Imperialism in Africa

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  • 1. Do Now: According to this cartoon, what was the goal of British imperialism in Africa?
  • 2. Do Now: Write answers on back of Packet “…we have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It will now be my task to see to it that this place in the sun shall remain our undisputed possession, in order that the sun's rays may fall fruitfully upon our activity and trade in foreign parts, that our industry and agriculture may develop within the state and our sailing sports upon the water, for our future lies upon the water… Whether it be in journeys across the ocean, or in the service of the battle flag, so much the better it will be for us.” - Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1901 1. Why was it so important for Kaiser Wilhelm to possess a “Place in the sun?”
  • 3. European Imperialism In Africa
  • 4. The Congo Sparks Interest
  • 5. The Congo Sparks Interest
  • 6. The Congo Sparks Interest King Leopold II ________________of Belgium commissioned the explorer Henry Stanley to secure agreements from the tribes who inhabited the Congo Basin in Africa. Stanley did so through a combination of promises, threats and trickery. In 1882 a treaty was signed with local chiefs of the Congo River valley. The treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control over the land. The United States was the first nation to recognize the Belgian Congo.
  • 7. Abuses of the Native Congolese People Leopold licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans, by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants. Africans harvesting rubber in the Congo.
  • 8. The system was unusually exploitative and brutal, even in Colonial Africa. Whipping was a common form of punishment for workers who did not meet their quotas or who disobeyed the white man's rules. Film Clip
  • 9. The man lost his hand from ropes tied too tight by Belgian Rubber Company soldiers. The boy lost his hand from soldiers that wanted to claim him as a kill.
  • 10. A man who refused to go work in the rubber plantation looks at the severed foot and hand of his 5 year old daughter.
  • 11. 1. Based on these images, why do you think King Leopold conducted such serious penalties on the Congolese people? 2. What do you think could be done to stop these crimes against humanity?
  • 12. 3. Based on this picture and what you have just learned, what do you think is King Leopold’s primary interest in the Congo? 4. Create a title for this picture. "My yearly income is millions of guineas"
  • 13. The World Demanded Changes • Much of Europe frowned upon these atrocities, which led to the end of Leopold's rule of the basin. His financial backing eroded to the point that Leopold required loans from the Belgian government. • In 1908 Belgium took the lands for itself as the Belgian Congo. The conditions of the natives slowly improved, but justice was never served to those responsible for these crimes against humanity. "The condition of things in the Congo is atrocious, as shown by the photographs of children whose hands have been cut off. Leopold thinks this can go on because the Congo is a distant out-of-the-way country. But once we can get England and America to investigate, and take this matter up, something will be done. We Americans are especially interested, because it was our recognition of the flag there that led to recognition by other powers." -- Mark Twain in the Boston Herald (Nov. 6, 1905).
  • 14. The Berlin Conference ...The Race Was On... • The competition for colonies in Africa was fierce. Nations met in Berlin,Germany in 1884 to lay down the rules for the division of Africa. • The Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. 5. What group was not present at the Berlin Conference? 6. What effect do you think the Berlin Conference had on the group not represented?
  • 15. The Fashoda Incident The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of territorial disputes between imperial Britain and France in Eastern Africa. It brought Britain and France to the verge of war but ended in a diplomatic victory for Britain.
  • 16. Which nations were not colonized by 1914?
  • 17. King Menelik II Ethiopia denounced a treaty with Italy when they learned that the Italian version of the treaty made Ethiopia a protectorate of Italy. The Italian invasion that followed (1895–96) was crushed by Menelik’s great victory near Adwa. Italy was forced to renounce all claims to Ethiopia. Menelik took important steps to strengthen and modernize his domain. He made Addis Ababa his capital, constructed a railroad, attempted to end the slave trade, and curbed the feudal nobility. His conquests doubled the size of the country.
  • 18. Liberia The country of Liberia was founded in 1821 by former slaves from the United States of America as a result of the end of the transatlantic slave trade and the efforts of the American Colonization Society (ACS).
  • 19. Observing this photo, what are some of the positive and negative aspects of Imperialism?
