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Aim: How did The ScientificRevolution change the way peoplethought about the world? Do Now: answer the two question on your handout!
What is the Scientific Revolution?The Scientific Revolution develops as an offshoot of theRenaissance. The same questioning spirit that fueled theRenaissance led scientists to question traditional beliefsand the Church about the workings of the universe. It wasa new way of thinking about the natural world. ♦ Before 1500, the Bible and Aristotle were the only authorities accepted as truth ♦ A geocentric model of the universe, in which the Earth is at the center was supported during the Middle Ages
Causes of the Scientific Revolution♦ Printing press spread new ideas♦ Age of Exploration fueled a great deal of scientific research because of technology needed for navigation♦ Translation of the works of Muslim scholars opened the minds of European thinkers to new scientific knowledge
New Ideas About the UniverseThree scientists challenged traditional theories about theuniverse and the Greco-Roman idea that the Earth was thecenter of the universe: •Copernicus (mid-1500’s) •Galileo Galilei (early 1600’s) •Isaac Newton (late 1600’s)
Remember Nicholas Copernicus?Up to the time of Copernicus, people thought that there was asort of crystal sphere the kept the planets, moon, and stars inorbit around the Earth. It was Copernicus that proposed theidea that the Earth revolved around the sun, and not viceversa… The sun was the center of the Universe, not the Earth.Most scholars rejected Copernicus’s theory. NONSENSE!!! Video Clip on Copernicus
Galileo Galilei He built a telescope and became the first man to use this tool to study the moon and planets. What he saw made Galileo believe Copernicuss idea that the Earth was not the center of the universe. The Church punished him for his belief in this idea. He was questioned by the Inquisition and forced to confess that his ideas were wrong.Why would the Church tryto prevent this idea from becoming popular? Galileo Video Clip
Question: If you drop a baseball and abowling ball off a ten story building, which one will hit the ground first?
Galileo Galilei Galileo was an Italian mathematics teacher, astronomer and physicist, and one of the first true scientists. He used an experiment to test one of Aristotle’s theories.Aristotle’s Galileo’stheory: Experiment:Heavier Finds objects ofobjects fall different weightsfaster than will fall at the samelighter ones speed (in a vacuum).
The Scientific MethodThis new method relied on experimentation and observationrather than past authorities. It is still used by scientists today.
Galileo Galilei Fun Facts (1564 - 1642) - He was one of the first Europeans to build and use a telescope (he didn’t invent it!)- Galileo used a telescope to observe themoon, and saw craters. This proved that the moon was not a perfectsphere… hmm… trouble…- He saw moons on Jupiter (thus we have the Galilean Moons of Jupiter) - Aristotle didn’t mention moons… they’re they are!!!
Question: When something falls, why does it fall down? Why doesn’t it fall up or sideways?
Isaac Newton“For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction” – Isaac Newton
Newton OUCH I am enjoying !this uneventful day
Isaac Newton♦ What does an apple have to do with gravity?♦ Newton was sitting in the shade of an apple tree when an apple fell nearby. Newton began to wonder why apples always fall to the ground. Why don’t the fall sideways or up? Newton reasoned that the earth must have a power that draws objects to it. This was the beginning of the law of gravity and motion.
Newton (1642-1727)By the mid-1600’s, the accomplishmentsof Copernicus and Galileo had shatteredthe old views of astronomy and physics. Isaac Newton brought it all together under a single theory of motion.
Law of Universal GravitationNewton’s discovery was that the same forceruled the motions of the planets, thependulum, and all matter on earth and inspace.Every object in the universe attracts everyother object. The degree of attractiondepends on the mass of the objects and thedistance between them.
Question: Have you ever wondered whether or not you really exist?
Rene Descartes “The Father of Modern Philosophy” “I think, therefore I am.”•Descartes believed everything should be doubted untilproved by reason. Tradition should not be accepted as truth.•Instead of using experimentation, Descartes relied onmathematics and logic. He linked algebra and geometry as anew tool for scientific research.
Rene Descartes Descartes shifts thinking from "what is true" to "of what can I be certain?“ Descartes shifted the authoritative power of truth from God to Man. (While traditional concept of "truth" implies an external authority, "certainty" instead relies on the judgment of the individual Man)
New Inventions of the Scientific Revolution♦ Edward Jenner introduced the first vaccine for smallpox. (inoculation- injecting a germ in the body to create an immunity).♦ Telescope (1608, Dutch) A Dutch glass maker constructed a primitive telescope. Galileo heard about it and improved on the design.♦ Microscope (1590s, Dutch)♦ Barometer (early 1600s, Italian) - measure air pressure♦ Thermometer (1611) for chemical and medical studies
When all was said and done… the major thinkers of the Scientific Revolution (Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Descartes) had revealed a universe which seemed like a perfectly run machine, comprehensible by the human mind and the enlightened scientific understanding it had now gained. Let’s test your knowledge!
Galileo and Isaac Newton promoted the ideathat knowledge should be based ona. The experiences of past civilizationsb. Experimentation and observationc. Emotions and feelingsd. The teachings of the Catholic Church
During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that theya. Relied heavily on the ideas of medieval thinkersb. Favored an absolute monarchy as a way of improving economic conditionsc. Received support from the Catholic Churchd. Examined natural laws governing the universe
Which statement best describes the effects of theworks of Copernicus, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton,and Descartes? a. The acceptance of traditional authority was strengthened b. The scientific method was used to solve problems. c. The English government increased funding for education d. Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewed.
Close - Answer the following:1. How did the Scientific Revolution Change the waypeople thought about the world?2. Martin Luther applied the questioning spirit of theRenaissance to religion. Galileo and Newton appliedthe questioning spirit of the Renaissance to science.Predict what else people might begin to question in theyears following the Renaissance. Explain how thismight impact Europe.