Japan and the Meiji Restoration
The Opening and Modernization of JapanThe Opening and Modernization of Japan
Period V: 175...
Tokugawa Period (1600-1868)
• ___________________
• Ruled by Shogun, Emperor as a figurehead
• Capital City of Edo (Tokyo)...
Tokugawa Period (1600-1868)
• Highly regulated trade
• Limited trade with
China, Korea and Dutch
Arrival of the United Sta...
Growing Commercialization
• By 1750, world’s most urbanized country
• Edo was largest city in world– 1 million people
• Em...
1853: The Arrival of the United States
_____________ Makes “Friends” with Japan_____________ Makes “Friends” with Japan
In...
Gunboat Diplomacy
Perry returned in 1854.
This time he appeared with seven ships - four
sailing ships, three steamers – an...
The Treaty of Kanagawa
In 1854 the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed which established:
1. ___________________ friendship betw...
The last Tokugawa Shogun
Sakamoto Ryoma
Unequal treaties were seen as humiliating
and some daimyo wanted to remove the
Sho...
The Meiji Restoration
Over the next generation the whole society
and its institutions were transformed to
serve the needs ...
“When I saw a hospital [abroad], I wanted to know how
it was run – who paid the running expenses; when I
visited a bank, I...
1. What Elements of traditional Japan can be seen in this scene?
2. List examples of Westernization.
1. What Elements of t...
3. Explain the Emperor’s dilemma (problem).3. Explain the Emperor’s dilemma (problem).
4. What orders were issued against the samurai? Why?4. What orders were issued against the samurai? Why?
Analyze the strategy of each army and the reactions of those involved.Analyze the strategy of each army and the reactions ...
How does this image show a change in the way the Japanese view the West?How does this image show a change in the way the J...
Political Reforms
“Rich Country, Strong Army!”
•Centralized Nation-State
•Equality under the law
•1889 – Emperor issues a
...
Economic Reforms “Rich Country, Strong Army!”
• Newly developed State Banks funded new roads, railroads
• Guilds and road ...
Reactions to Westernization
Some Samurai found new opportunities in political
and business areas
The Mitsubishi CompanyThe...
Unquestioning Admiration Of The West?
What is the main idea of this picture?
What is the author’s point of view?
Reactions to WesternizationReactions to Westernization
The Satsuma Rebellion 1877The Satsuma Rebellion 1877
Takamori Saigo...
Rebellions/Reactions – Global Context
Can you recall similar reactions/rebellions during the age of imperialism?
Hints:
• ...
Social Changes and ContinuitiesSocial Changes and Continuities
• Universal _________ system
stressing science, technology,...
Strains of ModernizationStrains of Modernization
•Poor living standards existed in crowded cities
•Political differences l...
Comparison to ChinaComparison to China
1. Compare the actions of Japan and China in these
two political cartoons.
2. What ...
Imperialism in East AsiaImperialism in East Asia
Which nation
surprisingly has
a sphere of
influence in
China?
Western ____________ was adopted which
allowed the Japanese to fully ______________
in less than 50 years. By the end of t...
Landscape art of the 16th
Century displays
themes of isolation, reflection, and simplicity.
Japanese artists and scholars,...
Meiji Restorationversion2
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  • US Civil war distracted America from the Pacific, The Taiping Rebellion and Suez Canal were seen as crucial enterprises for the West to solve. Selective borrowing enabled the Japanese to quickly modernize and avoid Western Imperialism. These factors all gave Japan the time it needed to upgrade its military and make the necessary political and economic changes to become the main power in the East.
  • Meiji Restorationversion2

    1. 1. Japan and the Meiji Restoration The Opening and Modernization of JapanThe Opening and Modernization of Japan Period V: 1750-1900Period V: 1750-1900
    2. 2. Tokugawa Period (1600-1868) • ___________________ • Ruled by Shogun, Emperor as a figurehead • Capital City of Edo (Tokyo) • Rigid Social Structure (Daimyo Samurai, peasants, artisans, merchants) • Belief Systems - Shintoism - Zen Buddhism - Prohibited Christianity Himeji Castle: Built in 1600sHimeji Castle: Built in 1600s Centralized feudalism “pacified, but not really unified”“pacified, but not really unified”
    3. 3. Tokugawa Period (1600-1868) • Highly regulated trade • Limited trade with China, Korea and Dutch Arrival of the United States
    4. 4. Growing Commercialization • By 1750, world’s most urbanized country • Edo was largest city in world– 1 million people • Emerging capitalist society – literate, educated population due to Confucian influence Problems • Peasants/samurai lured into commerce – ignored social “status” • Corruption in government • 1830 famine– people lost faith in Shogunate
    5. 5. 1853: The Arrival of the United States _____________ Makes “Friends” with Japan_____________ Makes “Friends” with Japan In July, 1853 Perry presented the Japanese Emperor with a proposed commercial and friendship treaty. He would return a year later to receive their answer. In July, 1853 Perry presented the Japanese Emperor with a proposed commercial and friendship treaty. He would return a year later to receive their answer. Matthew PerryMatthew Perry
    6. 6. Gunboat Diplomacy Perry returned in 1854. This time he appeared with seven ships - four sailing ships, three steamers – and 1600 men. So…what’s it gonna be??
