Neolithic Revolution: 8,000 B.C.E. Life Before the Turning PointPaleolithic age: Hunters and gatherers, nomads, clans of 20- 30 people, basic language, men and women were equal Turning Point The Neolithic Revolution: Development of agriculture and the domestication of animals Effects/Changes/Impact People settled in villages and cities. Farmers grew surplus of crops that led to rise in population. Created permanent houses, expanded language and religious beliefs. Developed political systems, job specialization, social classes, and new technology. Women lost status. Led to civilization.
Fall of Roman Empire: 476 C.E. Life Before the Turning Point Vast Empire under one law code. Led by an Emperor who had totalauthority. Pax Romana – 200 years of peace in Rome. Great achievementssuch as law, government, art and architecture (dome and arch), aqueducts, roads, etc. Increase in trade and security throughout empire. Turning Point Poor leadership, lack of method of succession, struggling economy, weakening military, and peasant and slave revolts led to the split of the Empire. Fell in 476 CE when Visigoths sacked Rome! Effects/Changes/Impact Led to Dark Ages! Lack of centralized government caused feudal society to emerge. Peasants lookedtoward local nobles for protection and worked the land for them. Manorialism developed – self sufficient economic system with limited trade. Most people lacked education and the Catholic Church dominated society. Gothic Architecture.
The Crusades: 1095-1272 Life Before the Turning Point Europe was in the Dark Ages. There was littletrade and lack of education. Serfs worked the land and did not leave their manor. The Church dominated socially and politically. Turning Point Pope Urban II called for all Christians to unite and fight the Muslims to regain control of the Holy lands. Effects/Changes/Impact After four Crusades, the Muslims won control of the Holy lands. However, the crusades resulted in increased trade in Europe and the development of towns. Trade routes needed to be protected, which led to the rise of power of Kings and the decrease of power of the nobles.
The Printing Press: 1436 Life Before the Turning Point Many people were illiterate and ideas traveled slowly throughtrade. Most books were based on ideas of the church (Bibles) and were hand written. Most books were written in Latin. Turning Point Johann Gutenberg invented the Printing Press, a hand press, in which ink was rolled over the raised surfaces of moveable hand-set block letters held within a wooden form and the form was then pressed against a sheet of paper. Effects/Changes/Impact Created a revolution in the production of books. Led to the rapid exchange of ideas throughout Europe and an increase in literacy. Fostered the rapid development in science, arts and religion.
The Renaissance: 1400s Life Before the Turning PointRoman Catholic Church dominated social and cultural aspects of society. Art and architecture were influenced by religious ideals. Gothic Architecture was designed to show the power of God. Most peoplebelieved that they were meant to suffer on Earth in order to get to Heaven in the afterlife. Turning Point A renewal in Greco-Roman ideals led to belief in Humanism – humans are special and individuals can achieve great things. Popes, Kings, and wealthy merchants became patrons of the arts and hired artists to create paintings, sculptures, buildings, etc. Effects/Changes/Impact Artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci as well as writers such as Petrarch, Machiavelli, and Shakespeare would influence western culture. Ideals of humanism and questioning spirit would lead to the Reformation, Age of Exploration, Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment.
The Protestant Reformation: 1517 Life Before the Turning Point The Roman Catholic Church dominated Europe. The Pope hadpower over Monarchs and could excommunicate anyone from thechurch. They also collected a tithe, a 10% tax that all land holders had to pay. The Church was also offering indulgences, where people could pay for the forgiveness of their sins. Turning Point Martin Luther, a German monk, posted his 95 Theses on the door of a Church in Wittenberg, Germany. He protested the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated when he refused to recant. Effects/Changes/Impact Europe was split religiously for the first time (North: Protestant, South: Roman Catholic.) Other Protestant groups developed such as Calvinism and the Anglican Church in England. Led to the Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition, religious wars, and aggressive missionary work.
Age of Exploration: 1450-1600s Life Before the Turning Point Europeans were living in the High Middle ageswhere trade was increasing but not very favorable. They were forced to trade with the Muslims who controlled the land routes from China. Turning Point New technology and a desire to find water routes to the East led to the Portuguese discovery of a water route to India (DaGama) and the Spanish discovery of the Americas (Columbus.) Effects/Changes/Impact Discovery of Americas led to global trade. The Columbian Exchange, or Triangle trade, developed which led to the Commercial Revolution. Animals, products, ideas and disease traveled between Old and New World. Led to the conquest of Aztecs, Incas, and other Native American Indians and the colonization of the New World by Europeans.
