Reformation and science revPresentation Transcript
The Reformation and the Scientific Revolution
“ There could not have been a Protestant Reformation had there not been a Renaissance first.” 1. The strongest support for the idea expressed in this quotation is based on the fact that the Renaissance encouraged: A. Rejection of the Bible as a guide to life B. Strict observance of Christian doctrine C. A questioning spirit D. A lack of interest in classical knowledge E. The rejection of humanism C. A questioning spirit
Martin Luther Martin Luther was born into a world dominated by the Catholic Church, which holds spiritual dominion over all the nations of Europe. Caught in a thunderstorm and terrified by the possibility of imminent death, he vows to become a monk. For the keenly spiritual Luther, the Church's promise of salvation is irresistible.
Scene from the movie “Luther” Scene 3 – Steps to Rome ( start at 8:20, end at paper dropping at 13:17) QUESTION TO PONDER: 2. How would you summarize what Luther believes is wrong with the Catholic Church? But after entering the monastery, Luther becomes increasingly doubtful that the Church can actually offer him salvation at all. His views crystallize even further with a trip to Rome , where he finds that the capital of Catholicism is swamped in corruption.
Indulgences Wracked by despair, Luther finally finds release in the pages of the Bible, when he discovers that it is not the Church, but his own individual faith that will guarantee his salvation. John Tetzel was given the task of raising money for the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. He was exceptionally good at it, and his claims for the effect of indulgences were exceptionally extreme and superstitious. “ As soon as the gold in the casket rings; the rescued soul to heaven springs”
What does Luther do? Scene 8 Papal Politics ( start at 38 min, end at 41:45) QUESTIONS TO PONDER: 3. What does Luther do to show his displeasure with the church? 4. How do people react to Luther’s ideas? 5. How do his ideas spread? Luther PROTESTS the Roman Catholic Church with the goal of REFORMING corrupt church policies. This movement becomes known as the ______________________________ Protestant Reformation
The 95 Theses Questions the papal practice of asking payment—called "indulgences"—for the forgiveness of sins. In 1517, He nails 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany Condemns the excesses and corruption of the church
Printing Press Luther was not only a revolutionary thinker, he would also benefit from a revolutionary technology: the newly invented Printing Press. A single pamphlet would be carried from one town to another, where it would be translated and duplicated in a further print run of thousands. Within three months, all Europe was awash with copies of Luther's 95 Theses.
Diet of Worms QUESTION TO PONDER: 6. What happens to Martin Luther as a result of his speaking out? Scene 13 – A Simple Reply ( start at 1:15 – 1:20) A copy of the 95 Theses made its way to Rome, and efforts began to convince Luther to change his tune. He was summoned to the Diet of Worms in 1521 where he was put on trial and asked to recant his criticisms of the church.
In 1521 Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church. Luther again refused to recant his writings before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Germany, who issued the famous Edict of Worms. He declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic and gave permission for anyone to kill him without consequence. Protected by Prince Frederick, Luther began working on a German translation of the Bible, a task that took 10 years to complete. "I would never have thought that such a storm would rise from Rome over one simple scrap of paper..." (Martin Luther)
Lutheranism 1. Only through faith alone could you find salvation. 2. All Church teachings should be based on the Bible (and it should be in vernacular language) 3. All people with faith were equal. Priests are not needed to interpret the Bible. Denied the power of the Pope. Luther’s 3 basic ideas: His stand became a legend and inspired a continent-wide revolution, ending the thousand-year old domination of the Church. But as the reformation expanded into a movement for social freedom, Luther found himself overwhelmed by the pace of change. His theological reformation had become a social revolution.
John Calvin John Calvin was a lawyer, but, like Luther, he was saturated with the ideas of humanism. He was dedicated to the reformation of the church and he got his chance to do it when the citizens of Geneva revolted against their rulers in the 1520's.
Geneva: The City of God In 1541, Calvin created a strict theocracy in Geneva. The Church government stressed religious education and a wide range of disciplinary actions covering sexual morality, dancing, gambling, swearing, and tavern attendance among other things. Calvin's goal was to integrate church and state so that they would work together to serve God. Although there was significant resistance, Calvin finally succeeded in establishing control in 1555.
