Aim: Why did European Nations send explorers across the oceans? Do Now: Imagine you are a Portuguese merchant in the 1400’s. There is high demand for goods from East Asia, but Muslim and Italian merchantscontrol most trade between Asia and Europe. You want to cut out the middle man and gaindirect access to the riches of theeast by finding an all water route to Asia. Study the map of the world. Describe one possibleroute you could take to get there
Age of Exploration Hello, my name is Christopher Columbus and I am here to tell you about a major turning point in history! The Age of Exploration was a time when brave men, like myself, left the familiar shores of Europe in search of new lands, trade routes, and riches!
How did it all start?1. Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East.2. The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes to the east. The Europeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes to Asia. How will the Europeans get around the Ottomans?
Factors which influenced the Age of Exploration The Crusades Renaissance Printing Press CaravelSeries of holy Period in Europe Technology New type of shipwars which in which secular developed during which allowedintroduced ideas increased the Renaissance navigators to sailEuropeans to and people began which allowed into the windspices and other to emphasize ideas to spreadtrade goods from individual quicklyEast Asia achievement
Reasons for ExplorationLook at the following pictures and see if you can determine the major reasons for Exploration in the 15th thru 17th centuries!
Improved navigational technology whichallowed for exploration The Magnetic Compass A device for determining direction. A magnetic needle floating in a dish of liquid, pointed north-south allowing sailors to determine the direction of the ship.
Improved navigational technology whichallowed for exploration The Astrolabe A device used to measure the angles of the sun and stars a stars above the horizon which allowed navigators to determine their latitude at sea.
Motivations for Exploration “Come on! Did you think we did it to find a new vacation spot?”1. “Gold” was a motivator! Many had a desire to find new sources of wealth.2. “Glory” encouraged men to take risks! Many wanted fame and fortune for themselves and their nation.3. “God” was used to justify their success. Due to Reformation, some wanted to spread Christianity.
Reasons for Exploration “All this technology and the Queen only gives me three scrawny little ships!” 4. “Water Route to the East” was needed due to Muslim and Italian control of trade routes. 5. “Humanism” stressed the power of the individual to question and explore the world around them. 6. “Technology” such as the compass, sextant, astrolabe, and the caravel made sea travel easier.
Motivation Gold Glory Hernan Cortes conquers the Vasco de Gama rounds the tip Aztecs to gain riches of Africa to get to the great spice ports of IndiaColumbus sails west in order to find a quicker trade route to Queen Isabella and King the East Ferdinand agree to finance voyages to increase Spain’s power and influence. God Italian adventurers signed on asMissionaries flock to Spanish crew members on colonies to convert to Megellan’s voyage around Christianity the world.
Would You Go?It is a gray and windy morning in 1430. You are standing on a dock inthe European country of Portugal staring out at the dark and mysteriousAtlantic Ocean. You, like most people at the time, have no idea whatlies beyond the horizon. Now, you may find out. You have been askedto go on a voyage of exploration. You’ve heard all the terrifying storiesof sea monsters and ship-wrecks. You’ve heard the warnings that thecurrents along parts of western Africa are “so terrible that no shiphaving once passed will ever be able to return.” In addition, the trip toIndia would take about a year. With no refrigeration system, the onlyfood available is bland-tasting biscuits known as hardtack which oftenwent stale and contained weevils.What possible rewards might come from exploring the seas for new lands?What are the risks involved in embarking on a voyage into the unknown?
Portuguese navigators lead the way!Prince Henry theNavigator Bartholemew Dias Vasco Da Gamma“The Father of Navigation” In1497, he led four shipsKnown as “The Father of In 1488, he rounded the southern around the Cape of GoodExploration.” He set up a school tip of Africa, but turned back after Hope. After a 10 monthwhere he trained captains and a violent storm struck. The tip of voyage, Da Gama finally crews for long Africa became known reached the great spice voyages. Sent out as the Cape of Good port of Calicut on the ships that slowly Hope because it west coast of India. worked their way opened the way for a down Africa’s coast. sea route to Asia.
Location Iberian Portugal- Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa- Vasco Da Gama established an all water route to India- Seized port cities, or trading enclaves, like Goa, Malacca, Mombasa, and Canton- Brazil was founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500 In the early 1400s, the Portuguese led- Had a monopoly on trade in the Indian Ocean until the Dutch arrived in the the way 1600s.
The Portuguese Lake
Close: Predict what will happen next in both Europeand the new places discovered as a result ofexploration. Give me 2!
