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Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
Russia and Westernization
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Russia and Westernization

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  • This was great,some of us are visual learners and more right brained and this overview is better for us.
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  • Ivan III tearing the khan's letter to pieces, an apocryphal 19th-century painting by Alexey Kivshenko
  • In the morning of 17 May 1606, ten days after his marriage to Tsarina Marina, a massive number of boyars and commoners stormed the Kremlin. Tsar Dmitriy tried to flee through a window but broke his leg in the fall. One of the plotters shot him dead on the spot. The body was put on display and then cremated, the ashes reportedly shot from a cannon towards Poland. According to Palitsyn, Tsar Dmitriy's death was followed by a massacre of his supporters. Palitsyn boasted in his chronicle that, "a great amount of heretical blood was spilled on the streets of Moscow.”
  • Transcript

    • 1. Rise of Russia Period 4: 1450-1750
    • 2. Do Now: How is the relationship between the ants and the grasshoppers similar to the Russians and the Mongols? Do Now: How is the relationship between the ants and the grasshoppers similar to the Russians and the Mongols?
    • 3. a. Mongols only wanted tribute – ruled through fear b. Allowed local leaders to remain in power – princes gained experience through collecting taxes for Mongols c. Mongols did not interfere with Russian culture or religious beliefs d. Russian culture declined – literacy declined, peasant labor dominated economy, very limited manufacturing, reduced growth of cities a. Mongols only wanted tribute – ruled through fear b. Allowed local leaders to remain in power – princes gained experience through collecting taxes for Mongols c. Mongols did not interfere with Russian culture or religious beliefs d. Russian culture declined – literacy declined, peasant labor dominated economy, very limited manufacturing, reduced growth of cities Impact of Mongols (Tatar Domination)
    • 4. Batu Khan ordered Prince Michael of Chernigov to prostrate (lie down) himself before the tablets of Genghis Khan. When he refused, the Mongols stabbed him to death! Batu Khan ordered Prince Michael of Chernigov to prostrate (lie down) himself before the tablets of Genghis Khan. When he refused, the Mongols stabbed him to death! Batu Khan, Leader of the Golden Horde Film ClipFilm Clip
    • 5. Development of the Russian State (1462-1505) A. Ivan III (Ivan the Great): led Russian freedom from Mongol ruleA. Ivan III (Ivan the Great): led Russian freedom from Mongol rule
    • 6. • Organized strong army and conquered Novgorod in 1478 • Set up centralized government • Gained loyalties of Orthodox Christian Church • Claimed Russia to be the “Third Rome,” called himself Czar (Tsar) and married the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor • Imperial mission to expand Russian territory (Muscovy tripled in size) • Organized strong army and conquered Novgorod in 1478 • Set up centralized government • Gained loyalties of Orthodox Christian Church • Claimed Russia to be the “Third Rome,” called himself Czar (Tsar) and married the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor • Imperial mission to expand Russian territory (Muscovy tripled in size) Development of the Russian State (1462-1505)
    • 7. •Developed strict autocratic government – ruled through fear •Killed nobles (Boyars) who went against him •Developed secret police force to crush dissidents and rivals •Developed strict autocratic government – ruled through fear •Killed nobles (Boyars) who went against him •Developed secret police force to crush dissidents and rivals Ivan the Terrible
    • 8. Ivan the Terrible
    • 9. •Ivan IV died without an heir to the throne •Power claimed by competing Boyars – led to civil uprisings and imposters •Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third of the population (2 million people) •Ivan IV died without an heir to the throne •Power claimed by competing Boyars – led to civil uprisings and imposters •Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third of the population (2 million people) The Time of Troubles False Dmitriy IFalse Dmitriy I
    • 10. Aim: How did Peter the Great try to change the Russian Empire in the time period 1450-1750? Easter in Moscow in the 1600s. The Churches reflect Russian architectural traditions, but the wall design was created by Italian and English architects.
