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According to this
cartoon, what was the
goal of British
imperialism in Africa?
Do Now: Write answers on back of Packet
“…we have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It will
now be my task to see to it that this place in the sun shall
remain our undisputed possession, in order that the sun's rays
may fall fruitfully upon our activity and trade in foreign
parts, that our industry and agriculture may develop within
the state and our sailing sports upon the water, for our future
lies upon the water… Whether it be in journeys across the
ocean, or in the service of the battle flag, so much the better it
will be for us.”
- Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1901
1. Why was it so important for Kaiser Wilhelm to possess a
“Place in the sun?”
The Congo Sparks Interest
King Leopold II
commissioned the explorer
Henry Stanley to secure
agreements from the tribes who
inhabited the Congo Basin in
Africa. Stanley did so through a
combination of promises,
threats and trickery.
In 1882 a treaty was signed with local
chiefs of the Congo River valley. The
treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium
personal control over the land. The
United States was the first nation to
recognize the Belgian Congo.
Abuses of the Native Congolese People
Leopold licensed companies that
brutally exploited Africans, by
forcing them to collect sap from
Africans harvesting rubber in the Congo.
The system was unusually exploitative and brutal, even
in Colonial Africa. Whipping was a common form of
punishment for workers who did not meet their quotas
or who disobeyed the white man's rules.
The man lost his
hand from ropes tied
too tight by Belgian
soldiers. The boy
lost his hand from
soldiers that wanted
to claim him as a kill.
A man who refused to go work in the rubber plantation
looks at the severed foot and hand of his 5 year old
1. Based on these images, why do you think King Leopold conducted
such serious penalties on the Congolese people?
2. What do you think could be done to stop these crimes against
3. Based on this picture
and what you have just
learned, what do you
think is King Leopold’s
primary interest in the
4. Create a title for this
"My yearly income is millions
The World Demanded Changes
• Much of Europe frowned upon these atrocities, which led to the end of
Leopold's rule of the basin. His financial backing eroded to the point
that Leopold required loans from the Belgian government.
• In 1908 Belgium took the lands for itself as the Belgian Congo. The
conditions of the natives slowly improved, but justice was never served
to those responsible for these crimes against humanity.
"The condition of things in the Congo is atrocious, as shown by the
photographs of children whose hands have been cut off. Leopold thinks this
can go on because the Congo is a distant out-of-the-way country. But once we
can get England and America to investigate, and take this matter up,
something will be done. We Americans are especially interested, because it was
our recognition of the flag there that led to recognition by other powers."
-- Mark Twain in the Boston Herald (Nov. 6, 1905).
The Berlin Conference
...The Race Was On...
• The competition for colonies
in Africa was fierce. Nations
met in Berlin,Germany in 1884
to lay down the rules for the
division of Africa.
• The Congo River and Niger
River mouths and basins would
be considered neutral and open
5. What group was not present at the Berlin
6. What effect do you think the Berlin Conference had
on the group not represented?
The Fashoda Incident
(1898) was the climax
of territorial disputes
Britain and France in
Eastern Africa. It
brought Britain and
France to the verge of
war but ended in a
diplomatic victory for
King Menelik II
Ethiopia denounced a treaty with Italy
when they learned that the Italian version
of the treaty made Ethiopia a protectorate
of Italy. The Italian invasion that followed
(1895–96) was crushed by Menelik’s great
victory near Adwa. Italy was forced to
renounce all claims to Ethiopia. Menelik
took important steps to strengthen and
modernize his domain. He made Addis
Ababa his capital, constructed a railroad,
attempted to end the slave trade, and
curbed the feudal nobility. His conquests
doubled the size of the country.
The country of Liberia was
founded in 1821 by former
slaves from the United
States of America as a result
of the end of the transatlantic
slave trade and the efforts of
the American Colonization
Observing this photo, what are some of the positive and negative
aspects of Imperialism?
•How does this ABC book portray the native people in the colonies?
