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Imperialism in China

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  • One of the most famous British attempts to expand trade with China demonstrates the miscommunication between the two nations. Lord Macartney (George Macartney, 1737-1806) led a mission in 1793 to the court of the Qianlong emperor (1711-1799; r. 1736-1796) of China. This emperor reigned over perhaps the most luxurious court in all Chinese history. He had inherited a full treasury, and his nation seemed strong and wealthy enough to reach its greatest size ever and also to attain a splendor that outdazzled even the best Europe could then offer.King George III (1738-1820) of England sent Macartney to convince the Chinese emperor to open northern port cities to British traders and to allow British ships to be repaired on Chinese territory. Macartney arrived in North China in a warship with a retinue of 95, an artillery of 50 redcoats, and 600 packages of magnificent presents that required 90 wagons, 40 barrows, 200 horses, and 3,000 porters to carry them to Peking. Yet the best gifts of the kind of England had to offer — elaborate clocks, globes, porcelain — seemed insignificant beside the splendors of the Asian court. Taken on a yacht trip around the palace, Macartney stopped to visit 50 pavilions, each "furnished in the richest manner . . . that our presents must shrink from the comparison and hide their diminished heads," he later wrote.** Immediately the Chinese labeled his mission as "tribute," and the emperor refused to listen to British demands. He also ordered Macartney to perform the kow-tow and dashed off the following reply to the British king.
  • 1835-1836 the Opium exports accounted for more than half of the trade (Cotton and other goods made up other half) Helped to create a trade surplus for British and a favorable balance of trade for the first time.
  • 1835-1836 the Opium exports accounted for more than half of the trade (Cotton and other goods made up other half) Helped to create a trade surplus for British and a favorable balance of trade for the first time.
  • 1835-1836 the Opium exports accounted for more than half of the trade (Cotton and other goods made up other half) Helped to create a trade surplus for British and a favorable balance of trade for the first time.
  • Example of Gunboat diplomacy
  • Followed by losses to the French 1884-1885 (Indochina) and Japan (Sino-Japanese War) 1894-1895
  • Transcript

    • 1. “China Under Siege: “China Under Siege: AA CCeennttuurryy ooff CCrriissiiss”” PPeerriioodd VV:: 11775500--11990000
    • 2. I. The Middle Kingdom A. Led by the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty – Foreigners from Manchuria – 1644-1911 B. China was ____________ self-sufficient agricultural a. Healthy ______________ economy b. Massive expansion (imperialism?) on northern and western borders (Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet) c. produced silks, cottons, and ______________ fine porcelain Emperor lived in __________ City – isolated from the rest of society and influenced by eunuchs scholars and ____________. Forbidden Chinese were Ethnocentric ___________: the belief that one's own group/culture is superior
    • 3. II. Foreign Trade A. Foreign trade was restricted to the port city of Guangzhou B. European merchants could only deal with specially licensed Chinese firms known as ____________ – that were strictly regulated by the government. C.Chinese market had little demand for European products. D.British usually had to use silver to buy silk, porcelain, copper and tea. Howqua – Leader of the Canton Cohong and one of Howqua – Leader of the Canton Cohong and one of the richest men in the world (over $8 billion) the richest men in the world (over $8 billion) cohong
    • 4. Lord Macartney •British wanted to expand trade with China •In 1793, King George III sent Lord George Macartney on a mission to the court of the Qing Dynasty •Tried to convince the Chinese to open up more ____________Port cities to British merchants. •Macartney arrived in a warship bringing elaborate gifts like clocks, globes and other manufactured goods. •The Chinese saw his mission as “_________ tribute” and demanded that Lord Macartney perform _______________“kow-tow” the traditional honoring of the Emperor.
    • 5. Emperor Qianlong Qing Emperor 1735-1796 “Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures.” - 1793, Qianlong to King George III
    • 6. III. Clash with the West (External) A. Unfavorable balance of trade for British merchants British imported millions of pounds of _______ tea each year from China British exported goods worth much less – paid in silver bullion opium B. British begin smuggling ___________ into China! Trade increased from 1,000 chests in 1773 to 23,000 in 1832 and 40,000 by 1839!
