Korea GeographyDo Now: Describe three aspects of Korean geography and how they impacted the people living there.1. Korea is a peninsula that sits between mainland China and the Japanese islands. Provides them with natural barriers for protection, but also acts a a “Cultural Bridge” between them.2. Jagged Coastline – Good harbors for fishing and trade3. Mountainous – natural barrier, isolation, limited farmland
The Three Kingdoms PeriodKorguryo (37 BCE-668 CE) Paekche (18 BCE-660 CE) Silla (57 BCE-668 CE) • Korguryo had thegreatest military power but had to utilize most of its resources to repel the Chinese from taking the peninsula. • Paekche was known forits construction of pagodas and temples and had friendly ties to Japan.
Capital city of Gyeongju The Silla Dynasty (668-935) Silla challenged the Japanese-Paekche trade and allied with Tang China to defeat Koguryo. They would unite the Peninsula and create a golden age. • Silla became a tributary of Tang China and borrowed and adapted Chinese systems (Buddhism and Confucianism) with their native practices – Cultural DiffusionFilm Clip
Was Korea a Part of the Silk Road?
Exhibit #1 Products of the Silk Road Items Found at Buddhist Temple site in Korea Bronze Iron scissors Glass Buddha Beads Terra Cotta figure Silver Bowl Bronze Jade Buddha ornaments Bronze buckles image and bells
Products of the Silk Road Items Found at Buddhist Temple site in Korea Bronze Iron scissors Glass Buddha Beads Terra Cotta figure Silver Bowl Bronze Jade Buddhaornaments Bronze buckles image and bells
Exhibit #2 Products of the Silk RoadHorse Head-Shaped Pottery (Rhyton)A rhyton is a Hellenistic horn-shaped drinking cup made from tusk, hornand silver or the like. Iranians of the Sassanian Dynasty made potteryrhytons in the shape of an animal’s head, such as that of sheep, cow orhorse. Sheep-headed rhyton, Horse head-shaped Iran, 6th century BCE pottery rhyton from Pokchon-dong, Pusan, 4th century CE
Exhibit #3 Products of the Silk Road Koguryo tomb mural of metalworking in Ji’an, Jilin Province, 6th centuryIn the Mediterranean and Middle East, technicians smelted ore in a smallfurnace and formed the product through smithing methods on an anvil. Thismode of ironworking diffused in the Central Asian steppe by 700 BCE.The Chinese may have experimented with iron casting and forging techniquesas early as 800 or 900 BCE, artisans of the Middle Kingdom became proficientat making iron blades and tools about 500 BCE. By 400 BCE.
Exhibit #4 Contact along the Silk Road• There was official contacts between Silla and China and between Silla and Japan.• From 675 to 907, Silla sent 103 official missions to the Tang court, but in that time frame, only seven diplomatic missions from Japan reached China. Emissary from Koguryo, Paekche and Silla going to China Purchase order (752), indicating Japanese imports from Silla included perfume, medicine, cosmetics, fabric dying materials, metallic goods, musical instruments, carpets, and measuring tools. Some were made in Silla; Others were of foreign origin, probably from Southeast Asia, India or South Asia.
The Importance and Spread of Silk Trade Ayaha-gu Ikeda Shrine in Osaka, Japan enshrines Ayaha and Kureta, two sisters who came from Korea in 306 CE, planted mulberry trees and raised silkworms. They spread the cultivation of silkworms and weaving techniques in Japan. By observing these two documents, What can we learn about Korea and the Silk Road ?Exhibit #5
Exhibit #6 Foreign Influences These are guardian sculptures created to protect the tomb of Silla King Wonsong (798 CE). The 9 foot stucco stone guards have Central Asian features with deep-set eyes, high nose ridges and headbands like those worn by Iranians. The civil officer seems to resemble the Uighur with square jaws, protruding noses, full beards and large eyes. … and then there’s that ugly one from Smithtown.
Exhibit #7 Buddhism Film Clip Chinese Buddhist monks traveled the silk road to Korea and began to spread Buddhism as early as 372 CE. Despitevehemently resisting Buddhism at first, theSilla eventually made it their state religion. Sillan monks traveled to Tang China to study, and to India to see King Asoka’s monuments and to follow Buddha’s footsteps. Korean monks also traveled east to Japan as missionaries.Korea began to see a major change in art and architecture due to the influence of Buddhism. Buddhist spirituality and its concepts of idealized beauty and contemplation were reflected in pagodas, Seokguram Grotto – Final temples, and tombs. stop on the Silk Road
The Silla and the Silk RoadWhat conclusions can we make about Korea and the Silk Road? Why has Korea been called a “Cultural Land Bridge” •The Silk road did not stop at Chang’an, but did extend eastward into Korea and Japan.•There were large numbers of Korean merchants living in port cities of Southeast China such as Guangdong and Fuzhou.•Korean merchants had access to the merchandise from the silk road and exported their own goods both as tribute and trade goods.
The Koryu Dynasty (935-1392)• By the 10th century, Silla rule weakened• 935 – A rebel officer named Wang Kon gained control of the peninsula and became King – Named Koryu Dynasty (Where Korea gets its name)Led to a golden age! Achievements in:• Organized legal system with a bureaucracyand a civil service – modeled after China but less social mobility• Society divided between landed aristocracyand the rest of the population includingmilitary, commoners, and slaves.• Led to rebellions in the 1100s but Koryeoremained in power• Decline: Mongol invasions in 1231-1350s
The Koryu Dynasty (935-1392)• Worlds first metal printing technology before Gutenberg.• World’s oldest printed book, the Jikji• World oldest surviving complete transcription of the Buddhist canons, the Tripitaka Koreana.• The world famous Celadon pottery often associated with Korea was developed within the 12th and 13th centuries• Development of Buddhism throughout the peninsula.
The First Metal Type Printing PressFILM CLIP The Jikji - 1377 16