Sikhism

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  • Sikh tradition states that at around 1499, at the age of 30, he had a vision. After he failed to return from his ablutions, his clothes were found on the bank of a local stream called the Kali Bein. The townspeople assumed he had drowned in the river; Daulat Khan had the river dragged, but no body was found. Three days after disappearing, Guru Nanak reappeared, staying silent. The next day, he spoke to pronounce, "There is neither Hindu nor Mussulman (Muslim) so whose path shall I follow? I shall follow God's path. God is neither Hindu nor Mussulman and the path which I follow is God's."[6] Guru Nanak said that he had been taken to God's court. There, he was offered a cup filled with amrit (nectar) and given the command "This is the cup of the adoration of God's name. Drink it. I am with you. I bless you and raise you up. Whoever remembers you will enjoy my favour. Go, rejoice of my name and teach others to do so. I have bestowed the gift of my name upon you. Let this be your calling." From this point onwards, Nanak is described in accounts as a Guru, and Sikhism was born.[11]
  • Unlike many temples, the central activity inside this temple is not sacrifice or any kind of ritual toward God. Instead, the central focus is on the reading of the Adi Granth, the Sikh sacred text - which is the central focus in any Sikh community center or gurdwara anywhere in the world.Also, unlike many Hindu temples built during the same period, this Sikh temple is located on relatively low ground (as opposed to a hilltop) and is open on all four sides (as opposed to only having one entrance). The Sikh tradition holds that the four openings symbolize the four traditional castes in India, and that all people are welcome. Sikhism rejects any kind of discrimination based on caste, gender or position in society.
  • Gurdwara means the gateway through which the Guru could be reached. Any place where the Guru Granth Sahib is installed and treated with due respect can be referred to as a Gurdwara, whether it is a room in ones house of a separate building.
    The main functions are carried out in all public Gurdwaras. One is Kirtan which is the singing of hymns from the Guru Granth Sahib, another is Katha which is reading of the Guru Granth Sahib and explanations. The third main function which is carried out at every Gurdwara is the Langar, free community kitchen for all visitors of all religions.
  • Aurangzeb had imposed Islamic laws, demolished infidel schools and temples, and enforced new taxes on non-Muslims. According to records written by his son Guru Gobind Singh, the Guru had resisted persecution, adopted and promised to protect Kashmiri Hindus. The Guru was summoned to Delhi by Aurangzeb on a pretext, but when he arrived, he was offered, "to abandon his faith, and convert to Islam”. Guru Tegh Bahadur refused, he and his associates were arrested. He was executed on November 11 1675 before public in Chandni Chowk, Delhi.
  • Aurangzeb had imposed Islamic laws, demolished infidel schools and temples, and enforced new taxes on non-Muslims. According to records written by his son Guru Gobind Singh, the Guru had resisted persecution, adopted and promised to protect Kashmiri Hindus. The Guru was summoned to Delhi by Aurangzeb on a pretext, but when he arrived, he was offered, "to abandon his faith, and convert to Islam”. Guru Tegh Bahadur refused, he and his associates were arrested. He was executed on November 11 1675 before public in Chandni Chowk, Delhi.
  • He was a powerful military general with a profound vision of transforming Sikh society into a militaristic society—an absolute necessity for a community surrounded by a hostile and powerful empire. Gobind Singh established the fourth and last most important doctrine of Sikhism (the first three being the Name, the Word, and the Guru): this was the doctrine of Khalsa, or the "Brotherhood" of Sikhs. The khalsa gives the community a deep sense of unity founded on symbolic acts. The most important of these is an initiation rite very similar to Christian baptism. In this rite, the believer drinks sweetened water that has been stirred with a dagger (the dagger represents the initiate's willingness to fight for the faith and the community). After this ceremony, the initiate is given a name added on to his own name: Singh, or "lion." This common name identifies each person as part of the community, as part of the same family, and as willing to fight for the faith. Each Sikh male is required to wear symbolic clothing and accoutrements to make manifest his membership in the community: these include uncut hair and a steel dagger.   There is no question that the formation of the khalsa is the single most important event in the Sikh experience of history. It fully unified the community and made it a force to reckon with militarily. After the formation of the khalsa , the political and military power of the Sikhs grew tremendously. By the early 1800's, the Sikhs managed to carve out an independent kingdom in the Mughal Empire, which they retained until the British annexations in the 1850's. Still, the Sikh military brotherhood was the most powerful fighting force that the British used against the Mughal Empire in its closing days.
