Conflicts in the middle east updatedPresentation Transcript
Conflicts in the Middle EastConflicts in the Middle EastDo Now: According to the map, which countries in theMiddle East have the most resources? What resourcesare limited?
Who do youthink thesepeople are?Where arethey from?Do Now:Do Now:The Shah & His Wife,The Shah & His Wife,FarahFarahIranianelite/upper- andintellectualclasses: verypro-Western.
IranianRevolutionThe Creation ofthe First IslamicFundamentalistState
Long term Causes:Long term Causes: Major _________ are discovered in Iran in the late 1800sMajor _________ are discovered in Iran in the late 1800s Oil rights are sold to foreigners (Britain and Russia)Oil rights are sold to foreigners (Britain and Russia)Oil Fields
Iranian RevolutionIranian RevolutionLong term Causes:Long term Causes: Iranian nationalist resentIranian nationalist resent ____________________ influenceinfluence __________________________________ and westernization fail to help peopleand westernization fail to help people ________________ begins in the 1970s________________ begins in the 1970sWesternModernizationIslamic Revival
Immediate CausesImmediate Causes1. Leader of Iran, Shah1. Leader of Iran, ShahMohammed Reza PahlaviMohammed Reza Pahlaviremained in power due toremained in power due to______________________________US Support
Shah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi(r. 1941 – 1977)(r. 1941 – 1977)Q5 Shah creates reform fromabove: modernizing,redistributing land to thepeasants, granting rightsto women, separatedreligion and government Institutes Western reforms& ties with the West . But, the majority of hispeople live in poverty. Brutal suppression ofdissidents
•The Shah spent the oilprofits for top of the lineAmerican militaryhardware.• Little money toreinvest back into theIranian economy.• Religious leadersangry with the Shah fortoo much“Westernization.”The Shah Reza PahlaviThe Shah Reza Pahlavi
As opposition to the Shah grows, hebecomes more repressive.Iranians protest the Shah’s policiesCorruptioninGovernment
Opposition voicesrallied round AyatollahRuhollah Khomeini, ashia cleric living in exilein Paris.Promising social andeconomic reform, theAyatollah prescribed areturn to traditionalreligious values, whichstruck a chord withmany Iranians.
As the 1970s drew to a close, a series oflarge-scale, increasingly violent anti-Shahprotests swept Iran.Instability, including a wave of generalstrikes, continued throughout the year,crippling the countrys economy.
Ayatollah KhomeiniAyatollah Khomeini(r. 1979-1989)(r. 1979-1989) 1902 – 1989. Became an Islamicscholar(studied in Qom). Began to speak outagainstthe Shah in the1960s. Arrested andimprisoned
The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79.1. Shah’s enemies rally around Shi’ite leaders. TheAyatollahKhomeini accuse the Shah of violating human rightsandundermining Islamic values2. The Shah flees Iran and Khomeini guides Iran’s newgovernmentRevolution OccursRevolution Occurs
Ayatollah KhomeiniAyatollah KhomeiniLeads the RevolutionLeads the RevolutionKhomeini returns to Iranon February 11, 1979.Q7
The day of Khomeinis return he went straight to honor themartyrs at Behesht e Zahra cemetery. Nobody would move outof the way so the helicopter could land because they were soeuphoric about his return
In January 1979, the Shah left Tehran for an "extended vacation".He was never to return.All over Iran statues of the Shah were torn down by Khomeinisupporters.
On February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini madea dramatic return from exile.Political and social instability increased.Street battles raged in towns and provincesbetween pro-Khomeini demonstrators andpolice and security officers, and supporters ofthe imperial regime.
The Fate of the Shah’sThe Fate of the Shah’sGeneralsGenerals
Iran RevolutionaryIran RevolutionaryPosterPosterWhen the devil leaves, the angelreturns!