    • 11. What is “Westernization”? • An attempt to incorporate the culture, attributes and especially the technology of the Western world (Western Europe). Consider: What do you think might keep Peter’s dream of a westernized Russia from happening?
    • 12. Building A Glorious Empire in Russia Louis XIV’s Versailles Palace (1668) Peter The Great’s Winter Palace 1711 What was Peter trying to tell the world by building a palace like this one? Answer as if you are Peter.
    • 13. RISE OF RUSSIA HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? POLITICAL WESTERNIZED METHODSOLD RUSSIAN METHODS Centralized Feudal gov’t – Prince ruled with help of the Noble landlords (Boyars.) Major decisions were made by the prince and confirmed by the Boyar Duma. A bureaucracy (prikazy) developed – conducted everyday rule. Secret police used for control. Military expansion used to gain loyalty, church- state unity Centralized gov’t – led by Czar as aristocratic power declined, Enlightenment ideals adopted (Enlightened Despots) Developed schools, literacy, science Censored some western literature, upgraded military
    • 14. HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? SOCIAL Orthodox Religion dominated, Heroic epics, music, festivals, onion shaped domes religious art icon painting, written history, strong family ties, many relatives women seen as inferior, strict role Italian architects design buildings and palaces Royal Court spoke French, perform ballet Advanced schools for elite, culture gap develops between elite and commoners
    • 15. Do Now: If Tsar Peter the Great is cutting off the beards of nobles to make them look like Western Europeans, what other kinds of changes do you think he will bring to Russia? Tsar Peter the Great with a pair of shears, about to remove the beard of a conservative subject.
    • 16. HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? ECONOMIC Agricultural - primitive methods, local consumption small merchant class, small cities, no major technological changes Based on serfdom (Coercive labor) enforced feudal system Developed trade network - manufactured goods, furs, timber, wheat, begin to use natural resources Government regulations, created Port city of St. Petersburg (Window to the West)
    • 17. St. Petersburg One of Peter's main goals was to regain access to the Baltic Sea and Baltic trade. In 1700 he started the Northern War with Sweden, which lasted for 21 years, and resulted in a victorious Russia taking the vast lands on the Baltic coast as its spoils of war. During the course of the war St. Petersburg was founded (1703) on the delta of the Neva River and the city rapidly grew to become a major seaport, as Russia gained greater and greater access to European trade routes. One of Peter's main goals was to regain access to the Baltic Sea and Baltic trade. In 1700 he started the Northern War with Sweden, which lasted for 21 years, and resulted in a victorious Russia taking the vast lands on the Baltic coast as its spoils of war. During the course of the war St. Petersburg was founded (1703) on the delta of the Neva River and the city rapidly grew to become a major seaport, as Russia gained greater and greater access to European trade routes.
    • 18. Based on this graphic, what effect do you think Peter’s reforms were having on the Russian civilization? Predict: Do you think Russia will be able to compete with Europe in spite of the cultural and economic split between the nobles and the peasants?
    • 19. A Westernized Russia? • How much impact do you think Peter’s Westernization program had on their lives? • How do you think they felt about their local noble dressing like a Westerner? Though photographed in the late 19th century, these woodchoppers look much like their ancestors during the time of Peter the Great.
    • 20. The Church of Our Savior on Spilled Blood 1905 and Today
    • 21. Magnificent Great Palace at Petrodvorets, Peterhof (a place outside St Petersburg), the abundance of fountains, gold and greenery.
    • 22. Catherine the Great Treatment of Social Classes •Freed nobles from state services and taxes •Increased serfdom •Made nobles status hereditary, gave them full control over their serfs – could sell them •No merchant class •Freed nobles from state services and taxes •Increased serfdom •Made nobles status hereditary, gave them full control over their serfs – could sell them •No merchant class So much for all that “liberty” talk! If we complain, we will be whipped and imprisoned for life! So much for all that “liberty” talk! If we complain, we will be whipped and imprisoned for life!
