The time period where Scholars began to use reason to question superstition, ignorance, intolerance, and tyranny is known as …
The Enlightenment 2. The Time in France when Divine Right was questioned and a radical movement violently overthrew the Monarchy is known as… The French Revolution
How do these images reflect the power of Louis XIV?
The Enlightenment The Enlightenment grew out of the Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s, with its amazing discoveries by thinkers like Copernicus and Newton . Scientific successes created great confidence in the power of reason . If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws that govern human nature? Copernicus Heliocentric Theory Newton Laws of Gravity and Motion
Enlightenment Matching! Match the Enlightenment Thinker with their major idea People are naturally evil, driven by selfishness and greed. To avoid a “Nasty, brutish and short life” people must give up their freedom to a strong and strict government that will ensure order. A leviathan! People are naturally good and have three natural rights, “life, Liberty, and Property.” Government is there to protect those rights. The people have a right to change their government if it fails to do so. The powers of government should be separated into executive, legislative, and judicial branches, to prevent any one group from gaining too much power. Thomas Hobbes John Locke Baron de Montesquieu
Enlightenment Matching! Match the Enlightenment Thinker with their major idea Questioned the notion that women were by nature inferior to men and argued that women have been excluded from the social contract. Stated that a women’s first duty was to be a good mother, but that a woman should be able to have an education and equal rights of men. People are basically good but become corrupted by society. In an ideal society, people would make the laws and would obey them willingly. Government should act for the “Common good.” Writer and orator who targeted corrupt officials and criticized inequality, and superstition. Fought for freedom of speech by saying, “I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Mary Wollstonecraft Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment Summary Which of the following were thoughts and goals of the Enlightenment? To Question “Divine Right” rule To limit the Power of the King To give strong rulers total control over their nation. To ensure the protection of an individual’s natural rights of “Life, Liberty, and Property.” To preserve old traditions, customs, and superstitions To protect free speech, religious freedom, and ensure social equality How will the Enlightenment impact the world?
The French Revolution (1789-1799)
Long Range Causes 1. King’s Abuse of Power: King Louis XVI 2. Inequality Among Social Classes: First, Second, and Third Estate 3. Unfair Tax System: Only Third Estate had to pay taxes 4. Enlightenment Ideas: Freedom, rights, and limited power of the King 5. Struggle For Power: Nobles wanted to play larger role in government
2. However, due to unfair voting methods, the Third Estate, or BOURGEOISIE , left the Estates General and created their own National Assembly Short Range Causes 3. Tennis Court Oath - The Third Estate stormed the King’s indoor tennis court. They demanded a constitution for France and swore not to leave until their demands were met. 1. King is bankrupt and is forced to summon ESTATES GENERAL, a body of government with all 3 classes represented.
Tennis Court Oath What was the spark of the French Revolution?
The Bourgeoisie storm and capture the Bastille, a Paris prison and a symbol of the OLD REGIME . This was considered a victory for the masses. It displayed the power of the Bourgeoisie and marked the start of the Revolution .
BASTILLE DAY July 14, 1789 The Spark of the Revolution!
1. National Assembly Created (June 17, 1789)
Issued “ Declaration of the Rights of Man ”:
All Frenchmen had basic rights of speech, religion, and press.
Denied the DIVINE RIGHT THEORY
Said that government rested on the consent of the people.
The National Assembly! 2. Reformed Legal System: Elected judges, trial by jury, ended brutal punishment . 3. Wrote A Constitution (1791): Reformed government by establishing a LIMITED MONARCHY . 4. Abolished special treatment of nobles and clergy .
“ Liberty, Equality , Fraternity”
1. King Louis XVI and his family are captured and brought to Paris.
2. Prussia and Austria declare war on France to aid Royal Family and restore Monarchy.
3. A RADICAL group ( Jacobins ) took over the Assembly and declared France a Republic.
4. The radicals were led by Maximilien Robespierre and set up the Committee on Public Safety .
5. King Louis XVI was put on trial by treason, found guilty, beheaded in 1793.
The Reign of Terror!
Execution of King Louis XVI! Before After
REIGN OF TERROR (1793-1794)
The Republic began to execute anyone considered an “enemy” of the revolution. Nobles or anyone who spoke out was beheaded
with the GUILLOTINE .
End of the Reign of Terror
Finally, moderate leaders were able to take back power once threat of war ended. Robespierre and other radical leaders were executed.
Results of the French Revolution
1. Political power in France shifted from Kings and Nobility to the Bourgeoisie (Middle Class).
2. Increased Nationalist feelings in France and elsewhere.
3. Ideals of Revolution like “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” spread to other parts of Europe and the rest of the world….