Revolution OccursRevolution Occurs1. Revolutionaries take 52 American hostages fromthe US embassy2. Government imposes a strict code of behavioraccording to the Shariah and Koran3. Western books and music are banned andwomen’s rights laws are overturned
American EmbassyAmerican EmbassyininTehran Taken OverTehran Taken OverQ9
52 Americans Held52 Americans HeldHostage for 444 Days!Hostage for 444 Days!
52 American Hostages52 American HostagesReleased in Jan., 1981Released in Jan., 1981
Impact of the RevolutionImpact of the Revolution Iran encourages Islamic fundamentalists in otherIran encourages Islamic fundamentalists in othercountriescountries to overthrow their secular governmentsto overthrow their secular governments Iran is isolated by theIran is isolated by the world communityworld community Tensions between Sunni Iraq and Shi’ite IranTensions between Sunni Iraq and Shi’ite Irangrewgrew Living conditionsLiving conditions do not improvedo not improve IraqIraq declares war with Iran that lasts from 1980-declares war with Iran that lasts from 1980-19881988 Lebanese IslamicLebanese Islamic FundamentalistsFundamentalists begin a civilbegin a civilwar.war.
Support for theSupport for thePalestinian CausePalestinian CauseSupport for theSupport for thePalestinian CausePalestinian CauseThe AyatollahwithYasir Arafat.Funds Hamas andHezbollah.
The Iran-Iraq WarThe Iran-Iraq War(1980-1988)(1980-1988)Q10
Another NuclearAnother NuclearPower?Power?US satellite photo of Iraniannuclear facility near Arak.• 2004: Iran announces its planto create a nuclear powerprogram to generate electricity• Many countries feel this wouldlead to the creation of nuclearweapons by Iran• World pressure is placed onIran
Mahmoud AhmadinejadMahmoud Ahmadinejad•Ahmadinejad is the current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran,the first president in twenty-four years who was not a religious cleric.•He is not the most powerful official in Iran; that role belongs to theSupreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, according to Article113 of Constitution of Iran.•Ahmadinejad has been a critic of the US and Israel, and backsstrengthening Irans relations with Russia, Venezuela, Syria, and thePersian Gulf states.Ayatollah Ali KhameneiAyatollah Ali Khamenei
An American view ofAn American view ofIranian nuclearIranian nuclearpowerpowerPINOCCHIAYATOLLAHScott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05
A view of Iran’s nuclearA view of Iran’s nuclearpower frompower from Al-Al-JazeerahJazeerahNobody else (particularly Iran and Arabcountries) should have nuclear weapons exceptIsrael, says Bush.-- Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03
Ethnic Groups in Iraq
A Young Saddam Hussein(1937 - 2006)Saddam’s identity cardSaddam’s identity cardwhen he was 10 years old.when he was 10 years old. Born in Tikrit.Born in Tikrit. Peasant family with influential armyPeasant family with influential armyrelatives.relatives. Tribal society.Tribal society. Joined Baath Party at 20.Joined Baath Party at 20. Aided in failed assassination ofAided in failed assassination ofQasim in 1959 and forced to flee toQasim in 1959 and forced to flee toSyria and Egypt.Syria and Egypt. In 1963, the Baath Party successfullyIn 1963, the Baath Party successfullyoverthrew the government and tookoverthrew the government and tookpower which allowed Saddam topower which allowed Saddam toreturn to Iraq from exile.return to Iraq from exile.
A Cult of Personality• In July 1968, when the Baath Party again gainedpower, Saddam was made vice-president.• On July 16, 1979, the president of Iraq resignedandSaddam officially took the position.• Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq with a brutal hand,using fear and terror to stay in power.
Oil Fields in IraqThe Kurdish Problem
The Anfal CampaignMen were shot and buried in mass graves. The women, children, andelderly were taken to relocation camps where conditions weredeplorable. In a few areas, everyone was killed.Hundreds of thousands of Kurds fled the area, yet it is estimated thatup to 182,000 were killed during the Anfal campaign. Many peopleconsider the Anfal campaign an attempt at genocide.Men were shot and buried in mass graves. The women, children, andelderly were taken to relocation camps where conditions weredeplorable. In a few areas, everyone was killed.Hundreds of thousands of Kurds fled the area, yet it is estimated thatup to 182,000 were killed during the Anfal campaign. Many peopleconsider the Anfal campaign an attempt at genocide.From February 23 toSeptember 6, 1988,Saddam Husseins regimecarried out the Anfal(Arabic for "spoils")campaign against the largeKurdish population innorthern Iraq. The purposeof the campaign wasostensibly to reassert Iraqicontrol over the area;however, the real goal wasto permanently eliminatethe Kurdish problem.From February 23 toSeptember 6, 1988,Saddam Husseins regimecarried out the Anfal(Arabic for "spoils")campaign against the largeKurdish population innorthern Iraq. The purposeof the campaign wasostensibly to reassert Iraqicontrol over the area;however, the real goal wasto permanently eliminatethe Kurdish problem.
