<ul><li>Universities began as cathedral schools and were exclusively for men who were entering the clergy. </li></ul><ul><li>Most early universities did not have a campus and facilities as we have today. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities were more like academic guilds – students and faculty would band together to get better deals on lodging, board and meeting rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Students also had more say in the running of the university and could fine their professors for not arriving to class on time. </li></ul>
Bologna, Paris and Oxford were some of the earliest universities. By the 15 th century universities had sprung up all over Europe.
What did the students study? <ul><li>Trivium – grammar, logic and rhetoric. </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrivium – geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, music. </li></ul><ul><li>Professions – law, medicine, theology. </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees were awarded after 3-5 years of study and the professor thought the student had reached a level of proficiency in the discipline. </li></ul>
What role did universities play in European society? <ul><li>Provided a forum for discussion and intellectual pursuit . </li></ul><ul><li>Since all universities read essentially the same texts (and read them in Latin) they brought greater cultural uniformity to Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided the European kingdoms with a small educated class that could assume important government and religious roles in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Created criteria for education and teaching – not unlike the apprentice system in the guilds. </li></ul>
Did you know? Students and faculty were easy targets for thieves and other troublemakers. A professor would carry a mace as he walked to class with his students for protection. Faculty at universities today still carry a ritual mace at graduation ceremonies.
What is wrong with this carving of medieval university students?
Long term impact universities had on Europe <ul><li>Medieval Europe was not a ‘dark age’. </li></ul><ul><li>The High Middle Ages was a time of innovation in art, architecture, and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades led to cultural diffusion with Byzantine and Islamic Empires. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities provided an educated class which could run government and religious institutions as well as setting the stage for the Renaissance and the Reformation. </li></ul>
Economics: New Rules: Guilds, Towns and Commerce
Formation of Guilds <ul><li>Renewed contact with the Islamic world created new opportunities for trade . </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant guilds provided greater security and less risk of losses than did individual action. </li></ul><ul><li>Craft guilds determined quality, quantity and price of the goods that they produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided social safety nets for funeral expenses and pensions for widows and family members. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Guild System: A hierarchy of people who make up the work force or play an important role in the economy of a trade or trades. </li></ul></ul>Purpose of Guilds
Stained glass window in Notre Dame in Paris provided by the clothe making guild. Strength In Numbers! By pooling resources guilds could become powerful players in town politics and social life . Many guilds donated items to the local church or put on fairs and other activities to improve their reputation and create more opportunities for selling their products. Formation of Guilds
Medieval Guilds Bootmaker guild Carpenter guild Bakers guild Stone mason guild Metal worker guild
<ul><li>The Apprentice System </li></ul><ul><li>Craft guilds dictated how many apprentices and journeymen each shop could employ. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict standards had to be met before a journeyman could be raised to a master and open his own business. </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of the system was felt beyond the crafts. Artists and universities employed similar systems to judge and approve artists and teachers. </li></ul>Erin… You’re Fired!
<ul><li>Women and Guilds </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the merchant guilds and universities, women were welcomed into the craft guilds . </li></ul><ul><li>In 14 th century Frankfurt 33% of all the craft and trade guilds were entirely women. </li></ul><ul><li>In 12 th century Cologne women and men had equal rights in the some guilds. </li></ul><ul><li>Women did receive lower wages for the same work, on the grounds that they needed less income. </li></ul><ul><li>Women also earned a living by money lending. Usually small loans to households for some emergency expense. </li></ul>
Winemaking guild <ul><li>Impact of Guilds </li></ul><ul><li>The High Middle Ages was a time of growth and increasing commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>New institutions were created to address new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds promoted commerce and encouraged trade – eventually leading to what we call the Age of Exploration. </li></ul>
Political Events <ul><li>In 1204, John's army was defeated in Northern France. His military standing among the nobles fell and he was given a new nickname - John Softsword. To pay for the defeat, John increased taxes which was not popular with anybody other than John and his treasurers. </li></ul><ul><li>John also succeeded in falling out with the pope in 1207. John quarreled with the pope over who should be Archbishop of Canterbury. The pope excommunicated John and put an Interdict on England. This placed people in England under a terrible strain and they blamed one person for this - John. </li></ul>King John: A Three Time Loser
The Magna Carta, 1215 <ul><li>John lost another battle to the French. This defeat resulted in England losing all her possessions in France. This was too much for the powerful barons in England. In 1214, they rebelled. </li></ul><ul><li>4. John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 . This guaranteed the people of England rights that the king could not go back on. In 1216, John tried to go back on the Magna Carta but this only provoked the barons into declaring war on him. By 1216, John was ill. During the war, he suffered from dysentery. </li></ul>
What did the Magna Carta do for the people of England?
