El Salvador and Haiti

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El Salvador and Haiti

  1. 1. In El Salvador and Haiti STRUGGLE FOR DEMOCRACY
  2. 2. .Polorus My Wife’s Family
  3. 3. Oscar Romero Film Clip Watch the film clip and answer the question on the sheet. Watch the film clip and answer the question on the sheet.
  4. 4. LIBERATION THEOLOGY A movement urging the Roman Catholic Church to take a more active role in changing the social conditions that contribute to poverty and oppression.
  5. 5. For a year, Oscar received anonymous letters threatening to kill him unless he changed his ways of preaching and ministry. On the evening of 24 March 1980, Oscar marked the anniversary of a death by conducting a funeral mass. Ironically, while performing this funeral mass, he was shot and killed at the altar. ROMERO ASSASSINATED Executions were not limited to laborers, but also priests, nuns, teachers, union organizers and any human rights
  6. 6. Romero’s tomb in San Salvador. “The Church would betray its own love for God and its fidelity to the gospel if it stopped being… a defender of the rights of the poor… a humanizer of every legitimate struggle to achieve a more just society… that prepares the way for the true reign of God in history.”
  7. 7. WAR IN EL SALVADOR •In the 1970s discontent with societal inequalities, a poor economy, and the repressive measures of dictatorship led to civil war. •In the 1970s discontent with societal inequalities, a poor economy, and the repressive measures of dictatorship led to civil war.
  8. 8. Civil War! • The government, ruled since 1961 by the right-wing National Conciliation Party (PCN) fought against the leftist guerrillas, the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). • The U.S. intervened on the side of the military Junta, despite its scores of human rights violations. “Today is the Turn of the Victim”
  9. 9. DEATH SQUADS •Paramilitary groups known as "death squads" committed numerous murders throughout El Salvador. Their activities protected wealthy land owners who did not want farm workers organizing to make demands. •Paramilitary groups known as "death squads" committed numerous murders throughout El Salvador. Their activities protected wealthy land owners who did not want farm workers organizing to make demands.
  10. 10. •In 1988, the FMLN increased urban terrorism in the capital. Bombings, assassinations, economic sabotage, arson, among other rural and urban operations. •In 1988, the FMLN increased urban terrorism in the capital. Bombings, assassinations, economic sabotage, arson, among other rural and urban operations.
  11. 11. Unfortunately, many children were forced to fight! Many were recruited by the military and others joined the guerilla forces! Unfortunately, many children were forced to fight! Many were recruited by the military and others joined the guerilla forces!
  12. 12. DEMOCRACY ESTABLISHED??? •The presidency of José Napoleón Duarte, a moderate civilian, from 1984–1989, offered an alternative to the political extremes of right and left, but Duarte was unable to end the war and in 1989 Alfredo Cristiani of ARENA was elected. •The presidency of José Napoleón Duarte, a moderate civilian, from 1984–1989, offered an alternative to the political extremes of right and left, but Duarte was unable to end the war and in 1989 Alfredo Cristiani of ARENA was elected.
  13. 13. DEMOCRACY ESTABLISHED???
  14. 14. •On Jan. 16, 1992, the government signed a peace treaty with the guerrilla forces, formally ending the 12-year civil war that had killed 75,000. •El Salvador's subsequent presidents have belonged to ARENA, including the president, Antonio Saca, who took office in 2004. •On Jan. 16, 1992, the government signed a peace treaty with the guerrilla forces, formally ending the 12-year civil war that had killed 75,000. •El Salvador's subsequent presidents have belonged to ARENA, including the president, Antonio Saca, who took office in 2004. WAR ENDS!
  15. 15. Hey, this isn’t Disney World! El Salvador continues to deal with a resurgence of violence by criminal gangs, a struggling but recovering economy, and endemic poverty. El Salvador continues to deal with a resurgence of violence by criminal gangs, a struggling but recovering economy, and endemic poverty.
  16. 16. President Sanchez Ceren: FMLN • A former rebel leader and member of the FMLN, Sanchez Ceren won the presidential run-off of March 2014 by a narrow margin, becoming the first former guerrilla to lead the country. • A former rebel leader and member of the FMLN, Sanchez Ceren won the presidential run-off of March 2014 by a narrow margin, becoming the first former guerrilla to lead the country. Has El Salvador developed a stable democracy?Has El Salvador developed a stable democracy?
  17. 17. HAITI
  18. 18. •1956 - Voodoo physician Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier seizes power in military coup and is elected president a year later. •1964 - Duvalier declares himself president-for-life and establishes a dictatorship with the support of the military. Francois Duvalier “PAPA DOC” HAITIAN DICTATOR 1956-1971