Scientific Revolution: 1400s-1600s Life Before the Turning Point Europeans depended on the Church to answer mostquestions. Many people believed in superstitions, old traditions and customs. People lacked knowledge about medicine, astronomy, anatomy, math, etc. Turning Point Thinkers and scientists such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton began to experiment the world around them in search for their own answers. Effects/Changes/ImpactNew discoveries in astronomy (Heliocentric theory), physics (Law of Gravity), andMedicine (Microscope) created a questioning spirit in Europe that led to betterunderstanding of the world. Challenged the power of the church.
Age of Enlightenment: 1600s-1800s Life Before the Turning PointEurope was led by Absolute Monarchs such as King Louis XIV of France, Phillip II of Spain, Czar Peter the Great of Russia, Empress Maria Teresa of Holy Roman Empire. The justified their rule by claiming Divine Right, power to rule from God. Turning Point Inspired by the scientific revolution, many scholars began to use reason and logic to question the rule of Absolute Monarchs. They believed in natural laws and rights that existed in politics and government. Effects/Changes/ImpactJohn Locke, Jean Rousseau, and Voltaire became the major Enlightenment thinkers of the time believing in Natural Rights of “Life, Liberty, and Property,” the common good, and freedom ofspeech. Their ideas led people to question Divine Right rule and resulted in Revolutions in North America, France, and Latin America.
French Revolution: 1789-1799 Life Before the Turning Point France was led by an Absolute Monarch (King Louis XVI) and was divided into three estates (First, second and third.) The third estate had very little rights and were over taxed. Famine and war swept the land and the French economy was suffering. Turning PointThird Estate left the Estates General and protested in the King’s Tennis Court (Tennis Court Oath.) They created the National Assembly and wrote a Constitution to limitthe power of the King. The Spark of the Revolution was July 14th 1789 when the people Stormed the Bastille! Effects/Changes/Impact Set the Stage for Revolutions in Europe and Latin America. Utilized Enlightenment ideas and challenged Divine Right rule. Radical Revolution led to Reign of Terror (Robespierre) and use of guillotine. Ended special privileges of nobles and increased power of middle class (bourgeoisie.)
Industrial Revolution: 1750-1850 Life Before the Turning Point Most people were farmers or small merchants. Made goods with hand and animal power and lived in smallvillages (Rural.) Used Water and wind as energy source. Turning Point The Agricultural Revolution in England led to new techniques in farming that increased production of food. Led to new inventions (Steam Engine) in transportation, communication, and production of goods. Enclosure Movement led to many unemployed farmers who went to cities searching for work. Effects/Changes/ImpactProduction goes form Cottage industry to Factories. Use of Machine power and the growth of cities (Urbanization.) Great Britain becomes an Imperial power (need forresources.) Conditions in the factory are hard as Capitalists make money, the workers (Proletariat) struggle in poverty. Led to challenges to capitalism (Socialism, communism, utilitarianism.)
The Meiji Restoration: 1867-1910 Life Before the Turning Point Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa Shogunate who ruled through a centralized Feudal system. The Shogun hadisolated Japan from trade with other nations except China,Korea, and the Dutch. Japanese society was controlled by the government, which banned Christianity. Turning Point U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry made a trip to Japan in an attempt to become trading partners with them. The Japanese and U.S. signed the Treaty of Kanagawa which ended 250 years of isolation. Effects/Changes/Impact Led to the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, where the Emperor took over as leader of Japan. Japan began to rapidly modernize and westernize its military, industry, and social customs. This led to the need for Japan to imperialize other lands for resources. (annexation of Korea, Sphere of Influence in China, Russo-Japanese War)
World War I: 1914-1919 Life Before the Turning Point European nations were competing with one another for military and economic superiority. Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism were increasing. Turning PointThe Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia was the spark that started the War. When Austria-Hungaryblamed Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia and France and WWI was on! Effects/Changes/Impact Mass production of weapons and new technology such as the Machine gun, airplane, tank, poison gas, and submarine caused enormous casualties and damage. Britain, France, U.S. and Italy won the war and forced Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Economic problems after the war would lead to the rise of Totalitarian leaders like Hitler and Mussolini. Also, during the war, Russia had a revolution- resulted in the first communist nation, the USSR.