    7. 7. The Treaty of Kanagawa In 1854 the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed which established: 1. ___________________ friendship between the two countries 2. proper treatment for shipwrecked Americans 3. fuel for American ships 4. two ports opened for trade In 1854 the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed which established: 1. ___________________ friendship between the two countries 2. proper treatment for shipwrecked Americans 3. fuel for American ships 4. two ports opened for trade Result:Result: The signing of this treaty signaled the end of Japanese ________.The signing of this treaty signaled the end of Japanese ________.isolation Permanent Friendship
    8. 8. The last Tokugawa Shogun Sakamoto Ryoma Unequal treaties were seen as humiliating and some daimyo wanted to remove the Shogun from power. Unequal treaties were seen as humiliating and some daimyo wanted to remove the Shogun from power. Sakamoto Ryoma created a plan for Japan to modernize and unify under the rule of the Emperor. He convinced the Shogun to resign. He was assassinated shortly after by a pro-Shogun supporter. Sakamoto Ryoma created a plan for Japan to modernize and unify under the rule of the Emperor. He convinced the Shogun to resign. He was assassinated shortly after by a pro-Shogun supporter. Shogun Yoshinobu “Revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians”
    9. 9. The Meiji Restoration Over the next generation the whole society and its institutions were transformed to serve the needs of _____________. Over the next generation the whole society and its institutions were transformed to serve the needs of _____________. By 1868, a group of young samurai claimed that they were restoring power to ___________, the 15 year old Japanese Emperor. By 1868, a group of young samurai claimed that they were restoring power to ___________, the 15 year old Japanese Emperor. This period is known as the ______________ Meiji meaning ______________. This period is known as the ______________ Meiji meaning ______________. Mutsuhito Meiji Restoration modernization Enlightened Rule
    10. 10. “When I saw a hospital [abroad], I wanted to know how it was run – who paid the running expenses; when I visited a bank, I wanted to learn how the money was deposited and paid out. By similar firsthand questions, I learned something of the postal system and the military conscription (draft). A perplexing institution was representative government.” “When I saw a hospital [abroad], I wanted to know how it was run – who paid the running expenses; when I visited a bank, I wanted to learn how the money was deposited and paid out. By similar firsthand questions, I learned something of the postal system and the military conscription (draft). A perplexing institution was representative government.” Fukuzawa Yukichi Japanese Scholar Selective Borrowing Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 U.S. Civil War 1861-1865Suez Canal 1858-1869 World Events
    11. 11. 1. What Elements of traditional Japan can be seen in this scene? 2. List examples of Westernization. 1. What Elements of traditional Japan can be seen in this scene? 2. List examples of Westernization.
    12. 12. 3. Explain the Emperor’s dilemma (problem).3. Explain the Emperor’s dilemma (problem).
    13. 13. 4. What orders were issued against the samurai? Why?4. What orders were issued against the samurai? Why?
    14. 14. Analyze the strategy of each army and the reactions of those involved.Analyze the strategy of each army and the reactions of those involved.
    15. 15. How does this image show a change in the way the Japanese view the West?How does this image show a change in the way the Japanese view the West? Hiking Through The West, 1870- Kanagaki Robun Un-enlightened ManHalf-enlightened Man Enlightened Man You guys are soooo last year. Hey, you’ve got to keep up with the times. This fraud in the top hat is a disgrace to Japanese culture.