•How do they portray themselves?
Three Groups Clash over South Africa
The history of South Africa is a history of
_________, Africans, ______ Dutch and ___ _______ British
over land and resources. Although the
African lands seemed empty to the
Europeans, there were huge areas
claimed by various ethnic groups.
The _____ were a South African
tribe that placed an emphasis on
military organization and skill, as
established by their legendary
leader ____________. Under
Shaka’s rule, in 1818, the Zulu
broadened their land claims
throughout southern Africa. This
marked the beginning of
“Mfecane,” a time of wars among
the Africans which caused mass
migrations and alterations in
African political organization.
Shaka Zulu was assassinated in
The Anglo-Zulu War
By the 1870s, the British had begun
to adopt a ________________Forward Policy
region, hoping to bring the various
British colonies, Boer republics and
independent African groups under
common control, with a view to
implementing a policy of economic
The war began in January 1879.
Three columns of British troops
under the command of Lt. Gen. Lord
Chelmsford invaded Zululand.
7. What are the similarities and differences between these
8. Who do you think would be victorious in battle?
Battle of Isandlwana
On 22 January, 1879, under Lord Chelmsford's personal
command, the British were defeated at
_______________ mountain. In one of the worst
disasters of the Colonial era, over 1300 British troops
and their African allies were killed.
reorganized his forces, and
in late May was poised to
mount a new invasion on
the Zulu capital, Ulundi.
On 4 July Chelmsford
defeated the Zulu army in
the last great battle of the
war. Ulundi was put to the
torch, and King Cetshwayo
fled. Chelmsford resigned
after the victory at Ulundi,
but it took several weeks
for the British to suppress
lingering resistance in the
King Cetshwayo was
and sent into exile at
Cape Town. The British
divided his country up
among thirteen pro-
British chiefs - a
Divide and Rule,
which led to a decade
of destructive civil war.
British Boers and Settlers in the Cape
The Dutch first came to
the Cape of Good Hope
in 1652 to establish a
way station for their
ships sailing between the
Dutch East Indies and
“farmers”), were Dutch
settlers who gradually
established large farms.
When the British took
over the Cape Colony in
the 1800s, the Boers left
seeking their own state.
Cape Town Castle
Piet Retief, helped
to lead Boers to
Orange Free State
In the 1830s, to escape the
British, several thousand
Boers began to move north.
This movement has become
known as the ____________.
The Boers soon found
themselves fighting fiercely
with Zulu and other African
groups whose land they
The Great Trek
What do you
__________Diamonds and ________Gold
were discovered in southern
Africa in the 1860s and 1880s. Suddenly, “outsiders”
from all parts of the world rushed in to make their
fortunes. The Boers tried to keep the outsiders from
gaining political rights. An attempt to start a rebellion
against the Boers failed. The Boers blamed the British.
In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British. This
The Boer War
conflict was known as__________________.
9. Compare these two pictures of soldiers.Which group seems
10. Which is the picture of British soldiers and which picture
is of the Boer soldiers? How did you come to your conclusions?
In many ways the Boer War between the British and the
Boers was the first modern “total” war. The Boers
launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics
against the British. The British countered by burning Boer
farms and imprisoning women and children in disease-ridden
concentration camps. Britain won the war.
Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British
dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers
Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the
world’s diamond production. After becoming prime
minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890,
he used his influence to strengthen British control over
In 1902, the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing
Union of South Africa
by the British.
The establishing of colonies signaled a change in the
way of life of the Africans. The Europeans made efforts
to change the political, social and economic lives of the
peoples they conquered.
•European medicine & improved
nutrition increased life span of
Africans. This caused an increase
•Modern transportation &
railroads, steamships, and
•A small minority received
improved education and economic
•European domination led to an erosion
of traditional African values and
destroyed many existing social
•African peoples were treated a s
inferior. Forced to work long hours for
•Europeans divided up Africa ignoring
tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries.
These divisions have led to ongoing