    • 7. Opium Dens C. Impact: Loss of Chinese Revenue – Illegal drug had to be smuggled and therefore was not taxed regulated or ________ by government. Led to widespread corruption and loss of silver! Millions of addicts – men, women, court officials, students, soldiers, laborers…
    • 8. …I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed Opium on to the harm Dens to do harm of other countries -- how much less to China!... certainly you will not let your subjects dare again to violate the law. … it is clear that the true culprits of a Chinese’s death as a result of an opium conviction are the opium traders from foreign countries. Being the cause of other people’s death, why should they themselves be spared from capital punishment? A murderer of one person is subject to the death sentence; just imagine how many people opium has killed! Now consider this: if the barbarians do not bring opium, then how can the Chinese people resell it, and how can they smoke it? …Therefore in the new regulations, the penalty is fixed at decapitation or strangulation. This is what is called getting rid a harmful thing on behalf of mankind. …If the merchants in your honorable country wish to enjoy trade with us on a permanent basis, they must fearfully observe our law by cutting off, once and for all, the supply of opium. The Chinese Emperor assigned government official Lin Zexu to serve as a “drug czar” to destroy the illegal opium trade. D. Lin Zexu wrote a letter to Great Britain’s Queen Victoria seeking her support to halt the opium trade. When diplomacy failed, he seized and destroyed over __________ 3 million pounds of opium from Western traders and expelled them from China.
    • 9. Opium War (1839) A. Opium War took place mostly at sea B. China’s outdated ships versus Britain’s steam-powered ________________ navy C. Britain captured many coastal forts and towns and then forced the Chinese to surrender when the British armada took control of the Grand Canal and advanced up the Yangzi River. A. Opium War took place mostly at sea B. China’s outdated ships versus Britain’s steam-powered ________________ Industrialized navy C. Britain captured many coastal forts and towns and then forced the Chinese to surrender when the British armada took control of the Grand Canal and advanced up the Yangzi River.
    • 10. “Unequal Treaties” How was the Opium War a turning point in Chinese history? D. ________________: Treaty of Nanjing D. ________________: 1. _____________________________________ 2. Opened five ports to the British for commerce and residence 3. ________________ given to British subjects (meaning foreign residents are 1. _____________________________________ 2. Opened five ports to the British for commerce and residence 3. ________________ given to British subjects (meaning foreign residents are excused from the laws of China) excused from the laws of China) Ceded the island of Hong Kong to the British Extraterritorial rights 4. Legalized Opium trade 5. More Unequal treaties with the U.S., France, Japan, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, and Germany followed opening China into Spheres of influence. 4. Legalized Opium trade 5. More Unequal treaties with the U.S., France, Japan, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, and Germany followed opening China into Spheres of influence.
    • 11. Spheres of Influence 1. According to the Political Cartoon, How is China depicted and 1. According to the Political Cartoon, How is China depicted and what do the surrounding countries plan on doing with China? what do the surrounding countries plan on doing with China? 2. How does this compare to the Ottoman Empire at this time? 2. How does this compare to the Ottoman Empire at this time?
