Japanese Unification Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu Utilized great military skill and diplomacy to pacify Utilized military and Utilized ruthless force, resisting Daimyos. He political skill to limit the military skill and firearmsfrom Europe to unite most of became military master of power of the Daimyos. 1603 Honshu. He was betrayed Japan by 1590 and died in - Granted title of Shogun, and killed in 1580. 1598. unified Japan and ended the era of “sengoku.”
Japanese Invasion Now that I have united Japan, my goal is to take over Ming China and then India! Who does Hideyoshi attack in order to get to Ming China? Hideyoshi wanted to attack China not only because of his vast ego, but also to maintain control of the Daimyo. His rule was based on the sharing of spoils, especially land,among the powerful samurai lords that comprised Hideyoshis power base. By 1592, land was a scarce commodity in Japan, and Hideyoshi needed to assault his neighbors in order to appease his supporters.
The Imjin War 1592-1598Japan’s Ashiguru army hadsuperior numbers, training, The Joseon King fled to the North and and utilized muskets! all hope seemed to be lost! Korean officials did not believe that Japan would invade and refused to give Hideyoshi’s army access to China. The peaceful Joseon Dynasty was notprepared for Japan’s invasion of 160,000 troops and the entire peninsula was quickly overtaken in two months.
The Imjin War 1592-1598 Fun Fact! Chinese troops were sent to defend Korea but were no more than uniformed thugs masquerading as soldiers. One mark of military success insixteenth century China was howmany heads soldiers could take in battle. During the Imjin War, badly led and poorly trained Chinese troops often beheaded innocent Korean civilians in order to drive up their headcounts to win favor with Beijing.
Admiral Yi Sun-sin •Naval Commander who revived Korean Naval Force. •Improved weapons and invented “Turtle Ships” •Improved discipline and morale of sailors •He won all 23 major naval battles he fought. Undefeated! The “Kobukson,” or Turtle Ship •The prow is shape of dragon’s headand cannon balls are fired through it. •Turtle’s back is covered with iron spikes. •Arrows and cannon fire can be launched from every part of ship.•Sailors can see enemy but enemy can not see them. •Ship can launch continuous attack
Battle of Hansando Yi Sun-sin’s navy sankBattle of Hansando 47 enemy ships and July 8th , 1592 captured 12. Only 14 ships escaped! This Victory cut Japan off The Crane Wing from their troops in Formation Korea and quickly led to Japan’s exit of the peninsula! Film Clipstart at 1:57
Major Naval Battles! Battle of Myongnyang September 16th, 1597 •Yi Sun-sin defeated 130 Japanese ships with only 13 Korean ships• Forced Japanese into small Myongnyang channel • Spotted dead body of Japanese General anddisplayed it from top of mast. He who seeks death•When tide changed, Japanese ships tried to flee but became will live, and hetangled in iron ropes placed in who seeks life will die!” water by Yi. • 31 Japanese ships sank, 90 Yi Sun-sin died at the Battle damaged – no Korean ships of Noryang when he was hit were lost. by a stray bullet. As he lay wounded he said, “The battle is at its height, tell no one of my death.” This was the last battle of the Imjin War.
Results of Imjin WarToyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa took over power and focused on consolidating power in Japan. However, Japan benefitted from the Korean scholars, craftsmen, medicine makers, gold smelters, potters, and printers that were taken as captives. The war reaffirmed the Mings status as the supreme military power in East Asia and affirmed Chinese Died in 1598, willingness to aid in theessentially ending the protection of its war. The Japanese tributary/suzerain did not occupy states. However, costs Korea but the war left them vulnerable to left them in ruins. Tokugawa Ieyasu Manchus.
The Tokugawa Shogunate • Feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family.• This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo. • The Tokugawa Shogunate ruled from Edo Castle from 1600 until 1868 • 1605 - Ieyasu abdicated his official position as shogun and his son, Tokugawa Hidetada, became shogun. • The abdication of Ieyasu had no effect on the practical extent of his powers or his rule, but it allowed a smooth transition of power. • Hidetada nevertheless assumed a role as formal head of the bureaucracy (bakufu).
Japanese Castles•Ota Dokan built this castle in 1432-1486•Tokugawa Ieyasu used this castle as his first stronghold and began programs to build more.•He charged the Daimyo with construction projects, delegating them responsibility overcertain areas of the construction. Needed Shogun’s approval to build castles.•As a result, the Daimyo competed with one another and tried to seek the approval of theShogun.
Alternate Attendance•Sankin kōtai ("alternate attendance") was a policy of the Tokugawa Shogunate. The requirement was that the Daimyo move periodically between Edo and his han (land), typically spending alternate years in each place.•His wife and heir were required to remain in Edo as hostages.•The purpose was to control the daimyo.•The expenditures necessary to maintain lavish residences in both places, and for the procession to and from Edo, placed financial strains on the daimyo making them unable to wage war.
Europeans Bring Christianity and Guns •Portuguese traders arrived in 1543 •Jesuit Priests began to spread Christianity in 1549 •Spanish conquest of the Philippines took place in 1521 – Threatened Japan Francis Xavier, Jesuit Priest Shimabara Rebellion •In the wake of a new castle at Shimabara, taxes were drastically raised, which provoked anger from local peasants and lordless samurai. •Religious persecution against Christians led to open revolt in 1637.•The Tokugawa Shogunate sent a force of over 125,000 troops to suppress the rebellion, and after a lengthy siege against the rebels at Hara Castle, defeated them. •Results: rebel leader Amakusa Shiro was beheaded, persecution of Christianity became strictly enforced.
Closed Country Edict - 1649 •Closed country edict – Tokugawa “closed” Japan from foreign contact.•Government highly regulated and limited trade•Allowed the Dutch, Chinese, and Korea limited trade. 1603-1869 •Relied on Feudal system – Shogun appointed and controlled Daimyo. • Appointed Samurai to serve the Daimyo. •Maintained a secret police called the Metsuke. •Limited Japanese travel and banned Western books. •Created an education system that promoted Japanese identity.
Economic Accomplishments•Aggressive public works including land reclamation, new canals and clean water supply systems - Urbanization •Development of transportation and the existence of nationally unified markets •The rise of commerce, finance and the wealthy merchant class •The rise of manufacturing (food processing, handicraft, etc) As shown in the picture above, the merchants would walk around looking for travelers and villagers to sell to and trade with. Urbanization developed in cities like Nagasaki and Edo, modern day Tokyo.
Major Achievements: •Japanese novels, Haiku Poetry, Kabuki theater, literature, art, castles, block printers.•Women’s rights restricted: lacked education, arranged marriage, could not own property