  • 20. •How does this ABC book portray the native people in the colonies? •How do they portray themselves?
  • 21. Three Groups Clash over South Africa The history of South Africa is a history of _________, Africans, ______ Dutch and ___ _______ British clashing over land and resources. Although the African lands seemed empty to the Europeans, there were huge areas claimed by various ethnic groups.
  • 22. Zulu Expansion The _____ were a South African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill, as established by their legendary leader ____________. Under Shaka’s rule, in 1818, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa. This marked the beginning of “Mfecane,” a time of wars among the Africans which caused mass migrations and alterations in African political organization. Shaka Zulu was assassinated in 1828. Zulu Shaka Zulu
  • 23. The Anglo-Zulu War By the 1870s, the British had begun to adopt a ________________Forward Policy in the region, hoping to bring the various British colonies, Boer republics and independent African groups under common control, with a view to implementing a policy of economic development. The war began in January 1879. Three columns of British troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Lord Chelmsford invaded Zululand.
  • 24. 7. What are the similarities and differences between these men? 8. Who do you think would be victorious in battle? Why?
  • 25. Battle of Isandlwana On 22 January, 1879, under Lord Chelmsford's personal command, the British were defeated at Isandlwana _______________ mountain. In one of the worst disasters of the Colonial era, over 1300 British troops and their African allies were killed.
  • 26. Lord Chelmsford reorganized his forces, and in late May was poised to mount a new invasion on the Zulu capital, Ulundi. On 4 July Chelmsford defeated the Zulu army in the last great battle of the war. Ulundi was put to the torch, and King Cetshwayo fled. Chelmsford resigned after the victory at Ulundi, but it took several weeks for the British to suppress lingering resistance in the outlying districts.
  • 27. King Cetshwayo was eventually captured and sent into exile at Cape Town. The British divided his country up among thirteen pro- British chiefs - a deliberately divisive move, Divide and Rule, ____________________ which led to a decade of destructive civil war.
  • 28. British Boers and Settlers in the Cape The Dutch first came to the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to establish a way station for their ships sailing between the Dutch East Indies and home. _______(Boers Dutch for “farmers”), were Dutch settlers who gradually established large farms. When the British took over the Cape Colony in the 1800s, the Boers left seeking their own state. Cape Town Castle Piet Retief, helped to lead Boers to Orange Free State
  • 29. In the 1830s, to escape the British, several thousand Boers began to move north. This movement has become known as the ____________. The Boers soon found themselves fighting fiercely with Zulu and other African groups whose land they were taking. The Great Trek Great Trek
  • 30. What do you think is happening in these images?
  • 31. + = __________Diamonds and ________Gold were discovered in southern Africa in the 1860s and 1880s. Suddenly, “outsiders” from all parts of the world rushed in to make their fortunes. The Boers tried to keep the outsiders from gaining political rights. An attempt to start a rebellion against the Boers failed. The Boers blamed the British. In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British. This The Boer War conflict was known as__________________.
  • 32. 9. Compare these two pictures of soldiers.Which group seems more advanced? 10. Which is the picture of British soldiers and which picture is of the Boer soldiers? How did you come to your conclusions?
  • 33. The Boer War Film Clip In many ways the Boer War between the British and the Boers was the first modern “total” war. The Boers launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against the British. The British countered by burning Boer farms and imprisoning women and children in disease-ridden concentration camps. Britain won the war.
  • 34. Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
  • 35. In 1902, the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing Union of South Africa ______________________, controlled by the British.
  • 36. The establishing of colonies signaled a change in the way of life of the Africans. The Europeans made efforts to change the political, social and economic lives of the peoples they conquered.
  • 37. POSITIVE NEGATIVE •European medicine & improved nutrition increased life span of Africans. This caused an increase in population. •Modern transportation & communications; telegraphs, railroads, steamships, and telephones •A small minority received improved education and economic opportunities. •European domination led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social relationships •African peoples were treated a s inferior. Forced to work long hours for low pay. •Europeans divided up Africa ignoring tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. These divisions have led to ongoing tribal clashes