Gassing the KurdsAs early as April 1987, the Iraqis used chemical weapons to remove Kurds from theirvillages in northern Iraq during the Anfal campaign. It is estimated that chemicalweapons were used on approximately 40 Kurdish villages, with the largest of theseattacks occurring on March 16, 1988 against the Kurdish town of Halabja.As early as April 1987, the Iraqis used chemical weapons to remove Kurds from theirvillages in northern Iraq during the Anfal campaign. It is estimated that chemicalweapons were used on approximately 40 Kurdish villages, with the largest of theseattacks occurring on March 16, 1988 against the Kurdish town of Halabja.Approximately 5,000 women, men, and children died within days of the attacks.Long-term effects included permanent blindness, cancer, and birth defects. Anestimated 10,000 lived, but live daily with the disfigurement and sicknesses from thechemical weapons.Approximately 5,000 women, men, and children died within days of the attacks.Long-term effects included permanent blindness, cancer, and birth defects. Anestimated 10,000 lived, but live daily with the disfigurement and sicknesses from thechemical weapons.
Ali Hasa al-Majid(“Chemical Ali”)““I will kill them [the Kurds] allI will kill them [the Kurds] allwith chemical weapons!”with chemical weapons!”
A Reign of Terror: MassGraves of Saddam’s Victims
Causes:Causes: Iraq had long ago claimed the land ofIraq had long ago claimed the land of KuwaitKuwait Rich deposits ofRich deposits of oil are on the border and Iraqare on the border and Iraqclaimed that Kuwaiti oil rigs wereclaimed that Kuwaiti oil rigs were illegallyillegally tappingtappinginto Iraqi oil fieldsinto Iraqi oil fieldsConflict Occurs:Conflict Occurs:1.1. In August 1990,In August 1990, Saddam HusseinSaddam Hussein of Iraq invadedof Iraq invadedKuwait and seized its oil fieldsKuwait and seized its oil fields2.2. TheThe UNUN demands Iraqs withdrawal from Kuwait;demands Iraqs withdrawal from Kuwait;Hussein refusesHussein refuses3.3. UN forces led by American GeneralUN forces led by American General NormanNormanSchwarzkopfSchwarzkopf land in Saudi Arabialand in Saudi Arabia4.4. Iraq stays out-OperationIraq stays out-Operation Desert StormDesert Storm begins onbegins onJanuary 17, 1991January 17, 19915.5. UN coalition ofUN coalition of 28 nations28 nations drove Iraq out of Kuwaitdrove Iraq out of Kuwait(March 3, 1991-Iraq accepts cease-fire)(March 3, 1991-Iraq accepts cease-fire)
Iraq Invades KuwaitUN Security Council Resolution 678UN Security Council Resolution 678(authorized military force to be used(authorized military force to be usedagainst Iraq.)against Iraq.)August 2, 1990August 2, 1990
Range of Iraqi Missiles
Saddam Lobs SCUDMissilesIsrael & Saudi Arabia:Israel & Saudi Arabia:The fear of bio-chemicalThe fear of bio-chemicalattacks.attacks.