    • 23. Enlightened Despot •Friend of Voltaire and other philosophes •Patronized the arts, created Hermitage Museum •Increased education – especially for girls •Created medical commission – took first vaccine in Russia and improved medical conditions •Encouraged modernization of agriculture and industry •Relaxed censorship laws •Friend of Voltaire and other philosophes •Patronized the arts, created Hermitage Museum •Increased education – especially for girls •Created medical commission – took first vaccine in Russia and improved medical conditions •Encouraged modernization of agriculture and industry •Relaxed censorship laws Catherine the Great Catherine believed that all citizens are equal and subject to the same laws! Did you know that Catherine is actually a pen pal of Voltaire! Catherine believed that all citizens are equal and subject to the same laws! Did you know that Catherine is actually a pen pal of Voltaire!
    • 24. The Pugachev Rebellion Pugachev's Rebellion (or the Cossack Rebellion) of 1774-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in Russia after Catherine II seized power in 1762. It began as an organized insurrection of Cossacks headed by Emelyan Pugachev, a disaffected ex-lieutenant of the Russian Imperial army. After the initial success, Pugachev assumed leadership of an alternative government and claimed to be the assassinated Tsar Peter III. Tsar Peter III Emelyan Pugachev Reaction of Peasants
    • 25. Reaction of Peasants Set up gov’t in Ukraine – abolished serfdom, did away with taxes, threw out compulsory military service Catherine mobilized against him – captured him and brought him to St. Petersburg in a cage and killed. Set up gov’t in Ukraine – abolished serfdom, did away with taxes, threw out compulsory military service Catherine mobilized against him – captured him and brought him to St. Petersburg in a cage and killed. Catherine the Great Pugachev’s "royal decrees" or ukases were copied and sent to villages. In these documents, he promised to grant the people land, salt, and grain. He would lower taxes, stop military conscription and free the serfs. Pugachev’s "royal decrees" or ukases were copied and sent to villages. In these documents, he promised to grant the people land, salt, and grain. He would lower taxes, stop military conscription and free the serfs. These villainous nobles must be executed! Catherine cages me like she cages all the peasants of Russia! These villainous nobles must be executed! Catherine cages me like she cages all the peasants of Russia!
    • 26. Expanded the Empire Added 200,000 square miles to empire Won Crimean Black Sea port from Ottomans Pushed for colonization of Siberia – Claimed Alaska Partitioned Poland with Prussia and Austria Added 200,000 square miles to empire Won Crimean Black Sea port from Ottomans Pushed for colonization of Siberia – Claimed Alaska Partitioned Poland with Prussia and Austria Catherine the Great We have finally annexed the Crimea and have a warm water port into the Mediterranean! We have finally annexed the Crimea and have a warm water port into the Mediterranean!
    • 27. Bio- Poem Catherine the Great Line 1 - Name of ruler Line 2 - “Ruler/Leader of.....” Line 3 - Three traits that describe the ruler Line 4 - “Who has helped to” (2 good things) Line 5 - “But also ”(2 bad things) Line 6 - “Who will be remembered because of...”
    • 28. Coercive Labor: Western Europe vs. Eastern Europe Western Europe Eastern Europe Lack of labor Monarchs allow peasants to hire out their labor Peasants leave for towns and cities chartered by the monarch Peasants pay taxes to monarchs; monarchs now build standing armies, infrastructure and navies Allows kings to control the nobles Limits on the nobility allows merchant class to develop Expansion and trade Plantations and slavery Lack of labor Tsar increases peasant obligations to the nobles Nobles have near total control of the serfs Tsars cannot control the nobles Pugachev Rebellion ends with the help of the nobles Catherine squashes towns and cities No merchant class develops in Russia Serfs remain property of nobles Nobles can sell serfs apart from the land

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