Recovery in China Ming China Political Development Mongols collapsed in 1368. Hongwu established the Ming Dynasty. Erase memory of Mongol occupation. Confucian education and civil service reinstated. Private merchants traded and manufactured porcelain, silk, and cotton. Ming “Brilliant” Dynasty lasted until 1644. Intellectual Development Neo-Confucianism promoted Yongle Encyclopedia promoted Chinese traditions. Jesuit missionaries (Mateo Ricci) introduce European technology and beliefs. Wider production of printed materials. Novels written in Chinese. Largest cities in world Hongwu controlled nobles with fear and violence
Exploration “ Comeback Back” Tours (7 between 1405 -1433). Massive naval and trade fleet headed by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim eunuch. Established tributary relations with regions throughout the eastern hemisphere. Voyages ended in 1433 as Confucian bureaucrats claimed foreign interests had no value to China and military resources should be directed towards protecting northern frontier from attack. Recovery in China Ming China
Indian Ocean Trade Route:
Depends on Monsoon winds
Focus on port cities (enclaves) on coast
Zheng He compared to Prince Henry the Navigator – started school for navigation
Japanese Unification Oda Nobunaga Tokugawa Ieyasu Emperor was a figurehead – no real power Shogun held real power! Major Achievements: Japanese novels, Kabuki Theater, Literature, art, Castles, block printers. Women’s rights restricted: lacked education, arranged marriages, Toyotomi Hideyoshi Highly regulated trade – Closed country edict Threatened by Christianity and Spain in Philippines Allowed the Dutch, Chinese, and Korea limited trade
1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople
and conquered the Byzantine Empire.
Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital.
The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate”
Suleyman the Magnificent
Suleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan
Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts
Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean
Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools
The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy SULTAN Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians Led by Sultan – Absolute power Chief minister, or adviser, to the Sultan GrandVizier Viziers Positions were based on merit, not birth. Provincial Governors (Beys) And Military elite - The Janissaries Heads of Individual Religious Millets Process of succession was not distinct – could cause conflict Who do you think had the real power?