Calvinism Salvation is achieved through faith alone The Bible is the only source of religious truth. Calvin believed that a Christian's life had to be active, practical and serve a purpose. He believed that all occupations in a society were "callings" from God and should be approached with focus and diligence. The Doctrine of Predestination Each person was born predestined for heaven or hell. The "elect" would be headed for heaven, and they could be identified by their faith, good conduct, and success. Predestination appealed to the trade-minded merchant class in many countries.
King Henry VIII Wanted to make England one of the great European powers. Henry passes the Act of Supremacy and founded the Church of England. He forged a strong role for England in European politics and created the foundations of the modern British church and state. I will not grant you an annulment! Then I shall leave the Roman Catholic Church and start my own Anglican Church! Pope Clement, My wife will not bear me a son! I want an annulment!
The Wives of Henry VIII Anne Boelyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleaves Katherine Howard Katherine Parr Catherine of Aragon DIVORCED DIVORCED DIED SURVIVED! "King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded."
Catholic Counter Reformation So, the Church was losing members and support. They jumped on the bandwagon and launched their own reforms to strengthen and spread the Catholic religion. Council of Trent (1545) – Meeting of church leaders to reform the church. 1. Church’s interpretation of the Bible is final 2. Christian’s need faith and good works for salvation. 3. Stopped church corruption and educated clergy.
Results Of the Reformation
The Reformation led to the growth of the Protestant religion
Europe became religiously divided
Pope and church lost power, while monarchs gained it and nations formed.
Counter Catholic Reformation
2. Which of the following most accurately describes the nature of popular support for Luther’s religious reform movement? A) Luther failed to attract the support of the German princes because he advocated the overthrow of their authority in favor of unification under the Holy Roman Empire. B) German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories. C) The poor supported Luther’s movement in return for Luther’s promise of redistribution of land and property. D) German merchants refused to support Lutheranism, because the reform movement was less favorable to money-making than Catholicism. E) Support for Lutheranism was uniform across the Holy Roman Empire.
The Scientific Revolution
Hello, my name is Galileo Galilei, I’m one of a handful of people that brought about great changes in Europe. I’ll tell you a tale of my journey as well as the journey of others. Thanks Luth, I’ll take over for awhile.
Well, the Renaissance and Reformation really got the ball rolling in creating a new spirit of inquiry. They inspired us scientists to start questioning traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. It all took place in Europe during the 15 th and 16 th centuries . One of the first things we decided was that the old way of doing science was too outdated, so we came up with this idea that we call the Scientific Method . Yes, the same thing that you still learn in your science classes today was created hundreds of years ago in Europe.
The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how the universe works.
3. Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on B. experimentation and observation E. the ideas of the absolute monarch A. the experiences of past civilizations C. emotions and feelings D. the teachings of the Catholic Church B. experimentation and observation
With this way of studying the world around us, scientists really started to make great strides in putting things in a new perspective about the world around us. My buddy Nicky , ( Nicolaus Copernicus for those of you who are not down with him) , developed the heliocentric model of the universe. This states that the sun is at the center, and that the earth revolves around it.
Despite his calculations, many scholars disagree with his theories and continue to believe in the geocentric model proposed by the ancient Greek Ptolemy 1500 years earlier. So, I was just a little bit off…. it seemed like a good idea at the time.
I, Galileo continued Copernicus' work by observing the skies with a homemade telescope . Although I was able to prove Copernicus correct, my work was rejected by the Church and I was forced to recant (take back) or face execution. This is where I come in...that’s me with my homemade telescope….pretty cool, huh!?
Isaac Newton built upon the earlier work of Copernicus and Galileo and used mathematics to describe gravity as the force that keeps planets revolving around the sun. He also explained that this same force is what causes objects to fall to earth. It’s okay, don’t be afraid to say it…. you’re digging my hair.
Results: The success of the Scientific Revolution and Europe’s increasing wealth led to the Enlightenment in the 1700s. Enlightenment thinkers believed that by applying reason and science, they could better understand nature and human society. They questioned the divine right of kings, the privileges of the nobility, and the power of the Church. Thanks a lot guys! Thanks a lot guys! Thanks a lot guys!
4. During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they D. examined natural laws governing the universe E. Often came up with theories to suit their own needs A. relied heavily on the ideas of medieval thinkers. B. favored an absolute monarchy as a way of improving economic conditions C. received support from the Catholic Church D. examined natural laws governing the universe