Start of Industrial Revolution

6,822 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
4 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,822
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,475
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
547
Comments
4
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Could compare England to China at this time. Location, geography, position of coal mines, river networks, regional competition, middle class in England, not in China, political systems
    Why did industrial rev start in England and not in China?
  • Start of Industrial Revolution

    1. 1. A change in the way work was done. A change from making goods by hand, to using machines.
    2. 2. •Large unfenced fields that was divided into narrow strips of land used by multiple farmers •Farmers had some good land and some poor land •Used 3-crop rotation which left one field fallow (empty) •Animals grazed on common land •Villagers got wood from the forest •Fields lacked proper drainage Result: Farmers only produced enough to feed their family – Subsistence Farming
    3. 3. • Charles Townshend – Learned that crop rotation led to longer lasting fertile soil- Now, could use all the land • Use of chemical fertilizers It began with an Agricultural Revolution in the 1700s. New ways of planting and growing crops were introduced.
    4. 4. Old way of planting seeds The Seed Drill Mechanization •Jethro Tull – Invented a Seed Drill– a cart with a dropper that would plant seeds more efficiently. •New Iron Ploughs and Threshing machine Selective Breeding •Farmers only allowed the strongest and best animals breed •Increased the size of cattle from average 168Kg in 1710 to 363 Kg in 1795!
    5. 5. This led to: 1. ______________________________ 2. __________ ___________________ 3. _____________________________ 4. ______________________________ Enclosure Movement: Rich landowners bought land of village farmers and enclosed it with fences. Discovery of more productive farm methods to increase production Larger profits for wealthy farmers Small farmers now unemployed – move to the cities to find work Cities grew - Urbanization
    6. 6. Before Enclosure After Enclosure
    7. 7. Farmer Mark Farmer Ken and Amanda Farmer Dana Farmer Andrew Yeah… I’ll work for you! How will my family of 8 children survive? Through the Enclosure Act of Parliament, I am now the owner of all of this land! Farmer Andrew, Will you work for me? They’re taking our farm… what are we going to do? The Future is Wool! Andrew, you will be my new Sheep herder… the rest of you can take a hike! Without my farm, where will I work? Entrepreneur Peter
    8. 8. Welcome to the city! This is my factory. You will earn 4 pounds a week! Where will we live? I have to work in there?
    9. 9. You can live in my tenement building… you can have a room for 10 pounds a week! But we only make 4 pounds per week! We’ll just have to get the children to work! I have to live in there?
    10. 10. “England… has been fortunate in possessing the natural conditions necessary for success… we recognize that England is rich in these advantages, that she has coal and iron lying close together, that her sheep give the best wool, that her harbors are plentiful, that she is not ill-off for rivers, and that no part of the country is farther than 70 miles from the city.” - George Warner
    11. 11. A. England had resources - ________, _______, _______, ________ and _______________. B. England had a wealthy upper class and middle class that used their capital to build mines and factories and buy machines and large farms for profit. C. England’s economy was strong because it had colonies that supplied resources. D. England’s naval superiority was an advantage because it protected trade routes. harbors a good climate workers coal iron Why did the Industrial Revolution start in England?
    12. 12. Food surplus Increased population Improved diets Better health Lower death rate Growing cities
    13. 13. From Agricultural Revolution to Industrial Revolution
    14. 14. •Britain’s textile industry would be the first to be transformed. •Traditionally, __________ and _________ labor were used to do work. 1733 – John Kay – “Flying Shuttle” A shuttle sped back and forth on wheels. The flying shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a weaver could do in a day. 1764 – James Hargreaves – “Spinning Jenny” A spinning wheel used to weave yarn. It allowed a spinner to work 8 threads at a time. human animal
    15. 15. 1769 – Richard Arkwright – “Water Frame” Used water-power from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels. Richard Arkwright: “Father of the Factory System” Richard Arkwright: “Father of the Factory System” Film Clip: Mills 6:09-8:50 Film Clip: Mills 6:09-8:50
    16. 16. 1779 – Samuel Crompton – “Spinning Mule” Combined the features of the spinning jenny and the water frame to make thread that was stronger and finer. 1787 – Edmund Cartwright - “Power Loom” Run by water-power. Sped up weaving. •___________ and ___________ had been used to move wheels that would then move machine parts in mills. Wind water
    17. 17.  Cloth merchants could boost profits by speeding up production  Needed to be run by __________ - Had to be near a river.  The machines were large and expensive. This took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house and into the _____________.  Progress in the textile industry spurred other technological inventions.  Cloth merchants could boost profits by speeding up production  Needed to be run by __________ - Had to be near a river.  The machines were large and expensive. This took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house and into the _____________.  Progress in the textile industry spurred other technological inventions. waterpower Factory
    18. 18. •1765 –________________ – “Steam Engine” - Development of a cheap, convenient source of power • _________ was discovered to burn hotter and longer than wood and was used to create steam that would be compressed in engines in order to move parts of machinery such as rotors or levers. James Watt Coal
    19. 19. Road Transportation John McAdam – Paved Roads – Early 1800s Equipped roadbeds with a layer of large stones for drainage. On top, he placed a smoothed layer of crushed rock. Previously, rain and mud often made roads impassable and men were known to drown in potholes. Steam Locomotives George Stephenson – “The Rocket” - 1829
    20. 20.  Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport material and finished products.  Railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners.  Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport material and finished products.  Railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners.
    21. 21. The railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities.  By making travel easier, railroads encouraged people to take distant city jobs. The railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities.  By making travel easier, railroads encouraged people to take distant city jobs.
    22. 22. steel
    23. 23. New inventions Better metals Growth of factories and mines Development of steam powered engines

    ×