  19. 19. •1971 - Duvalier dies and is succeeded by his 19-year-old son, Jean- Claude, or "Baby Doc", who also declares himself president-for-life. •1986 - Baby Doc flees Haiti in the wake of mounting popular discontent and is replaced by Lieutenant-General Henri Namphy as head of a governing council. •1988 - Leslie Manigat becomes president, but is ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Prosper Avril, who installs a civilian government under military control. JEAN-CLAUDE DUVALIER “BABY DOC” Unstable government overthrown in a series of military coups. Film Clip
  20. 20. •1990 - Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected president. •1991 - Aristide ousted in a coup led by Brigadier- General Raoul Cedras, triggering sanctions by the US and the Organization of American States. Jean-Bertrand Aristide Democratically elected President in Haiti
  21. 21. Raoul Cedras MILITARY DICTATOR WHO OUSTED ARISTIDE AND TOOK OVER THE GOVERNMENT
  22. 22. •1994 - Haitian military regime relinquishes power in the face of an imminent US invasion; US forces land in Haiti peacefully to oversee a transition to civilian government; Aristide returns. •1995 - UN peacekeepers begin to replace US troops; Aristide supporters win parliamentary elections; Rene Preval elected in December to replace Aristide as president. Aristide is later re- elected as President in 2000. HAITIAN PROTESTERS DEMANDED THE RETURN OF ARISTIDE
  23. 23. U.S. Intervention in Haiti
  24. 24. Aristide won the 2000 poll, which was boycotted by opposition groups. Aristide's second term soon became mired in political, social and economic crises. The opposition refused to recognize the outcome of the 2000 elections. Aristide In Power Again
  25. 25. Feb. 5, 2004 — Armed rebels seize control of Gonaives, Haiti's fourth-largest city, starting a popular uprising that threatens Aristide's presidency. Feb. 22, 2004 — Rebels seize Cap-Haitien, Haiti's second-largest city, and vow to press on to the capital, Port-au-Prince. Rebels celebrate Sunday in Cap Haitien Years Later, Many people are not satisfied with Aristide’s Rule! Armed Rebels Take Command
  26. 26. Feb. 29, 2004 — Jean-Bertrand Aristide submitted his resignation as President of Haiti and flew on a chartered plane to the Central African Republic. Ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide says he was forced out of Haiti in a "real coup d'etat" led by the United States, in what he called a "modern way to have a modern kidnapping. I was told that to avoid bloodshed I'd better leave," he said in an interview. The Bush administration vigorously denied that Aristide was kidnapped by U.S. troops. An official welcomes Aristide to Bangui, capital of the Central African Republic. Aristide Out of Power…Again
  27. 27. The U.N. Security Council voted February 29, 2004, unanimously to send a multinational peacekeeping force to Haiti for up to three months. Forces include U.S. Marines as well as French and Canadian troops. Boniface Alexandre, left, was installed as Haiti's president. He appears at a news conference Sunday with Prime Miniister Yvon Neptune. Government Turmoil
  28. 28. Haiti Today •Corruption, insecurity, injustice, and chaos seem to be Haitian constants. Violent musclemen with big guns, loyal to Aristide, control more than a dozen sections of the capital, despite the presence of a US-endorsed Haitian technocrat who is caretaker of the government until presidential elections later this year. •The Aristide proxies are collaborating - and competing, too - with members of the former military, many of whom returned from exile in the Dominican Republic to join their corrupt colleagues. •The U.N. Security Council has authorized its international peacekeeping force in Haiti to continue operations at least until June 1, 2005. The hope is that Haiti will stabilize and find a democratic solution to its political problems.
  29. 29. Rene Preval – 2006 - Present As of 2006, Rene Preval is back as president. The election took place after nearly two years of international peacekeeping. Préval drew much of his support from Haiti's poorest people; he was especially widely supported in the poorest neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince. However, many of the poor demanded that the former President Aristide be allowed to return.
  30. 30. Earthquake January 12, 2010 The human loss ranges between 50000 to 200000, exact number is still to be calculated. A large number of buildings collapsed including the President’s palace, and National Assembly building. A very large number of organizations are busy in relief activities and people as individuals, groups, associations and countries are donating. Film Clip Has Haiti developed a stable democracy?Has Haiti developed a stable democracy?

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