Imperialism in Africa
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Imperialism in Africa






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Imperialism in Africa Imperialism in Africa Presentation Transcript

    • Do Now:
    • How does this political cartoon represent imperialism in Africa?
    • Who do you think the snake represents? Why?
    • Create a title for this cartoon.
  • European Imperialism In Africa
  • The Congo Sparks Interest
  • The Congo Sparks Interest In 1882 a treaty was signed with local chiefs of the Congo River valley. The treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control over the land. ________________of Belgium commissioned the explorer Henry Stanley to secure agreements from the tribes who inhabited the Congo Basin in Africa. Stanley did so through a combination of promises, threats and trickery. King Leopold II
  • Abuses of the Native Congolese People Leopold licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans, by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants. Africans harvesting rubber in the Congo.
  • The system was unusually exploitative and brutal, even in Colonial Africa. Whipping was a common form of punishment for workers who did not meet their quotas or who disobeyed the white man's rules.
  • The man lost his hand from ropes tied too tight by Belgian Rubber Company soldiers. The boy lost his hand from soldiers that wanted to claim him as a kill.
  • A man who refused to go work in the rubber plantation looks at the severed foot and hand of his 5 year old daughter.
    • Based on the previous images, why do you think King Leopold conducted such serious penalties on the Congolese people?
    • What do you think could be done to stop these crimes against humanity?
  • 3. Based on this picture and what you have just learned, what do you think is King Leopold’s primary interest in the Congo? "My yearly income is millions of guineas" 4. Create a title for this picture.
  • The World Demanded Changes
    • Much of Europe frowned upon these atrocities, which led to the end of Leopold's rule of the basin. His financial backing eroded to the point that Leopold required loans from the Belgian government.
    • In 1908 Belgium took the lands for itself as the Belgian Congo. Many of the hardships of the natives were reduced and living conditions were improved.
  • The Berlin Conference ... The Race Was On... 5. What group was not present at the Berlin Conference? 6. What effect do you think the Berlin Conference had on the group not represented?
    • The competition for colonies in Africa was fierce. Nations met in Berlin,Germany in 1884 to lay down the rules for the division of Africa.
    • The Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade.
  • Which nations were not colonized by 1914?
  • The history of South Africa is a history of _________, ______ ___ _______ clashing over land and resources. Although the African lands seemed empty to the Europeans, there were huge areas claimed by various ethnic groups. Three Groups Clash over South Africa Africans, Dutch and British
  • The _____ were a South African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill, as established by their legendary leader ____________. Under Shaka’s rule, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa. Zulu Expansion Zulu Shaka Zulu
  • The Anglo-Zulu War By the 1870s, the British had begun to adopt a ________________in the region, hoping to bring the various British colonies, Boer republics and independent African groups under common control, with a view to implementing a policy of economic development. The war began in January 1879. Three columns of British troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Lord Chelmsford invaded Zululand. Forward Policy
  • 7. What are the similarities and differences between these men? 8. Who do you think would be victorious in battle? Why?
  • Battle of Isandlwana On 22 January, 1879, under Lord Chelmsford's personal command, the British were defeated at _______________ mountain. In one of the worst disasters of the Colonial era, over 1300 British troops and their African allies were killed. Isandlwana
  • Lord Chelmsford reorganized his forces, and in late May was poised to mount a new invasion on the Zulu capital, Ulundi. On 4 July Chelmsford defeated the Zulu army in the last great battle of the war. Ulundi was put to the torch, and King Cetshwayo fled. Chelmsford resigned after the victory at Ulundi, but it took several weeks for the British to suppress lingering resistance in the outlying districts.
  • King Cetshwayo was eventually captured and sent into exile at Cape Town. The British divided his country up among thirteen pro-British chiefs - a deliberately divisive move, __________________which led to a decade of destructive civil war. Divide and Rule,
    • How does this ABC book portray the native people in the colonies?
    • How do they portray themselves?
  • The Dutch first came to the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to establish a way station for their ships sailing between the Dutch East Indies and home. _______(Dutch for “farmers”), were Dutch settlers who gradually established large farms. When the British took over the Cape Colony in the 1800s, the Boers left seeking their own state. British Boers and Settlers in the Cape Boers Cape Town Castle Piet Retief, helped to lead Boers to Orange Free State                                                        
  • In the 1830s, to escape the British, several thousand Boers began to move north. This movement has become known as the ____________. The Boers soon found themselves fighting fiercely with Zulu and other African groups whose land they were taking. The Great Trek Great Trek
  • __________and ________were discovered in southern Africa in the 1860s and 1880s. Suddenly, “outsiders” from all parts of the world rushed in to make their fortunes. The Boers tried to keep the outsiders from gaining political rights. An attempt to start a rebellion against the Boers failed. The Boers blamed the British. In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British. This conflict was known as__________________. + = Gold Diamonds The Boer War
  • 9. Compare these two pictures of soldiers.Which group seems more advanced? 10. Which is the picture of British soldiers and which picture is of the Boer soldiers? How did you come to your conclusions?
  • In many ways the Boer War between the British and the Boers was the first modern “total” war. The Boers launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against the British. The British countered by burning Boer farms and imprisoning women and children in disease-ridden concentration camps. Britain won the war. The Boer War
  • Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
  • In 1902, the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing ______________________, controlled by the British. Union of South Africa
  • The establishing of colonies signaled a change in the way of life of the Africans. The Europeans made efforts to change the political, social and economic lives of the peoples they conquered.
  • Observing this photo, what are some of the positive and negative aspects of Imperialism?
    • European medicine & improved nutrition increased life span of Africans. This caused an increase in population.
    • Modern transportation & communications; telegraphs, railroads, steamships, and telephones
    • A small minority received improved education and economic opportunities.
    • European domination led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social relationships
    • African peoples were treated a s inferior. Forced to work long hours for low pay.
    • Europeans divided up Africa ignoring tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. These divisions have led to ongoing tribal clashes