Cold War

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    Do you mind if I use some of your slides for my Cold War powerpoint/screencast for my students? - Mike Cruz W.I.H.S. - Detroit.
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Cold War

  1. 1. A Divided Europe Do Now: Analyze the cartoon to the left. 1. What does the woman represent? What is she trying to do? 2. What does the Iron Curtain represent? 3. Why are Britain and France depicted as they are in relation to the United States? Do Now: Analyze the cartoon to the left. 1. What does the woman represent? What is she trying to do? 2. What does the Iron Curtain represent? 3. Why are Britain and France depicted as they are in relation to the United States?
  2. 2. COLD WAR 1945-1991
  3. 3. The Recovery of Japan and GermanyThe Recovery of Japan and Germany •Both Germany and Japan were physically and socially devastated by the war •Victorious Allied powers occupied both countries •Germany was divided into four zones of occupation controlled by Britain, France, US and USSR •The US alone occupied Japan •Germany was divided into four zones of occupation controlled by Britain, France, US and USSR •The US alone occupied Japan
  4. 4. Democracy in West GermanyDemocracy in West Germany •Germany’s armed forces were disbanded and the Nazi party was outlawed •In Western Germany, Allies helped set up political parties and assisted Germans in writing a federal Constitution. •In 1949, West Germany regained self-government and named itself the Federal Republic of Germany
  5. 5. 5 Division of Germany • The city of Berlin was also divided even though it was located in Soviet occupied territory. • West Germany was democratic with free elections and eventual self-rule, and industrial growth was encouraged. • East Germany was Communist under Soviet control. Its factories were dismantled and the resources used to rebuild the Soviet Union.
  6. 6. Democracy in JapanDemocracy in Japan •A new Japanese Constitution was drafted creating a Constitutional Monarchy that limited the power of the Emperor •Japanese accepted this constitution and signed a treaty that took away Japan’s overseas empire •In 1952, the Allied occupation officially ended •A new Japanese Constitution was drafted creating a Constitutional Monarchy that limited the power of the Emperor •Japanese accepted this constitution and signed a treaty that took away Japan’s overseas empire •In 1952, the Allied occupation officially ended •Japan’s armed forces were disbanded •The American occupiers had the goal to end militarism and ensure a democratic government •Japan’s armed forces were disbanded •The American occupiers had the goal to end militarism and ensure a democratic government
  7. 7. Possible Plan to Split Japan American Sphere of Influence
  8. 8. 8 The Iron Curtain CLICK for text and video of speech “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ________________- has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Churchill – March 5, 1946 “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ________________- has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Churchill – March 5, 1946 iron curtain •Why does Churchill use an “Iron Curtain” to symbolize the political differences developing in Europe? •Why does Churchill use an “Iron Curtain” to symbolize the political differences developing in Europe?
  9. 9. 10 Churchill’s Warning… • Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe.
  10. 10. 12 The Soviet Bloc: Satellite Nations… The Soviet Bloc: Satellite Nations… • Stalin never allowed truly free elections. • Instead, communist governments were installed in many Eastern European nations. • Led to a mistrust between the United States and the Soviet Union. Main Purpose? Protect USSR from invasion from the West
  11. 11. What is a Cold War? A State of Diplomatic hostility among nations without______________________ USA USSR Direct armed conflict
  12. 12. How did the Cold War Start?A. The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. both emerge as _____________ after WWII B. Each Nation had _________________ – saw other as a dangerous threat C. Tensions escalate - Stalin refused to give _______________ to Eastern European nations and Blockade of West Berlin Super Powers Different ideologies Promised elections
  13. 13. How do you Fight a Cold War?A)Need a ____________________________ – Arms, technology, influence B) Use of __________________________________ __________________________________ C) Send ______________ to weaker nations to spread influence and gain allies D) Support with ___________ nations in conflicts to protect interests or agitate other side Threat of Direct armed conflict Propaganda- created hatred and paranoia of the other side Economic aid Military aid
  14. 14. 18 Problem with Berlin? • Berlin was in the Soviet Sector. • Stalin was not happy with a “small piece” of democracy in Eastern Europe. – What did he do?
  15. 15. 19 _____________________ ___• June 1948, Stalin attempts to starve West Berliners into submission. • All rail and street access was blocked. Berlin Blockade
  16. 16. 20 _____________________ • American and British planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days. • Stalin lifted the Blockade by May 1949. Berlin Airlift
  17. 17. 21
  18. 18. 22 Operation “Little Vittles” • During the Berlin Airlift a group of pilots decided to help boost the spirits of the German children. • They organized a mission to drop candy to the children using parachutes made of handkerchiefs.
  19. 19. 1947 -The Marshall Plan1947 -The Marshall Plan What was it? •The goal was to promote economic and political stability in post WWII world •Provided food, machines, and other materials •The goal was to promote economic and political stability in post WWII world •Provided food, machines, and other materials A U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII.