  • There are five religious signs that are the mark of a devout Sikh. Kesh (hair) - Sikhs believe that the course of nature should not be disturbed as far as possible which is why they refrain from cutting their hair.Kanga (comb) - A wooden comb is necessary to keep long hair tidy.Kara (steel bangle) - The steel bangle is regarded as a symbol of strength and is worn on the right wrist by both men and women.Kirpan (dagger) - The kirpan is a small sword and is a symbol of self-defense and the fight against evil and injustice.Kachha - The kachha is a pair of shorts made to a specific design. It formed part of the military uniform in Guru Gobind Singh’s day.
  • He was a powerful military general with a profound vision of transforming Sikh society into a militaristic society—an absolute necessity for a community surrounded by a hostile and powerful empire. Gobind Singh established the fourth and last most important doctrine of Sikhism (the first three being the Name, the Word, and the Guru): this was the doctrine of Khalsa, or the "Brotherhood" of Sikhs. The khalsa gives the community a deep sense of unity founded on symbolic acts. The most important of these is an initiation rite very similar to Christian baptism. In this rite, the believer drinks sweetened water that has been stirred with a dagger (the dagger represents the initiate's willingness to fight for the faith and the community). After this ceremony, the initiate is given a name added on to his own name: Singh, or "lion." This common name identifies each person as part of the community, as part of the same family, and as willing to fight for the faith. Each Sikh male is required to wear symbolic clothing and accoutrements to make manifest his membership in the community: these include uncut hair and a steel dagger.   There is no question that the formation of the khalsa is the single most important event in the Sikh experience of history. It fully unified the community and made it a force to reckon with militarily. After the formation of the khalsa , the political and military power of the Sikhs grew tremendously. By the early 1800's, the Sikhs managed to carve out an independent kingdom in the Mughal Empire, which they retained until the British annexations in the 1850's. Still, the Sikh military brotherhood was the most powerful fighting force that the British used against the Mughal Empire in its closing days.
  • He was a powerful military general with a profound vision of transforming Sikh society into a militaristic society—an absolute necessity for a community surrounded by a hostile and powerful empire. Gobind Singh established the fourth and last most important doctrine of Sikhism (the first three being the Name, the Word, and the Guru): this was the doctrine of Khalsa, or the "Brotherhood" of Sikhs. The khalsa gives the community a deep sense of unity founded on symbolic acts. The most important of these is an initiation rite very similar to Christian baptism. In this rite, the believer drinks sweetened water that has been stirred with a dagger (the dagger represents the initiate's willingness to fight for the faith and the community). After this ceremony, the initiate is given a name added on to his own name: Singh, or "lion." This common name identifies each person as part of the community, as part of the same family, and as willing to fight for the faith. Each Sikh male is required to wear symbolic clothing and accoutrements to make manifest his membership in the community: these include uncut hair and a steel dagger.   There is no question that the formation of the khalsa is the single most important event in the Sikh experience of history. It fully unified the community and made it a force to reckon with militarily. After the formation of the khalsa , the political and military power of the Sikhs grew tremendously. By the early 1800's, the Sikhs managed to carve out an independent kingdom in the Mughal Empire, which they retained until the British annexations in the 1850's. Still, the Sikh military brotherhood was the most powerful fighting force that the British used against the Mughal Empire in its closing days.
  • He was a powerful military general with a profound vision of transforming Sikh society into a militaristic society—an absolute necessity for a community surrounded by a hostile and powerful empire. Gobind Singh established the fourth and last most important doctrine of Sikhism (the first three being the Name, the Word, and the Guru): this was the doctrine of Khalsa, or the "Brotherhood" of Sikhs. The khalsa gives the community a deep sense of unity founded on symbolic acts. The most important of these is an initiation rite very similar to Christian baptism. In this rite, the believer drinks sweetened water that has been stirred with a dagger (the dagger represents the initiate's willingness to fight for the faith and the community). After this ceremony, the initiate is given a name added on to his own name: Singh, or "lion." This common name identifies each person as part of the community, as part of the same family, and as willing to fight for the faith. Each Sikh male is required to wear symbolic clothing and accoutrements to make manifest his membership in the community: these include uncut hair and a steel dagger.   There is no question that the formation of the khalsa is the single most important event in the Sikh experience of history. It fully unified the community and made it a force to reckon with militarily. After the formation of the khalsa , the political and military power of the Sikhs grew tremendously. By the early 1800's, the Sikhs managed to carve out an independent kingdom in the Mughal Empire, which they retained until the British annexations in the 1850's. Still, the Sikh military brotherhood was the most powerful fighting force that the British used against the Mughal Empire in its closing days.
