Do Now: If Tsar Peter the Great is cutting off the beards of nobles to make them look like Western Europeans, what other kinds of changes do you think he will bring to Russia? Tsar Peter the Great with a pair of shears, about to remove the beard of a conservative subject.
Aim: How did Peter the Great try to change the Russian Empire in the time period 1450-1750? Easter in Moscow in the 1600s. The Churches reflect Russian architectural traditions, but the wall design was created by Italian and English architects.
What is “Westernization”?
An attempt to incorporate the culture, attributes and especially the technology of the Western world (Western Europe).
Consider: What do you think might keep Peter’s dream of a westernized Russia from happening?
RISE OF RUSSIA HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? POLITICAL WESTERNIZED METHODS OLD RUSSIAN METHODS Centralized Feudal gov’t – Prince ruled with help of the Noble landlords (Boyars.) Major decisions were made by the prince and confirmed by the Boyar Duma. A bureaucracy (prikazy) developed – conducted everyday rule. Secret police used for control. Military expansion used to gain loyalty, church-state unity Centralized gov’t – led by Czar as aristocratic power declined, Enlightenment ideals adopted (Enlightened Despots) Developed schools, literacy, science Censored some western literature, upgraded military
HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? SOCIAL Orthodox Religion dominated, Heroic epics, music, festivals, onion shaped domes religious art icon painting, written history, strong family ties, many relatives women seen as inferior, strict role Italian architects design buildings and palaces Royal Court spoke French, perform ballet Advanced schools for elite, culture gap develops between elite and commoners
HOW DID WESTERNIZATION IMPACT RUSSIA? ECONOMIC Agricultural - primitive methods, local consumption small merchant class, small cities, no major technological changes Based on serfdom (Coercive labor) enforced feudal system Developed trade network - manufactured goods, furs, timber, wheat, begin to use natural resources Government regulations, created Port city of St. Petersburg (Window to the West)
Peter the Great’s Westernization Reforms
Traveled secretly in Western Europe to learn the new __________ and __________ techniques.
Brought western European artisans and technicians back to Russia.
Built a modern Western European style __________________.
Imitated Western European artistic and _______________ styles
Imported Western European – especially ________ - manners to the royal court.
Made the nobles dress in Western European clothes and learn French and English.
science military army and navy architectural French
Building A Glorious Empire in Russia Louis XIV’s Versailles Palace Peter The Great’s Winter Palace What was Peter trying to tell the world by building a palace like this one? Answer as if you are Peter.
A Westernized Russia?
How much impact do you think Peter’s Westernization program had on their lives?
How do you think they felt about their local noble dressing like a Westerner?
Though photographed in the late 19th century, these woodchoppers look much like their ancestors during the time of Peter the Great.
Based on this graphic, what effect do you think Peter’s reforms were having on the Russian civilization? Predict: Do you think Russia will be able to compete with Europe in spite of the cultural and economic split between the nobles and the peasants?
The Church of Our Savior on Spilled Blood 1905 and Today
Magnificent Great Palace at Petrodvorets, Peterhof (a place outside St Petersburg), the abundance of fountains, gold and greenery.
Catherine the Great Reaction of Peasants Expanded the Empire Enlightened Despot Treatment of Social Classes Freed nobles from state services and taxes Made nobles status hereditary, gave them full control over their serfs – could sell them No merchant class Friend of Voltaire and other philosophes Patronized the arts, created Hermitage Museum Increased education – especially for girls Created medical commission – took first vaccine in Russia and improved medical conditions Encouraged modernization of agriculture and industry Relaxed censorship law Pugachev Rebellion (1773-1774) Emilian Pugachev led cossack revolt Claimed he was Peter III Set up gov’t in Ukraine – abolished serfdom, did away with taxes, threw compulsory military service Catherine mobilized against him – captured him and brought to St.Petersburg in a cage and killed. Added 200,000 square miles to empire Won Crimean Black Sea port from Ottomans Pushed for colonization of Siberia – Claimed Alaska Partitioned Poland with Prussia and Austria