Unit I And Ii Comparison


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Unit I And Ii Comparison

  1. 1. Big Picture Unit I Themes! Unit II  Foundations and Classical  Development of Empire and eras of civilization spread of civilizations  Classical Era – achievements in  Classical Civs collapse – Rise of Post arts, architecture, science, Math, Classical Civs - continue to achieve in weapons, metals, literature different ways.  Nomads are major outside  Golden Age of Nomads! threat to sedentary Continue to be biggest outside peoples and impact Civs. threat to civilization and Empire  Religion and goods spread  Religion and goods spread over Silk Road over the Silk Road  Extensive land routes and  Land and sea routes expand! Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan, River regional water routes networks in Russia and Africa  World Religions of Judaism,  Golden Age of Religion – Christianity, Hinduism and Power in government - Rise Buddhism are established and Spread of Islam
  2. 2. Classical Comparison: Roman Empire and Han Dynasty Identity Greek and Latin based – Greco- Roman Patrician and Plebeians – social Citizenship – unifying Identity History, Music, Drama, Art Chinese – calligraphy Confucianism – Filial Piety Superior and Inferior Stressed education – “Gentleman” Ethnocentrism – Great Wall
  3. 3.  Well organized bureaucracy Government based upon Legalist and Confucian ideas and education  Well organized bureaucracy founded on Greco-Roman law and classical learning
  4. 4. Beliefs Patriarchical Reliance on Patricians Greek and Roman Mythological faith Temples, Sacrificies, Olympics Judaism and Christianity – Persecuted at times Patriarchical Reliance on landed gentry Ancestor Veneration – Oracle Bones Daoism – “The Way” – Wu Wei Confucianism – five relationships Buddhism – Persecuted at times
  5. 5. Public Works Wow! I wish I could do a hand stand! “The Great Builders” Great Wall of China Columns, Dome, Arch Bridges, Roads, Canals Aqueducts, roads, bridges, theaters, The Coliseum Tombs - Terra Cotta Warriors
  6. 6.  Grand Canal  Roman Roads
  7. 7. Expansion And Trade Strong Military – led to expansion Strong Military – professional Gave land and riches to soldiers – army - led to expansion seen as very important figures in Gave land and riches to soldiers Legalist China - reward Use of rivers – Huang He and Yangtze Use of Mediterranean Sea Built Roads, bridges, canals Built roads, bridges, canals
  8. 8. Decline of Empire Roman Empire Han China Decline in Morals and Values that have upheld society together Public Health and Urban Decay Political Corruption Unemployment and Inflation Military Spending- too costly
  9. 9. Western Europe UNIT I Unit II  Classical Civilizations (Greece  Fall of Roman Empire from Visigoths city-states, Rome – centralized leads to decentralized feudalism empire)  Widespread education ends (Gothic  Golden Ages = Great architecture, monasteries, weaponry.) accomplishments (Democracy,  Barbarian threat limits trade (Dark Age, Republic, Law, architecture, art, philosophy, astronomy, science, manorialism) military, engineering)  Roman Catholic Church dominates  Nomads are biggest outside threat Europe (Political, Economic, and social) to sedentary people (Germanic  Threat of Islam (Charlemagne, Tribes, Huns) Crusades, Reconquista)  Land routes begin (Roman roads  Rigid social structure (Kings, Nobles, and Aqueducts) Lesser Nobles, Knights, Serfs)  Regional trade routes important (Mediterranean Sea)  Crusades = revival of trade = rise of  Polytheistic Religion cities = power of kings = Nation-States  Persecution, adoption and spread  Commercial revolution – guilds, banks, of Christianity monetary system, mercantilism.  Decline due to corruption, no clear  Black Death = 1/3 pop dead = need for succession, barbaric threat, loss of labor = wage labor of serfs = end of identity, economic hardship serfdom
  10. 10. Western Europe – Important People UNIT II Socrates Pericles King John Charlemagne UNIT I St.Benedict Alexander Joan of arc the Great Augustus Pope Caesar Urban II
  11. 11. THE WEST  No longer unified politically and a loss of central authority  Development of Feudalism as a political and social system  Depopulation of urban centers – London is about 10,000 people  The Catholic Church is the only institution to survive the fall of the Western Empire. Becomes the only unifying force in the West  Little contact with the outside world  Loss and in some cases rejection of Classical thought.