Kuwait is Liberated
Allies March to BaghdadIraqis cheer Allied forcesIraqis cheer Allied forcesIraqi soldiers surrenderIraqi soldiers surrenderFilmClip
Continuing Problems:Continuing Problems: UN forces have to protect an Iraqi minority, theUN forces have to protect an Iraqi minority, theKurds.Kurds. UN has to make sure Iraq isUN has to make sure Iraq is dismantlingdismantling theirtheirfacilities for nuclear, chemical, and biologicalfacilities for nuclear, chemical, and biologicalweaponsweapons EconomicEconomic sanctionssanctions were imposedwere imposed Dec. 1998Dec. 1998 President ClintonPresident Clinton suspected Iraq ofsuspected Iraq ofstockpiling weapons and ordered the bombing ofstockpiling weapons and ordered the bombing ofmilitary installations.military installations.
400 Iraqi Oil Fields on FireAn environmental disaster!An environmental disaster!
Iraqi War- 2003Iraqi War- 2003• Under continual monitoring and sanctions since the end ofthe Persian Gulf War, intelligence reports from U.S.sources sited Saddam Hussein’s attempts and possiblemanufacture of weapons of mass destruction.• After U.S. claims of Iraqi violations of various UNresolutions, Congress authorizes President Bush tocommence a preemptive attack on Iraq.
Events:Events:• The US turns to theThe US turns to the United NationsUnited Nations for support, but it is not received.for support, but it is not received.The UN is skeptical of claims of Iraq having weapons of massThe UN is skeptical of claims of Iraq having weapons of massdestructiondestruction• The US starts the war in March, 2003 and President Bush declaresThe US starts the war in March, 2003 and President Bush declaresMission AccomplishedMission Accomplished in May 2003in May 2003• Saddam Hussein is in hiding, but captured in December 2003Saddam Hussein is in hiding, but captured in December 2003• After more than 3 years of extensive searching, no WMD’s are found inAfter more than 3 years of extensive searching, no WMD’s are found inIraq.Iraq.
Reasons for Going to WarAgainst Saddam(according to the U. S. and Britain) Saddam kicked out U.N. weaponsSaddam kicked out U.N. weaponsinspectors.inspectors. WMDsWMDs WWeapons ofeapons of MMassass DDestruction.estruction. Saddam did not obey the No-Fly ZoneSaddam did not obey the No-Fly Zonelimitations.limitations. He was a savage dictator.He was a savage dictator. Stop Saddam before he can launchStop Saddam before he can launchnuclear missiles against Israel, Europe,nuclear missiles against Israel, Europe,or even the United States: pre-emptive strikeor even the United States: pre-emptive strike
“Mission Accomplished”President George W. Bush lands onPresident George W. Bush lands onboard the USS Abraham Lincolnboard the USS Abraham Lincoln(May, 2003)(May, 2003)
Saddam Is Captured!December, 2003December, 2003
Iraq TodayIraq Today Saddam HusseinSaddam Hussein was held prisoner by the Unitedwas held prisoner by the UnitedStates and was put on trial by Iraqi Government.States and was put on trial by Iraqi Government.He was executed in December of 2006.He was executed in December of 2006. DemocraticDemocratic elections were held in January 2005.elections were held in January 2005.Some Sunnis boycotted.Some Sunnis boycotted. The majority Shi’ite now hold power along with theThe majority Shi’ite now hold power along with theKurds. (The Kurds are Iraqi people that wereKurds. (The Kurds are Iraqi people that weregassedgassed by Saddam Hussein.)by Saddam Hussein.) The new government (Iraqi National Assembly)The new government (Iraqi National Assembly)wrote awrote a constitutionconstitution for Iraq in 2005.for Iraq in 2005. InsurgentsInsurgents, those opposed to the overthrow of, those opposed to the overthrow ofHussein and the American occupation of Iraq,Hussein and the American occupation of Iraq,continue to commit attacks against US soldierscontinue to commit attacks against US soldiersand Iraqi military.and Iraqi military.Film Clip
Iraq TodayIraq TodayPresident Talabani – Kurd Prime Minister Maliki
4000+ American Casualties
A GrowingInsurgencyFormerFormerBaathists andBaathists andforeignforeignterroriststerrorists(Al-Qaida,(Al-Qaida,etc.)etc.)
An Interim Iraqi Governmentis Created (June, 2004)Prime Minister Ayad AllawiPrime Minister Ayad Allawi
1/30/05 – The Vote!Courage at the Polls!!Courage at the Polls!!