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A change in the way work was done. A change from making goods by hand, to using machines.
Field left fallow People have to walk over your strips to reach theirs No proper drainage Animals can trample crops and spread disease Difficult to take advantage of new farming techniques Because land in different fields takes time to get to each field No hedges or fences
Farmer James Farmer Dylan and Courtney Farmer Cristen Farmer Tom Entrepreneur Brandon Yeah… I’ll work for you! Without my farm, where will I work? How will my family of 8 children survive? Through the Enclosure Act of Parliament, I am now the owner of all of this land! They’re taking our farm… what are we going to do?
Welcome to the city! This is my factory. You will earn 2 pounds a week! Where will we live?
You can live in my tenement building… you can have a room for 10 pounds a week! But we only make 2 pounds per week! We’ll just have to get the children to work!
Food surplus Increased population Improved diets Better health Lower death rate Growing cities
II. New energy sources were found that would help work new machines and inventions. A. Traditionally, __________ and _________ labor were used to do work. B. _________ and ________ had been used to move wheels that would then move machine parts in mills. C. Then, _________ was discovered to burn hotter and longer than wood and was used to create steam that would then be compressed in engines in order to move parts of machinery such as rotors or levers. D. Henry Bessemer discovered that coal could be used to heat mineral ore and remove the iron. Then he discovered that smelting coal and iron made ________. This became known as the _____________________. human animal Wind water coal steel Bessemer process
New inventions Better metals Growth of mines to get ore for metal Development of the Factory System
III. Why was England the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution? A. England had resources - ________, _______, _______, ________ and _______________. B. England had a wealthy upper class and bourgeoisie that used their capital to build mines and factories and buy machines and large farms for profit. C. England’s economy was strong because it had colonies that supplied resources. D. England’s naval superiority was an advantage because it protected trade routes. harbors a good climate workers coal iron
Cottage Industry Factory System Both Workers owned tools Worked from home or rented space Propertyless workers - Proletariat Supervisor – Floor Manager Worked at their own pace Mostly in villages (Rural) Part of an outwork system, hired by wealthy merchant-manufacturers Capitalists owned factory, tools, machines Used machine power (Watermill, steam) Worked to pace of the the factory, All workers under one roof Supervisor – Putters out, Bagmen, foggers Used Hand power machines Mostly in cities (Urban) Part of wage labor system – hired to work Organized by Capitalists, bought raw materials, hired No real skill needed, no training monotonous movements, mass production Division of labor, workers did not sell finished product for themselves Goods were made mostly for oversea trading, not local consumption – plain, simple goods Women and children Div of capital and labor, disputes between workers and owners