control of empires </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the initial arrangements were made by Europeans for Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>________________ began to rise in Europe and elsewhere </li></ul>The process of weaning internationalism from Western control would be a long and painful one and would take place particularly after 1945. Nationalism
Europe in 1914 The Balkans "Powder Keg"
Causes of World War I <ul><li>M – Militarism </li></ul><ul><li>A – Alliances </li></ul><ul><li>N – Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>I – Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>A – Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand </li></ul>THE SPARK!
Steps To World War I <ul><li>The Archduke Ferdinand is shot and killed by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Russia supported Serbia and went to war against Austria Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Germany declared war on Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>5. France honored its treaty with Russia and entered the war by sending help. </li></ul><ul><li>6. German troops marched into neutral Belgium in an effort to catch France by surprise. </li></ul>
The Schlieffen Plan Why did the Schlieffen Plan not work as planned? Paris France Germany Belgium
Information or material spread to advance a cause, or damage an opponent’s cause. What are some of the methods that were used to spread propaganda? What is one of the ways that governments would try to gain support from it’s citizens for the war effort? PROPAGANDA
Radios Newspapers Magazines Movies Posters Newsreels
Recruitment Posters <ul><li>What group of people is the poster targeting? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the message that is being conveyed? </li></ul><ul><li>What emotions is this poster trying to evoke? </li></ul>Extra: What is the name of the man wearing the Union Jack shirt? John Bull
Recruitment Poster <ul><li>What group of people is the poster targeting? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the message that is being conveyed? </li></ul><ul><li>What emotions is this poster trying to evoke? </li></ul>
What ideas about war are reflected in these images? British, French and Australian Posters.
<ul><li>Who group of people is the poster targeting? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the message that is being conveyed? </li></ul><ul><li>What emotions is this poster trying to evoke? </li></ul>WOMEN DURING THE WAR
<ul><li>What group of people is the poster targeting? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the message that is being conveyed? </li></ul><ul><li>What emotions is this poster trying to evoke? </li></ul>According to the posters, what is the role of women during this war? Extra: What happened to the length of skirts that women wore during the war? Why?
Patterns of War Western front – A series of trenches ran from the Belgian coast to the Swiss mountains. Eastern front – Mainly in western portions of Russia *After 1915, Italy joined on the side of the Allies as they were wooed by promises of territory from Austria and the Middle East. A third Italian front developed between the Italians and the Austrians.
Trench Warfare Trench warfare allowed little advance from either side creating a stalemate. By 1916 the Germans lost 850,000 men, the French 700,000 and the British 410,000 with neither side advancing.
C. R. W. Nevinson, Paths of Glory (1917) Otto Dix Shock Troop Advancing under Gas Attack (1923) Do you think Nevinson and Dix are artists who created paintings of patriotism and innocence or paintings of firsthand experiences? Explain. How do these images differ from the propaganda posters?
What is being asked of the citizens that makes this war a total war ? WWI was one of the world’s first examples of a ____________. A ____________ is a conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort. A New Type of Warfare Total War Total War
<ul><li>How does this cigarette ad reflect life in the trenches? Do you think that it is accurate? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the company portray this image? </li></ul>Images of Trench Life
What is similar in all of these wars? Muskets swords/bayonets cannons horses, colorful uniforms hand-to-hand combat open field fighting death
What new weapon do you think will change warfare forever? The Automatic Machine Gun
Mounted guns fired a rapid, continuous stream of bullets.
Machine guns made it possible for a few gunners to mow down waves of soldiers. This helped create a stalemate by making it difficult to advance across no man’s land. Automatic machine gun
What could you do to protect yourself against the machine gun? A) Send fastest men to run in a zig-zag formation, elude machine gun fire and kill the enemy. B) Use airplanes to soar above the enemy, shooting them from the sky. C) Dig a trench in the ground and wait for enough men to overcome the enemy. D) Use tanks to attack the enemy.
TANKS Would the tank be an effective weapon during World War I?
Armored vehicle that travels on a track allowing it to cross many kinds of terrain.
Protected advancing troops as they broke through enemy defenses. Early tanks were not used often because they were slow and clumsy. Early British Tank Early French Tank NOT EFFECTIVE!
AIRPLANES Invented in 1903, would the airplane be an effective weapon during World War I?
One or two seat propeller plane equipped with machine gun and bombs.
At first, mainly used for observation. Later, flying “Aces” engaged in individual combat, though such “dogfights” had little effect on war . NOT EFFECTIVE!
POISON GAS How effective would poison gas be during World War I?
NEW YORK TIMES, 1915 “ Boulogne, April 25. -- The gaseous vapor which the Germans used against the French divisions near Ypres last Thursday, contrary to the rules of The Hague Convention, introduces a new element into warfare.” “ The attack of last Thursday evening was preceded by the rising of a cloud of vapor, greenish gray and iridescent. That vapor settled to the ground like a swamp mist and drifted toward the French trenches on a brisk wind.” “ Its effect on the French was a violent nausea and faintness, followed by an utter collapse. It is believed that the Germans, who charged in behind the vapor, met no resistance at all, the French at their front being virtually paralyzed.”