    16. 16. Political Reforms “Rich Country, Strong Army!” •Centralized Nation-State •Equality under the law •1889 – Emperor issues a “voluntary gift” to the people – a constitution •Developed a Parliament called the Diet •Emperor still had power – influenced by oligarchy •Centralized Nation-State •Equality under the law •1889 – Emperor issues a “voluntary gift” to the people – a constitution •Developed a Parliament called the Diet •Emperor still had power – influenced by oligarchy Military Reforms •Abolished Samurai class •No longer allowed to carry swords •Created modern army based on conscription from all classes •Created modern navy •Abolished Samurai class •No longer allowed to carry swords •Created modern army based on conscription from all classes •Created modern navy
    17. 17. Economic Reforms “Rich Country, Strong Army!” • Newly developed State Banks funded new roads, railroads • Guilds and road tariffs abolished to create national market • Land reform/new agricultural techniques increased food • Government dominated mines, shipyards, heavy industry • Created postal system, commercial laws, schools • Newly developed State Banks funded new roads, railroads • Guilds and road tariffs abolished to create national market • Land reform/new agricultural techniques increased food • Government dominated mines, shipyards, heavy industry • Created postal system, commercial laws, schools Silk factories 1915 Private Enterprise in the Textile Industry Silk factories 1915 Private Enterprise in the Textile Industry New Western style public educationNew Western style public education State Sponsored Industry: Ministry of Industry 1870State Sponsored Industry: Ministry of Industry 1870
    18. 18. Reactions to Westernization Some Samurai found new opportunities in political and business areas The Mitsubishi CompanyThe Mitsubishi Company • 1868- Iwasaki Yataro won government contracts for railroad and steamship lines and competed with British • Created a loyal management group of former samurai • Expanded business to include shipbuilding, mining, transportation and banking. “Zaibatsu” families – Large firms that owned most private industry “Zaibatsu” families – Large firms that owned most private industry Iwasaki Yataro
    19. 19. Unquestioning Admiration Of The West? What is the main idea of this picture? What is the author’s point of view?
    20. 20. Reactions to WesternizationReactions to Westernization The Satsuma Rebellion 1877The Satsuma Rebellion 1877 Takamori Saigo: The Last Samurai Many samurai were desperate with their situation and the loss of their former status. They gathered under Takamori Saigo and fought the battle of Satsuma In 1877. It was a clash of traditional samurai weapons against a modern army. 60,000 government troops faced 40,000 rebels. The battle was a short one. The samurai rebels were completely defeated in a bloody battle. Takamori Saigo was wounded and committed suicide in samurai tradition. He became a hero for the Japanese.
    21. 21. Rebellions/Reactions – Global Context Can you recall similar reactions/rebellions during the age of imperialism? Hints: • All felt threatened by Western imperialism and the changes that modern life and technology would have on their cultures. • All made calls for a return to the “true” traditional values of their culture and to purify themselves. •All believed that by being truly traditional they would have the spiritual power to overcome the immoral Westerners and their modern technology. • All fought bravely even though it was essentially suicide to go up against the Western powers. • All failed. Zulu Wars Taiping Rebellion Boxer Rebellion Sepoy Mutiny
    22. 22. Social Changes and ContinuitiesSocial Changes and Continuities • Universal _________ system stressing science, technology, and loyalty to the nation. • Adopted western fashions in dress, personal care, calendar, metric system • ____________ led to smaller families, high divorce rate, poor treatment of workers •High taxes caused poverty and violent protests •Efforts to create unions and strikes were met with harsh repression Changes: Continuities: • _________ gained followers, loyalty to the emperor. • Women still seen as _______ - some daughters were sold • Confucian based moral instruction, formalities, and diet remained constant •Tradition of selective borrowing •Pride and honor in military power education Urbanization Shintoism inferior
    23. 23. Strains of ModernizationStrains of Modernization •Poor living standards existed in crowded cities •Political differences led to instability and frequent assassinations of leaders •Constant questioning and debate about ______________ •Disgruntled _________ class • Need for raw materials Problems:Problems: Solutions:Solutions: •Urged loyalty to the Emperor as a center of _______________ •Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 •Russo-Japanese War 1904 •Imperialism of Korea: Annexed in 1910 Westernizatio n Samuarai national identity Empire of the Rising Sun
    24. 24. Comparison to ChinaComparison to China 1. Compare the actions of Japan and China in these two political cartoons. 2. What do you think led to the condition of each nation?
    25. 25. Imperialism in East AsiaImperialism in East Asia Which nation surprisingly has a sphere of influence in China?
    26. 26. Western ____________ was adopted which allowed the Japanese to fully ______________ in less than 50 years. By the end of the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese no longer feared that they would be _____________. Rather, they set out to practice imperialism themselves to obtain power and ________ __________. Japan was quickly emerging as a world-class power using western technology and methods while still maintaining its ___________ _________ values. Final ThoughtsFinal Thoughts technology industrialize imperialized natural traditional resources cultural This period was known as the _____ _____________.Meiji Restoration
    27. 27. Landscape art of the 16th Century displays themes of isolation, reflection, and simplicity. Japanese artists and scholars, emulated their Chinese mentors. This reflective, somewhat romantic ink landscape includes pale touches of red and yellow. Japanese Art Over Time
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