Political Events <ul><li>Because English kings had ruled parts of France war between the two kingdoms was common. </li></ul><ul><li>The war began because the English king Edward III believed he had a right to claim the French throne . </li></ul><ul><li>The French resented the fact that large portions of France were under the control of the English – think nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>England and France were also quarreling over who controlled Flanders, which was a French holding but was influenced by England because wool from England was the mainstay of the economy of Flanders. </li></ul>The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
<ul><li>French had three times the population of England and was far wealthier. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the war was dominated by the English . </li></ul><ul><li>French failures were due to internal disunity and social conflict between the classes. </li></ul><ul><li>The French did not see themselves a “French” so they were a splintered society. </li></ul>
Weapon of Mass Destruction <ul><li>The English Longbow was the most devastating weapon on the battlefield . </li></ul><ul><li>It could pierce the thick wooden shields of the French knights and it could go through armor as well at 200 yards. </li></ul><ul><li>The Longbow made nobles in armor just as vulnerable on the battlefield as the peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>French soldiers would cut off the bow finger of English Longbow archers to show contempt for the weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>English Longbow men would frequently “display” their bow finger to the French after launching a salvo of arrows. </li></ul>HA, HA! We can still “Pluck the Yew!”
Battle of Crécy <ul><li>King Edward III moved his forces into France until they finally arrived at Crécy in 1346 with a force of 8,000. </li></ul><ul><li>The English took a defensive position in three divisions with the archers on the flanks. One of these divisions was commanded by Edward’s sixteen year old son Edward the Black Prince. </li></ul><ul><li>The French first sent out the mercenary Genoese crossbowmen, numbering between 6000 and 12,000 men. With a firing rate of three – five volleys per minute they were however no match for the English and Welsh longbow men who could fire ten – twelve arrows in the same amount of time. </li></ul>Battle of Crécy between the English and French in the Hundred Years' War. From a 15th-century illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles
Battle of Crécy <ul><li>Philip VI, after commenting on the uselessness of his archers, sent forward his cavalry who charged through and over his own crossbowmen. The English and Welsh archers and men-at-arms held them off not just once, but 16 times in total. During one of these attacks Edward’s son The Black Prince came under direct attack, but his father refused to send help, claiming he needed to ‘win his spurs’. </li></ul><ul><li>After nightfall Philip VI, himself wounded, ordered the retreat. According to one estimate French casualties included eleven princes, 1,200 knights and 12,000 soldiers killed. Edward III is said have lost a few hundred men. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A peasant girl from the Lorraine area in eastern France. </li></ul><ul><li>Presented herself to Charles VII in 1429 believing the voice of God told her to rouse the French and defeat the English . </li></ul><ul><li>Charles – all out of options – gave her permission and with a small French force liberated the city of Orleans. </li></ul><ul><li>The English were already tired and worn out so Joan’s victories came quickly and easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Joan did give the French a purpose for fighting and revived the French army. </li></ul>Joan of Arc
<ul><li>The Burgundians who were siding with the English captured Joan and the Inquisition put her on trial in the English held city of Rouen. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Maid of Orleans” was subjected to ten weeks of interrogation and she was executed as a heretic on May 30, 1431. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1435 the Duke of Burgundy made peace with Charles VII which allowed him to push the English out of France except for the coastal enclave of Calais. </li></ul>Joan of Arc
Impact of the Hundred Years’ War <ul><li>44 years of actual warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>It devastated France but also awakened French nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Hastened the end of feudalism and the movement toward a centralized state. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged England to develop their own textile industry and foreign markets so they did not have to rely on the Netherlands (Flanders). </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants in both kingdoms bore the brunt of the conflict both in terms of military service and taxes to pay for the wars of the kings. </li></ul>