  12. 12. Byzantium  The truly important part of the Roman Empire. Contained the biggest portion of the population and wealth.  Continues with its classical tradition and becomes the major power in the Mediterranean area.  Orthodox Christianity is the main faith and is controlled for the most part by the emperor  Significant influence on the emerging civilization of Russia.  Constantinople was considered the endpoint of the Silk Route.
  13. 13. China UNIT I Unit II  Classical Civilizations (Qin –  Fall of Han= 400 years of warring states = Legalist, Han – Confucianism) Sui, Tang, Song (Centralized gov’t)  Mandate of Heaven  Mandate of Heaven  Development of meritocracy (civil  Meritocracy (civil service exams, Neo- service exam, scholar-gentry) Confucianism)  Golden Ages = Great  Golden Ages = gunpowder, Grand accomplishments (Great Wall, canal, compass, moveable type, junks, Terra Cotta Warriors, Paper, Silk, Rudder) porcelain, paper money)  Nomads are biggest outside threat  Nomads are biggest outside threat to sedentary people (Xiongnu) (Mongol invasion= Yuan Dynasty)  Land routes begin (Silk Road)  Pax Mongolica = increased trade along  Merchants looked down upon, Silk Road, merchants gained prestige eunuchs gained power  Ming Dynasty – erased Mongol rule,  Polytheistic Religion – Chinese folk, developed navy, Zheng He Daoism  Spread, adoption, and persecution of  Decline due to corruption, Buddhism, foot binding of women barbaric threat, loss of identity,  Decline due to corruption, barbaric economic hardships, internal strife threats, economic hardships, internal strife
  14. 14. China – Important People UNIT II Shi Huang di Confucius Hongwu UNIT I Tang Taizong Marco Polo Laozi Kublai Khan Han Wudi Zheng He
  15. 15. CHINA  Unlike Europe, China recovers from nomadic invaders.  New “classical” era begins with the Tang and Song dynasties.  Mongols do more to spread Chinese culture under the Yuan dynasty  Continues to be a major influence on Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia  Many overseas Chinese communities begin during this time period
  16. 16. India UNIT I Unit II  Classical Civilizations (Maurya-  Decentralized Hindu provinces, Rise of Buddhist, Gupta-Hindu) Delhi Sultantate in North (Muslim), Chola  Centralized bureaucracies and Vijayanagar in South (Hindu)  Laws and society structured  Semi-feudal Kingdoms around religious beliefs (Rock Pillar  Built mosques, castles, roads – Temples, Edicts) sculptures, literature  Golden Ages = Great  Nomads are biggest outside threat accomplishments (military, mathematics –pi, zero, numerals - (Conquered by Tamerlane, Mongol) astronomy, medicine, literature)  Extensive trade network (Silk Road,  Nomads are biggest outside threat Indian Ocean, central location, to sedentary people (White Huns) monsoons)  Extensive Trade (Silk Road, Indian  Islam brought by force, replaces Ocean, central location, Buddhism (Claimed to be high caste) monsoons) South remains Hindu (Caste system)  Buddhism in Maurya (Ashoka) Hindu revival with Gupta (Caste  Decline due to corruption, barbaric system) threats, poor leadership, economic  Decline due to corruption, poor hardships, internal strife leadership, barbaric threat, land too vast and diverse to control
  17. 17. India – Important People UNIT II Buddha Ashoka Hakka and Tamerlane UNIT I Bukka Chandra Chandragupta Mahmud Harsha Gupta I Maurya Ghaznavi
  18. 18. Middle East UNIT I Unit II  Classical Civilizations (Persian)  Decline of Persian Empire led to period  Centralized bureaucracies (Satrap of decentralization – controlled by = governors) Byzantines at times  Laws and society structured and  Islamic Empires centralized the region, enforced, secret police, Immortals Dar-al-Islam (Umayyad, Abbasid)  Golden Ages = Great  Golden Age: Built mosques, hospitals, accomplishments (Royal Road, libraries- achievements in Math, military, coins, postal service) literature, medicine, calligraphy  Unified diverse region with tolerance, trade, strong leadership  Unified diverse region with Islamic law,  Extensive Trade in Mediterranean – strong military, expansion=Crusades attempt to take Greece led to two  Extensive trade network (Silk Road, major wars- Persia lost Indian Ocean, Med sea, Trans-Saharan,  Zoroastrianism developed – central location) Dualism – mostly tolerant of other  Islam was dominant faith –tolerant of faiths other religions. (Jiyza tax)  Decline due to corruption, poor leadership, intolerance, foreign  Decline due to corruption, Mongol invasion led by Alexander the attacks, poor leadership, religious Great schism (Sunni/Shiite), Rise of Ottoman
  19. 19. Middle East – Important People UNIT I UNIT II Xerxes Genghiz Khan Muhammad Darius Jesus Hammurabi Harun al- Saladin Zarathustra Rashid
  20. 20. MIDDLE EAST/ARAB WORLD  Rise of Islam in the 7th century breathes new life into this area.  Like Christianity in Northern Europe there is some “conversion by the sword”.  More tolerant than their Christian counterparts.  Because Muhammad was a merchant – trade is a respectable profession unlike in China and Japan  Arab merchants become the heart of the Indian Ocean trade  Islam expands into North and East Africa as well as Persia, India and Southeast Asia
  21. 21. SILK ROUTES AND INDIAN OCEAN TRADE  Silk Road trade was indirect. Goods changed hands many times before reaching final market.  Items had to be mostly small luxury goods.  Large profit margin on a few small items.  Limited number of buyers – mostly the wealthy  Arab merchants were the key to most of the trade.