  • Sikhism

    1. 1. SIKHISM Period 4: 1450-1750
    2. 2. •The Sikh faith began around 1500 CE, when a Hindu boy named Nanak began to criticize the increasing religious sectarianism of the Hindus and Muslims. •The Sikh faith began around 1500 CE, when a Hindu boy named Nanak began to criticize the increasing religious sectarianism of the Hindus and Muslims. • Sikhism began in the Punjab area of South Asia, which now falls into the present day states of India and Pakistan. • Sikhism began in the Punjab area of South Asia, which now falls into the present day states of India and Pakistan. Origins of SikhismOrigins of Sikhism
    3. 3. Origins of SikhismOrigins of Sikhism After disappearing for three days, Nanak returned saying he had been taken to God’s court and became a Prophet. "There is neither Hindu nor Muslim, so whose path shall I follow? I shall follow God's path.” "There is neither Hindu nor Muslim, so whose path shall I follow? I shall follow God's path.”
    4. 4. Origins of SikhismOrigins of Sikhism
    5. 5. Stands for casteless society and preaches that all people stand equal. Stands for casteless society and preaches that all people stand equal. Muslim InfluenceMuslim Influence Hindu InfluenceHindu Influence Challenges to Islam/Hindu practices Challenges to Islam/Hindu practices There is only one God.There is only one God. Everyone is equal before God.Everyone is equal before God. Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value. Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value. Sikhs believe that human beings spend their time in a cycle of birth, life, and rebirth. Sikhs believe that human beings spend their time in a cycle of birth, life, and rebirth. To escape cycle of life, need total knowledge of and union with God. To escape cycle of life, need total knowledge of and union with God. Belief in Karma set by previous life. Belief in Karma set by previous life. Truth is the highest of all virtues, but higher still is truthful living. Truth is the highest of all virtues, but higher still is truthful living. Sikhs must give to the poor and care for the sick. Sikhs must give to the poor and care for the sick. Sikhs should earn their living by honest means and hard work. Sikhs should earn their living by honest means and hard work. Beliefs of Sikhism: Religious SyncretismBeliefs of Sikhism: Religious Syncretism
    6. 6. Sikhism was established by Ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period from 1469 to 1708. Their holiest site is the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Sikhism was established by Ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period from 1469 to 1708. Their holiest site is the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Beliefs of SikhismBeliefs of Sikhism
    7. 7. The Holy Book Of Sikhism is Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Gobind was the final Guru in human form. Before his death, he made the Guru Granth Sahib the ultimate and final Sikh Guru. The Holy Book Of Sikhism is Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Gobind was the final Guru in human form. Before his death, he made the Guru Granth Sahib the ultimate and final Sikh Guru. Beliefs of SikhismBeliefs of Sikhism
    8. 8. Beliefs of SikhismBeliefs of Sikhism The Sikh place of worship is called a Gurdwara, meaning “Gateway to the Guru.” The Sikh place of worship is called a Gurdwara, meaning “Gateway to the Guru.”
    9. 9. Langar – Everyday, Sikhs offer the community free meals for anyone. The Golden Temple feeds over 100,000 meals a day! Langar – Everyday, Sikhs offer the community free meals for anyone. The Golden Temple feeds over 100,000 meals a day!
    10. 10. Turning PointTurning Point •The Mughal Emperor Jahangir feared the steady growth of the Sikh community and the popularity of the 5th Guru, Arjan. •Jahangir arrested Guru Arjun in 1606 and tortured him to death. •The Mughal Emperor Jahangir feared the steady growth of the Sikh community and the popularity of the 5th Guru, Arjan. •Jahangir arrested Guru Arjun in 1606 and tortured him to death.
    11. 11. Turning PointTurning Point As a result, Sikhism changed from a religion of peace and unity to a militant community actively fighting against the Mughal Empire and any who threatened them. As a result, Sikhism changed from a religion of peace and unity to a militant community actively fighting against the Mughal Empire and any who threatened them.
