Osman led group of Turks in the Anatolian Peninsula
Began to expand power by taking over the Bosporus and Dardanelle straits.
Developed an elite military guard, The Janissaries, and a strong naval fleet.
Defeated the Serbs in the Balkans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and began to dominate the region.
Major Leaders Mehmet II
Mehmet II: 1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror”
1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople
and conquered the Byzantine Empire.
Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital.
The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate”
“ What a city we have given to plunder and destruction.” Turks vs Europeans
The Fall of Constantinople: 1453
Major Leaders Suleyman the Magnificent
Suleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan
Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts
Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean
Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools
Major Achievement The Suleimaniye Mosque
The Golden Age of the Ottomans
The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians Led by Sultan – Absolute power Chief minister, or adviser, to the Sultan GrandVizier Viziers Positions were based on merit, not birth. Provincial Governors (Beys) And Military elite - The Janissaries Heads of Individual Religious Millets Process of succession was not distinct – could cause conflict Who do you think had the real power?
Collection of Taxes in Suleyman’s Court The Janissaries How were the Janissaries similar to the eunuchs?
Religious Beliefs and Policies
Ottomans were Sunni Muslims
Sultans claimed the title of Caliph – guided and
maintained Islamic Law
Religious advisors – Ulema – set up schools
Conversations between Christians and Muslims
Tolerant of Non-Muslims
Non-Muslims had to pay a tax, Jiyza,
but could freely practice religion
Janissaries protected religious
Social Structure/Role of Women
Four main Occupational Classes: peasants,
artisans, merchants, pastoral peoples.
Merchants were most privileged, exempt
from taxes and gov’t regulations.
Women treated better
than other Islamic states
Could own and inherit
Were not forced to marry
and could seek a divorce
Some gained political
power as officials and
The Harem “Sacred Place”
Sultan’s wives and concubines
resided in private domain
Sultan chose four wives as his
When a son was chosen as a
Sultan, mother became “Queen
Mother” and gained power
Restored city of Constantinople (Istanbul)
Turned Hagia Sophia into a Mosque
Major Achievements Art work: Picture of Angel Gabriel visiting Muhammad Illuminated Qur’an Prayer rugs and textiles What is unusual about this painting?
Major Achievements Scholars in astronomy and medicine. (Galata Observatory, 1557) Architecture – Sinan, most famous architect Blue Mosque Bazaars, hospitals, ceramics, silk
Decline of Ottoman Empire
The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571
Major naval battle between Spanish and Ottomans
Spanish victory gave hope to Christian empires that Turks could be stopped.
Decline of Ottoman Empire
Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries
Vague process of succession
Internal government corruption
Empire became too large to control
Loss of loyalty – no more land to conquer and give away
Lack of military technology
Silk Road Trade monopoly ended – European water routes
Inflation due influx of silver
Did not industrialize – craft guilds
I’ll stop Jafar! Maybe I can be Sultan!
The Ottoman Empire During the 16 c Ottoman Empire will last until 1917 It’s a whole new world!
Mughal Empire Unit III 1450-1750
Rise In Power Babur invaded and conquered Northern India. So began the Mughal Dynasty in 1526. The Mughals trace their heritage back to the Mongols (1258-1335) and the Timurids (1370-1501).
Babur (r. 1526-1530)
Military general who led his people to victory
Writer, loved music and art
Did little to administer the empire
Akbar (r. 1556-1605)
Great military commander
Expanded the dynasty to twice the size of what it was
Accepted Hinduism –
allowed intermarriage, no tax on non-Muslims, Hindus allowed high gov’t positions, allowed Hindu temples to be built
Created the Din-i-Ilahi
Patron of the arts
Not the best ruler
Jahangir indulged in courtly luxuries, such as opium
Strong political and artistic influence of his wife, queen Nur Jahan
Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707)
Shah Jahan (r.1628-1658)
Patron of the arts
Taj Mahal for his wife
Restored Jaziya, the tax on non-Muslims.
Razed temples, built mosques on their foundations.
Forbade building of new temples, banned music at court,
Form of Government
Emperor had absolute power
Vazirs – royal officials
Patrons of the arts
Wives of emperors gained power
Anyone could gain high office
Religious Beliefs / Policy
Belief in God – Islamic
Muslim and Hindu subjects
Akbar and the Din-i-Ilahi faith
Aurangzeb – Did not tolerate Hindus
Role of Women
Elite women gained influence
Women were patrons of the arts
The Mughal's treated women with respect. Babur and his officials often asked women for their reasons and information on political affairs; women could own land and they were paid salaries for their work; they were educated and they learned how to paint and write poetry; and women could participate in business activities.
Artwork – influence from Europe
Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Akbar’s Tomb
Literature: Baburnama (literally: "Book of Babur“)