  22. 22. West Africa Russia Unit II UNIT II  Sundiata – founder of Mali in 1230 CE  855 – First Russian King was Rurik  Ruled by powerful kings called Mansas -  Monarchy forms with its center at the Converted to Islam city of Kiev  Professional army  Russian King, Vladimir I, converts to Christianity but did not want to be  Expanded territory and appointed governors to under the control of the Roman rule areas and collect taxes – strong local Catholic Church and the Pope government, somewhat decentralized  Two brothers, Cyril and Methodious,  Women could hold government positions were sent to Russia as missionaries.  Laws based on Muslim system of justice (The  Introduced the Russians to Orthodox Quran) Christianity – thereby cementing  Mansa Musa: Most powerful leader, converted Russia’s relationship with the to Islam and made pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) Byzantine Empire.  Developed the city of Timbuktu which became  Created the Cyrillic Alphabet for the a great trading city and center of Muslim Russians – unifying them learning. Invited Muslim Scholars to Mali linguistically.  Conversion to Islam and Mansa Musa’s  Because of its proximity to the Black pilgrimage to Mecca brought world wide Sea, Russia always leaned more attention to West Africa towards Byzantium than the Islamic  Made the need of a large population and a world. large army a permanent necessity for states in  Kievan Russia declined in the 12th West Africa. century due to internal problems and Mongol invasions
  23. 23. West Africa Russia UNIT II UNIT II Cyril and Mansa Musa Askia Vladimir I Methodious Muhammad Sundiata Rurik Sunni Ali
  24. 24. Japan Mongols Unit II UNIT II  The Yamato Emperor established a capital in Nara  Genghis Khan united the tribes of the and ruled there until 794 CE steppe under the Mongol banner.  The Japanese “selectively borrowed” from China  Horsemanship, archery, terror, and military  Capital city and Emperor’s court was moved to strategy were keys to the Mongols quick Heian (Kyoto) rise to power.  Emperor became more isolated and simply stayed  Established the largest continual land in Heian and oversaw Shinto rituals - figurehead empire in history.  Lords controlled the political realms of Japan  Local rulers kept in place as long as order was kept and sufficient tax revenues were  Led to the rise of powerful families with private delivered to Mongol authorities. armies – the Fujiwara, Tairo, and Minamoto  Took over Russia In 1237-1241,known as  Oversaw an artistic and cultural flowering at the the Golden Horde. court  Kublai Khan defeated the Song Dynasty in  Political Developments: Attempts at centralizing 1279 – Yuan Dynasty. the Japanese state were relatively unsuccessful. Copied bureaucracy in the image of the Chinese  Established centralized rule via the use of Confucian model. Emissaries and scholars were foreign ( Persian) bureaucrats. sent to China to study.  Confucianism declined, civil service  The Rise of Feudalism: eliminated.  Eventually a system of feudalism developed in  Chinese were segregated from Mongol which a central figure, the Shogun, reigned as population. Intermarriage was outlawed. supreme military general and political authority  Chinese were not allowed to learn Mongol over Japan. The power of the shogun was Language. depended on the loyalties of the local daimyos and samurais.
  25. 25. Japan Mongols UNIT II UNIT II Kublai Khan Prince Shotoku Genghiz Khan Yoritomo Minamoto