Location Iberian The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages. - Columbus discovered the Americas for Spain. Sent“I just wanted to conquistadors to Central and South Americaget to the Indies, - Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean but no… these - Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, two big Spain settled Philippinescontinents had to - Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico be in my way!” - Pizarro conquered the Inca empire along the Andes Mountains in Peru.
The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniardscapture the Inca King
Spanish and Portuguese Explorations
Location Northern European Dutch and British- Northern areas of the Americas – settlements and search for a “north-west passage.”- Caribbean Islands – Sugar islands- British controlled Port villages in India – Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta 1707 map of Japan- Dutch – Trade routes and colonies in S.E. that depicts Asia: Indonesia, Strait of Malacca, Japan, and China (Only European nation William Adams’ allowed to trade with Japan) visit with- British later replace Dutch (New York, Tokugawa Ieyasu in South Africa, India, Malacca) 1600
Henry Hudson failed to find a north-west or north-east passage in all four of his voyages.
Dutch Trading Empire
Oversight Institution Iberian Northern EuropeanThe Crown – Monarch and Trading companies received Church received 20% of charters from King profits! Mercantilism. East and West India CompaniesRelied of King and Pope to develop – Privately funded make decisions. Resulted in ventures with goal of slow, ineffective process of making a profit. rule Mercantilism existed, butTreaty of Tordesillas in 1494: development of capitalism Pope made decision to split began. New World possessions into Decisions can be made much spheres of interest between faster by the settlers: Spain and Portugal. Mayflower Compact
The Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange From New World to Old WorldEarly on, people thought the tomato was harmful to eat. “If I should eat this fruit,” explained one Italian man, “it would be injurious andharmful to me.” One German Official warned that the tomato “should not be taken internally” From Old World to New WorldIn 1619, officials in Burgundy, France, banned the potato, explainingthat “too frequent use of them caused the leprosy.” In 1774, starving peasants in Prussia (Germany) refused to eat the spud.
The Columbian Exchange “The age of Exploration was a major turning point in history all because of me!”Columbian Exchange - the exchange of people, plants,animals, ideas, and technology between Europe and the NewWorld. From Old World to New World From New World to Old World Corn Potato Wheat Sugar Beans Peanuts Bananas Rice Squash Pumpkin Grapes Horses Tomatoes Avocados Pigs Cattle Chili Pepper Pineapple Sheep Chickens Cocoa Tobacco Measles Quinine (a medicine for malaria) Typhus
European Empires: 1660
The Commercial Revolution The Growth of Capitalism Spurred by expanded trade and growth of overseas empires, capitalism (market) is an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for profit
The Commercial Revolution New Business Methods Early Capitalists discovered new ways to create wealth! Joint Stock Companies where a group of people would pool their money together to make more money! Like our modern day corporations.
The Commercial Revolution New Economic Policy The theory of mercantilism was aimed at strengthening European economies. According to the theory, countries could become wealthy and powerful in 2 ways. 1. Increase your gold and silver supply 2. Maintain a favorable balance of trade – export more than import
The Role of Colonies in Mercantilism Manufactured goods (finished goods) Mother Colony Country Raw Materials7. Colonies provide mother country with raw materials (gold and silver)2. Mother country maintains a favorable balance of trade with it’s colonies.
Impact of Exploration Positive Effects:• New trade: led to weakening of the feudal system, rise in Middle Class, and population growth in Europe.• Animals: horses, cattle, chicken, sheep were brought to New World• Global Trade: Truly Global Trade! Emerged resulting in cultural diffusion Colonies developed and settled by Europeans searching for freedom and opportunity The World in 1400 1600
Negative Effects:• Massive Destruction: Millions of natives died due to disease brought by Europeans, or by colonization.• Mercantilism: economic policy that created a favorable balance of trade for the parent country.• Colonies: served as a source for raw materials, and as an exclusive market for the parent country.
Atlantic Slave Trade: Africans faced a diaspora, or forcedmovement of its people, as slavery became the dominant laborforce in the Americas. The Triangle Trade
How do these two images reflect Northern European Exploration? Merchants and Bankers who want to make a profit for themselves and trading company. Pilgrims and the MayflowerCompact: Search for religiousfreedom and settlers making their own decision
How do these two images reflect Iberian Exploration? Columbus arrives in America and plants flag for Spain. Glory for Spain and for himself. Columbus showing off findings from New World to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
What do you think is the reason for the differences between Iberian and Northern European exploration?Here’s a hint: Pope Pius V Here’s a hint: Queen Isabella Religious differences: Political differences: Iberians had Iberians were Roman Absolute Monarchs with Divine RightCatholic and Northerners and Northerners had Limited were Protestant Parliamentary governments
Important People to KnowCan you name the Explorer who went on each voyage?