Maurya and Gupta Empire

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Maurya and Gupta Empire

  1. 1. Maurya & Gupta India
  2. 2. The Maurya Empire 321 BCE – 185 BCE
  3. 4. <ul><li>Unified northern India. Indus to Ganges </li></ul><ul><li>First unified centralized government in India </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the Macedon/Persian general Seleucus. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>He feared assassination  Used spies, food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>301 BCE  gave up his throne & became a Jainist Monk. Some say he starved himself to death. </li></ul>Chandragupta : 321 BCE-298 BCE
  4. 5. Kautilya <ul><li>Chandragupta’s advisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a bureaucratic administrative system that made policies for empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra . </li></ul><ul><li>A guide for the king and his ministers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports royal power. 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The great evil in society is anarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Kautilya advising Chandragupta
  6. 7. Ashoka the Great
  7. 8. Ashoka the Great
  8. 9. Ashoka’s Government Utilized tightly organized bureaucracy Rock and Pillar Edicts – imperial laws based on Buddhist values Set up a central treasury to oversee collection of taxes – used to support officials soldiers, others Established capital city at Pataliputra Stable government led to growing economy and expansion of agriculture Built system of roads that connected major cities
  9. 10. Ashoka the Great
  10. 11. Ashoka (304 – 232 BCE) <ul><li>Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in 262 BCE. 100,000 died </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated his life to Buddhism . Ahimsa “Peace” </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict  how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person? </li></ul>
  11. 13. Ashoka’s Empire
  12. 14. Ashoka’s law code <ul><li>Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Written mostly in Sanskrit , but one was in Greek and Aramaic. </li></ul><ul><li>10 rock edicts, Each pillar [ stupa ] is 40’-50’ high. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist principles dominated laws. ( Conversion/spread of Buddhism,Moral codes,Conservation, Protection of animals ) </li></ul>
  13. 15. Ashoka’s Edicts
  14. 16. Women Under an Ashoka tree
  15. 17. Turmoil & a power Vacuum: 220 BCE – 320 CE Tamils The Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms.
  16. 18. Gupta Empire: 320 CE – 647 CE
  17. 19. Gupta Rulers <ul><li>Chandra Gupta I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r. 320 – 335 CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Great King of Kings” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu revival. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chandra Gupta II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r. 375 - 415 CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huns invade–450 CE </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Fa-Hsien (Faxian): Life in Gupta India <ul><li>Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c. </li></ul><ul><li>He was following the path of the Buddha. </li></ul><ul><li>He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including &quot;untouchability,&quot; the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Chandra Gupta II
  20. 22. International Trade Routes during the Guptas
  21. 23. Extensive Trade: Land Route = Silk Road Water Route = Indian Ocean spices spices gold & ivory gold & ivory rice & wheat horses cotton goods cotton goods silks Pearls
  22. 24. Kalidasa <ul><li>The greatest of Indian poets. </li></ul><ul><li>His most famous play was Shakuntala . </li></ul><ul><li>During the reign of Chandra Gupta II. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
  24. 26. Medicine Literature Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Kalidasa Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements Mahabbarata Ramayana
  25. 27. The Decline of the Guptas <ul><li>Invasion of the White Huns in the 4 th century signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age , even though at first, the Guptas defeated them. </li></ul><ul><li>After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 17 th century. QUESTION : Is the best literature and art written as the civilization is on the rise, at its height, or in its decline? </li></ul>
  26. 28. Bhartrhari <ul><li>5c India court poet and philosopher. </li></ul>Knowledge is man's crowning mark, A treasure secretly buried, The source of luxury, fame, and bliss, A guru most venerable, A friend on foreign journeys, The pinnacle of divinity. Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth--- When he lacks it, a man is a brute.
  27. 29. Gupta Review Draw another frame to the cartoon that reflects why the Gupta is a Classic Empire.

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