4. A new leader emerges and becomes one of the most powerful dictators in European History…
You Idiot! Napoleon Bonaparte
Emperor of France 2. In 1799, the popular general took over the government in a coup d’etat and named himself first consul. 3. In 1802 he became consul for life What type of leader do you think Napoleon will be? 1. A brilliant military leader, Napoleon became a general at the age of 24. 4. In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor
Napoleon Use three words to describe how the artist portrays Napoleon. Describe the symbolism you see in this painting? “ France has more need of me than I have need of France. ”
Napoleon Bonaparte Positive Impact Negative Impact Allowed Religious Freedom Limited free speech and censored newspapers Used secret police and spies to find political opponents Used Propaganda to manipulate public opinion Napoleonic Code created stable code of civil laws Pope Pius VII
Napoleon Bonaparte Encouraged new industry, built roads, canals, and bridges Protected private property French conquests spark nationalism Allowed Religious Freedom Limited free speech and censored newspapers Used secret police and spies to find political opponents Used Propaganda to manipulate public opinion Napoleonic Code created stable code of civil laws Restored patriarchal authority and limited women’s rights Created the Bank of France Set up French public schools Positive Impact Negative Impact Crowned himself Emperor and gave himself total authority Think about this… Is Napoleon a Hero or a Tyrant? Gave legal equality to all men Established law and order
Master and Commander On October 21, 1805, at the Battle of Trafalgar, Horatio Nelson inflicted a crushing defeat on the numerically superior Franco-Spanish fleet. Hit by a musket ball from a French sharpshooter, Nelson was taken below and died with the knowledge that he had achieved another famous victory. His last words were, “Thank God, I have done my duty.” Watch the film Clip: What were the advantages of having a powerful navy?
Napoleon’s Decline Continental System After defeat to British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon attempted to block all trade from Europe to Britain. The policy failed. It created a scarcity of goods in Europe, caused inflation and led to increased smuggling and crime.
Napoleon’s Decline Resistance in Spain In 1808, Napoleon replaced the King of Spain with his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Spanish protests were met by brutal French repression which caused further resentment. Spanish Resistance began to use guerrilla warfare, hit and run style combat, to harass French troops. The Third of May, 1808: Painting by Francisco Goya What do you think is happening in this Scene?
Napoleon’s Decline Invasion of Moscow In 1812, Napoleon sent 600,000 troops to invade Russia. The Russians retreated and utilized a “Scorched Earth” policy, burning down crops, villages, and cities. When the harsh winter arrived, the French Troops had little food and no shelter. They were forced to retreat 1,000 miles. Only 100,000 survived.
Napoleon’s Decline How does this Painting portray the condition of the French Army in Russia?
Abdication of the Throne In 1813, Napoleon was defeated and France was threatened by a new alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia. With little support from the French people or army, Napoleon decided to abdicate, or give up, his throne. They sent him into exile to the Island of Elba and named Louis XVIII, the brother of Louis XVI, as King of France.
The Comeback! In 1815, Napoleon escaped the island of Elba and began a “Hundred Day Campaign” to Paris. As Napoleon marched towards Paris, soldiers and citizens began to support him. King Louis XVIII fled and Napoleon was back! "From Napoleon to Louis XVIII. My good brother - there is no need to send any more troops - I have enough."
Battle of Waterloo June 18 th , 1815, Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by an allied force of British and Prussian troops. Once again, Napoleon abdicated the throne. This time, he was sent to the small Atlantic island of St. Helena. Napoleon died in 1821 of stomach cancer. Recent studies suggest Napoleon may have been poisoned. Others say he may have secretly escaped.
Legacy Did Napoleon do more to preserve the legacy of the French Revolution or to destroy it? Is he a Hero or a Tyrant? “ I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.” "So he too is nothing more than an ordinary man. Now he will also trample all human rights underfoot, and only pander to his ambition; he will place himself above everyone else and become a tyrant!" - Ludwig von Beethoven
“ Well, you have a sweet bike. And you're really good at hooking up with chicks. Plus you're like the only guy at school who has a mustache.” - Napoleon Dynamite
1. Following the defeat of Napoleon, the major European powers of the day met in Vienna, Austria to establish a plan for peace and resolve other problems that were created by Napoleon.
This was called The Congress of Vienna.
Congress of Vienna
Good question! Headed by Austria's Prince Metternich, the Congress of Vienna attempted to stem the tide of nationalism sweeping across Europe. Who were the European powers present at the conference you ask? The major powers present at the Congress of Vienna included Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, and England.
1. Restore legitimacy – This meant restoring the absolutist ruling families to their thrones. (turn back the clock)
What were other issues addressed at the Congress of Vienna? 2. Create a balance of power . This means that one nation should not be allowed to dominate and threaten other nations. This would ensure that no future emperors would conquer Europe like Napoleon had done. The Congress had two main goals:
Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, they chose to keep the country intact to prevent French resentment or nationalism and keep a balance of power.
King Louis XVIII of France
These nationalistic movements in Europe would result in unified, sovereign nation-states. The Congress of Vienna was successful in suppressing nationalistic movements from 1815 to 1848, a period also known as the Metternich Age, however, nationalism would eventually return to Europe.