Lobbed by missile into enemy trenches, killing or disabling troops.
Various gases that caused choking, blinding, or severe skin blisters; Gas masks protect soldiers from poison gas. “ Whazzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz UP!” How can you defend against Poison Gas?
Development of gas masks lessened the importance of poison gas.
Gassed , John Singer Sargent <ul><li>Was Poison gas an effective weapon? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this painting portray life in the trenches? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it different from the cigarette ad? </li></ul>Effective!
WEAPONS FROM THE TRENCH Periscope guns from the trenches Mortar guns
1. What WWI weapons and tactics do you see in the film clip? (Name at least FIVE!) 2. Pretend you are one of the three brothers. Write an EIGHT word sentence describing your experience in the war. _______ ___ ______ ____ _______ ____ _______ ______ Trapped in barbed wire, Samuel was gunned down. As you watch the clip from Legends of the Fall, look to answer the following questions: Movie Clip
Fall of Spanish Armada, 1588 Changes in Naval Warfare
What aspects of the navy have changed over time? Wooden ships sails, masts cannons Iron ships steam powered cannons, guns
What new invention would change naval battles forever? The U-Boat or Submarine
Underwater ship that can launch torpedoes, or guided underwater bombs. German U-Boat Surfacing
Used by Germany to destroy allied shipping. U-boat attacks helped bring the United States into the war.
WHICH NEW WEAPON OR STRATEGY IN WWI DO YOU THINK WAS MOST EFFECTIVE? RANK THE FOLLOWING WEAPONS AND GIVE REASONS WHY. <ul><li>AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUNS </li></ul><ul><li>TANKS </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMARINES </li></ul><ul><li>AIRPLANES </li></ul><ul><li>POISON GAS </li></ul><ul><li>GAS MASKS </li></ul><ul><li>BALLOONS AND ZEPPELINS </li></ul><ul><li>BARBED WIRE FENCES </li></ul><ul><li>FLAME THROWERS </li></ul><ul><li>LONG RANGE GUNS </li></ul><ul><li>MORTARS </li></ul><ul><li>PERISCOPE GUNS </li></ul>
The War Outside Europe British dominions (Canada, Australia, New Zealand) –Sent forces. African Colonies – Skirmishes fought over German colonies in Africa, involving Africans as colonial troops. France also used Africans in its armies on the European front. Japan – Entered the war on the side of Britain and France. Japan moved into German holdings in China’s Shantung province. China – Declared war on Germany in 1917, hoping not to be ignored by the European powers. India – Large numbers of troops fought for the British in Europe. Hoped that it would lead to India’s freedom.
Middle East Middle East – Allied with Germany. The war weakened the already weak empire. The British sponsored a rebellion by Arab nationalists against their Ottoman overlords. They also promised support to Jewish settlers in Israel in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Dear Lord Rothschild: I have much pleasure in conveying to you on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet: His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge the Zionist Federation. Yours, Arthur James Balfour
The United States United States – Maintained a policy of noninvolvement, yet economically were benefiting by selling goods. Sinking of the Lusitania – German submarine warfare affected Americans. Zimmerman Letter – Germany sent a letter to Mexico encouraging them to fight the U.S. The letter was intercepted. The United States entered the war against Germany in 1917.
Russia Leaves The War 1918 – Russia gets out of the war. They sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. This gives the Germans territories in western Russia in exchange for peace.
The American Presence FRANCE St. Mihiel Argonne Forest PARIS
An Armistice is Declared Germany put their all into an attack on March 21 st 1918. For several months the offensive pushed the Allies back, but in July the Germans were stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne. The Allied counter-offensive began in August and in what became known as the Last Hundred Days, they pushed the Germans back. Germany sought an armistice which came into effect at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918.
The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the events and process of the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>What impact did American politics have on the treaty process? </li></ul>
THE BIG FOUR lloyd George Victorio Orlando Victor Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson Jan. 18, 1919 - Peace Conference opens in Paris
The Goals of France <ul><li>According to this cartoon, what was Clemenceau’s main concern? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think Clemenceau was nicknamed “The Tiger?” </li></ul>
The Treaty of Versailles Lasting-Peace Peace-Revenge Germany pays reparations, Poland is created, Creation of the League of Nations, War-Guilt clause, Alsace-Lorraine to France, Germany forbidden to join League, France controls Rhineland, Arms limitation, Polish corridor established, no secret alliances Germany lost territory Arms Limitation Creation of the League of Nations Polish Corridor established France controls Rhineland Poland is created War-Guilt clause- Blame Germany pays Reparations Germany lost Territory Germany forbidden to join League No secret alliances Alsace-Lorraine to France
New Map of Europe! <ul><li>Which major empires lost the most land? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems could occur due to the structure of the European landscape? </li></ul>