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Latin america and africa ap test review

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  • 1. UNIT IV: 1450-1750 Latin America and Africa
  • 2. Conquest of Aztecs and Incas Cortes and Pizarro
  • 3. Castas System
    • Power of the Roman Catholic Church
    • Towns organized in Spanish style
    • Schools built
    • Printing Press
    • Baroque churches
    • Form of authority
  • 4. Latin American Colonies
    • Encomienda System – Harsh treatment of Native Americans forced to work on Haciendas
    • Encomiendas discontinued by Spanish Crown
    • Population of cattle increases as population of Native Americans decreases
    • Bartolome de Las Casas
    • African slave labor used to support the plantation system (sugar)
    • Largest producer of sugar in world - first half of 17 th C.
    • Cash Crops – coffee, tobacco, cotton, etc…
    SUGAR!
  • 5. Latin American Colonies
    • Mita System – Harsh treatment of Native Americans forced to work in the Mines
    • Mined mercury, silver, gold
    • African slave labor used to support the silver industry
    • Spanish used silver to pay debts, build navy, fight wars, and to buy manufactured goods
    • China became silver sink!
    • Too much silver produced – loses value and causes inflation in Spain
    SILVER!
  • 6. Latin American Colonies
    • Portuguese started trade along West African coast
    • New World needed labor supply – coerced labor
    • Growth of sugar plantations – Brazil and Caribbean
    • African slave labor used to support the silver industry
    • British colonies allowed slaves to have families and reproduce
    • Latin American colonies depended more on imported Africans
    • Over 12 million Africans were forced into slavery – some rebellions occurred
    SLAVES!
  • 7.  
  • 8. African Slave Trade
    • Asante, Benin, and Kongo
    • Centralized with absolute monarchs – Asantehene, Uzama…
    • Kingdoms built on or strengthened by the European slave trade
    • Population explosions due to improved agriculture, technology and use of slave labor
    • Traded guns for slaves to Europeans along coastal enclaves or trading forts: Luanda in Portuguese colony of Angola
    • Portuguese started as slave transporters but then used slaves in Madeira and the Canary Islands
    West African Kingdoms!
  • 9. African Slave Trade
    • Swahili trading cities
    • Traded ivory, gold, slaves, cloves
    • Used slaves on clove plantations
    • Trans-Saharan slave trade – mostly women for Islamic Harems
    • Indian Ocean trade: Malindi, Sofala, Zanzibar and Kilwa.
    East African Kingdoms!
  • 10. Columbian Exchange
    • People, goods, ideas, diseases, animals were all exchanged between Africa, Europe and The Americas
    Triangle Trade