    • 12. IV. Internal Problems The population had grown to 430 million by 1850 – a 30% gain in only 60 years. A. Population in China was rising faster than ___________________ - Led to unemployment, impoverishment, misery and starvation for peasants. B. Chinese government was corrupt C. Most Chinese businessmen served foreign firms which limited the development of an independent __________ class and a Chinese Industrial Revolution. D. Opium addiction was rising steadily agricultural production capitalist
    • 13. The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) (Taiping means “great peace”) A. Led by ______________________ Hong Xiuquan B. Influenced by__________________ Christian missionaries C. Wanted: • abolition of private property • redistribution of land • equality of all men and women • end of ____________ and prostitution • end of opium smoking • end to poverty, corruption and foreign Manchu rule. • Industrial nation, public education D. Organized an army of peasants from southern China (1 million strong by 1853) E. 1853 - captured the city of ________ Nanjing and declared it his capital Claimed to be the brother of Jesus – sent by god to cleanse the world of demons! footbinding
    • 14. The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) Results: 1. Hong Xiuquan dies in 1864 (Illness? Suicide?) 2. With the help of the landowner gentry class and European aid and weapons, the Qing took Nanjing and ended the rebellion in 1864 3. ________ million lives were lost! 4. ____________ destroyed - led to severe famine 5. Qing realized they needed to modernize their society 6. New sense of ___________ developed throughout China Results: 1. Hong Xiuquan dies in 1864 (Illness? Suicide?) 2. With the help of the landowner gentry class and European aid and weapons, the Qing took Nanjing and ended the rebellion in 1864 3. ________ 20 to 30 million lives were lost! 4. ____________ farmland destroyed - led to severe famine 5. Qing realized they needed to modernize their society 6. nationalism New sense of ___________ developed throughout China Rise of Rise of CChhiinneessee NNaattiioonnaalliissmm
    • 15. Compare Hong Xiuquan to Muhammad Ali! Write a Comparative Introduction and thesis statement about the Write a Comparative Introduction and thesis statement about the political, economic and/or social impact each man had on his political, economic and/or social impact each man had on his respective civilization. respective civilization.
    • 16. V. “Defensive Modernization” “Chinese l “Chinese leeaarrnniningg a att t thhee b baassee, ,W Weesstteerrnn l eleaarrnniningg f foorr u ussee.”.” A. “Self-strengthening” Campaign 1860-1895 A. “Self-strengthening” Campaign 1860-1895 A. New examination system – sought “good men” B. Support for landlords, repair dikes, irrigation systems, roads C. Some industrial factories for textiles, steel and weapons; coal mines expanded, telegraph system D. Attempt to modernize the military and shipping and railroads A. New examination system – sought “good men” B. Support for landlords, repair dikes, irrigation systems, roads C. Some industrial factories for textiles, steel and weapons; coal mines expanded, telegraph system D. Attempt to modernize the military and shipping and railroads B. Problems B. Problems A. Conservative leaders feared changes would erode power and privileges of the landlord A. Conservative leaders feared changes would erode power and privileges of the landlord class class B. New Industry depended on foreigners for machinery, materials and expertise C. Strengthen local authorities rather than the central Chinese state. B. New Industry depended on foreigners for machinery, materials and expertise C. Strengthen local authorities rather than the central Chinese state.
    • 17. Empress Dowager Cixi The Boat of Purity and Ease The Boat of Purity and Ease A. Rules China from 1861-1908 B. Committed to traditional Chinese values – diverted funds intended for the navy to build a marble boat to grace a lake in her imperial garden. A. Rules China from 1861-1908 B. Committed to traditional Chinese values – diverted funds intended for the navy to build a marble boat to grace a lake in her imperial garden.
    • 18. Other Nations Step In To China A. China had weak military technology and both economic and political problems B. Many European powers and Japan gain _________________ spheres of influence in China (A region in which the foreign nation controlled trade and investment) C. In 1899 the United States declares the__________________ Open Door Policy (Policy proposed that China’s door be open to merchants of all nations)
    • 19. Boxer Rebellion (1900) Society of Harmonious Fists A. Secret society formed called the ________________________ A. Secret society formed called the ________________________ - resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese Christians - resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese Christians “Death to the foreign devils” B. Surrounded European section of Beijing shouting ____________________ C. Defeated by soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and U.S. B. Surrounded European section of Beijing shouting ____________________ C. Defeated by soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and U.S. Results: 1. Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901 (China to pay reparations) 2. Nationalism increased in China 3. Realization that reforms were needed in order to survive Results: 1. Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901 (China to pay reparations) 2. Nationalism increased in China 3. Realization that reforms were needed in order to survive FFilimlm c clilpip
    • 20. Rise of Chinese Nationalism Dr. Sun Yixian Dr. Sun Yixian Father of Modern China Father of Modern China 1. What was the greatest reform of the Qing Dynasty during this time period? Why? 2. Do you think the “Self-strengthening” reforms would permanently strengthen China or was it too little, too late? Why?