    12. 12. Turning PointTurning Point Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb In 1658, Aurangzeb had imposed Islamic laws, demolished infidel schools and temples, and enforced new taxes on non-Muslims. He tried to impose strict Sharia Law on the people which included a campaign of forced conversions. In 1658, Aurangzeb had imposed Islamic laws, demolished infidel schools and temples, and enforced new taxes on non-Muslims. He tried to impose strict Sharia Law on the people which included a campaign of forced conversions.
    13. 13. Turning PointTurning Point 9th Guru Tegh Bahadur9th Guru Tegh Bahadur •In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur resisted religious persecution and promised to protect the threatened Hindus of the Kashmir region. •The Guru was summoned to Delhi to meet with Aurangzeb who offered him “to abandon his faith, and convert to Islam.” •The Guru refused and was executed! •In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur resisted religious persecution and promised to protect the threatened Hindus of the Kashmir region. •The Guru was summoned to Delhi to meet with Aurangzeb who offered him “to abandon his faith, and convert to Islam.” •The Guru refused and was executed!
    14. 14. Turning PointTurning Point •10th and final human Guru. •Powerful military general who transformed Sikhs into a militaristic community called Khalsa, or Brotherhood. •10th and final human Guru. •Powerful military general who transformed Sikhs into a militaristic community called Khalsa, or Brotherhood.
    15. 15. Turning PointTurning Point •Each Sikh male is required to wear symbolic clothing and accoutrements to make manifest his membership in the community •Kesh (hair) •Kanga (comb) •Kara (Bracelet) •Kirpan (Dagger) •Kachera (Shorts) •Each Sikh male is required to wear symbolic clothing and accoutrements to make manifest his membership in the community •Kesh (hair) •Kanga (comb) •Kara (Bracelet) •Kirpan (Dagger) •Kachera (Shorts)
    16. 16. Turning PointTurning Point •Amrit- Ceremony of initiation by drinking sweetened water stirred by a dagger and taking the name “Singh” for men and “Kaur” for women. •Amrit- Ceremony of initiation by drinking sweetened water stirred by a dagger and taking the name “Singh” for men and “Kaur” for women.
    17. 17. Turning PointTurning Point •There is no question that the formation of the Khalsa is the single most important event in the Sikh history. It fully unified the community and made it a powerful force in the region! •There is no question that the formation of the Khalsa is the single most important event in the Sikh history. It fully unified the community and made it a powerful force in the region!
    18. 18. Into Period 5: 1750-1900Into Period 5: 1750-1900 •By the early 1800's, the Sikhs managed to carve out an independent kingdom in the Mughal Empire, which they retained until the British annexations in the 1850's. •Still, the Sikh military brotherhood was the most powerful fighting force that the British used against the Mughal Empire in its closing days. •By the early 1800's, the Sikhs managed to carve out an independent kingdom in the Mughal Empire, which they retained until the British annexations in the 1850's. •Still, the Sikh military brotherhood was the most powerful fighting force that the British used against the Mughal Empire in its closing days.
    19. 19. •Today, Sikhism is the 5th largest religion in the world with over 30 million followers •Many Sikhs have left the Punjab region and settled in places around the world such as England, China, United States and Australia. •Today, Sikhism is the 5th largest religion in the world with over 30 million followers •Many Sikhs have left the Punjab region and settled in places around the world such as England, China, United States and Australia.
    20. 20. Religious Reform and ChallengesReligious Reform and Challenges Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation (p.721-25) Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation (p.721-25) The Bhakti Movement in India (p.738-39) The Bhakti Movement in India (p.738-39) Sufiism in Anatolia (p.437-38) Sufiism in Anatolia (p.437-38)
    21. 21. Comparison to Lutheranism 1. All people with faith were equal. 2. All Church teachings should be based on the Bible (the Truth) 3. Only through faith alone could you find salvation, not rituals. 4. Became a threat to the Catholic Church and challenged the power of the Pope. 1. Everyone is equal before God 2. Truth is the highest of all virtues and the way to salvation. 3. Religious rituals and superstitions have no value. 3. Became a threat to the Mughal State who wanted to purify Islam Both events led to major wars that divided and weakened their respective regions! Both events led to major wars that divided and weakened their respective regions! Religious Reform and ChallengesReligious Reform and Challenges

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