  20. 20. The Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan Why would the USSR oppose such a plan? •Stalin saw the plan as a threat •Marshall Plan aid would largely be used by the Europeans to buy U.S. manufactured goods and raw materials •Communist influence on Western Europe would be reduced •Soviet Union did not (or could not) offer a similar program for Eastern Europe
  21. 21. Which country received the most aid from the United States? Why would Great Britain and France receive the most aid? Is the U.S. acting out of self interest? Why? The Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan
  22. 22. Evaluate the two photos. What significant changes have occurred in the second photo? The Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan
  23. 23. •A promise made by U.S. President Truman to provide military and economic support to all countries that rejected communism •This policy of stopping any further spread of communism became known as the ______________________ 1947 - The Truman Doctrine1947 - The Truman Doctrine Why would some Americans oppose the Truman Doctrine? •Feared U.S. involvement in foreign affairs •Argue U.S. lacked resources to carry on “global crusades” against communism ( “World Policeman”) What was it? Policy of containment “One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” “One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
  24. 24. 1947 - The Truman Doctrine1947 - The Truman Doctrine 1. In what way would the continuation of chaos in Western Europe be beneficial to the Soviet Union? 2. What country does the cartoonist see as the savior of Western Europe?
  25. 25. What is the idea of a domino theory? TheThe __________________________ The domino theory was a 20th Century foreign policy theory that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect. 1949 – Major Domino falls – Chinese communists take control of China - USSR explodes an atomic bomb Domino Theory
  26. 26. 1949 - NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization – Western Nations join in a military alliance to defend against Communist threats. 1955 – Warsaw PactUSSR and Eastern Bloc Nations join in a military alliance to counter NATO. United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Portugal, West Germany, Greece, Turkey United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Portugal, West Germany, Greece, Turkey Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, East Germany, Bulgaria, Albania Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, East Germany, Bulgaria, Albania
  27. 27. 34 Change in Leaders • The early 1950s saw a change in leaders in both the US and USSR. • USA = Dwight Eisenhower wins the election of 1952. • USSR = Nikita Khruschev takes over when Stalin dies in 1953. “We Will Bury you!”
  28. 28. THE BERLIN WALL Video.asx Film Clip
  29. 29. 36 Hydrogen Bomb • US exploded the 1st H-bomb on November 1, 1952 in South Pacific. – That bomb completely destroyed one island and left a crater 175 feet deep. • Russians exploded on in August of 1953. • Led to MAD – _____________________________ - MAD reflects the idea that one's population could best be protected by leaving it vulnerable so long as the other side faced comparable vulnerabilities. In short: Whoever shoots first, dies second. Mutually assured destruction
  30. 30. Brinkmanship • Defined as willingness to push nation to the “brink” of nuclear war to keep peace. • Policy advocated by John Foster Dulles; Secretary of State. Butter Battle Book Movie Film Clip
  31. 31. 38Russians – By Sting
  32. 32. KOREAN WAR 1950 - 1953 After World War II Korea was divided, along the 38th parallel, into North Korea, occupied Soviet forces and South Korea occupied by American forces. North Korean forces, seeking to unify the country under communist rule invaded the south in 1950. Commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, UN forces prevented a northern takeover of South Korea. An Armistice was signed in 1953.
  33. 33. 1959 - CUBAN REVOLUTION BAY OF PIGS INVASION 1961 In 1959 Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba. He nationalized businesses and executed opponents, transforming Cuba into a Communist state. He threatened to spread Communism to other Latin American countries. In 1961 U.S. trained Cuban exiles unsuccessfully invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.
  34. 34. CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1962 In 1962 the United States discovered that Cuba was secretly building bases to install Soviet missiles with nuclear warheads. After President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba and threatened and invasion, Krushev agreed to withdraw the missiles for a pledge that the U.S. would not invade Cuba.
  35. 35. VIETNAM WAR 1954- 1975When the French withdrew from Indochina in 1954, Vietnam was divided. Ho Chi Minh Founded Communist North Vietnam, While South Vietnam established ties to the West. Communists known as Vietcong began a guerrilla war in South Vietnam with North Vietnamese support. The U.S. entered the conflict to resist communism. Although the U.S. had superior technology, and used 500,000 soldiers it could not defeat the North Vietnamese. In 1973 U.S. troops withdrew under the Paris Peace Accords. In 1975 the South fell to the North.
  36. 36. ARMS RACE The United States developed the Atomic Bomb during WWII. Soviet scientists developed one in 1949. For 40 years the superpowers spent huge amounts of money to develop more & more powerful weapons. This raised the tensions between the two countries. It also raised the fears among many people that the superpowers might become involved in a conflict that would destroy the world.
  37. 37. Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What? HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WARHEAD STOCKPILES -- 1945-1995 NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well as warheads awaiting dismantling 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 UNITED STATES 6 3,057 31,265 26,675 22,941 14,766 SOVIET UNION 0 200 6,129 19,443 39,197 27,000 BRITAIN 0 10 310 350 300 300 FRANCE 0 0 32 188 360 485 CHINA 0 0 5 185 425 425 Source: National Resources Defense Council
  38. 38. SPACE RACEThe super powers also competed in space. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around the Earth. Soon after the United States established NASA. The race was on. In 1958 the U.S. launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sent the first man into space. In 1969 the U.S. was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both the Soviets and Americans explored the use of satellites for military purposes.
  39. 39. G PEOPLE OF THE COLD WAR A B C D E F H I J L M N O K
  40. 40. EVENTS OF THE COLD WAR
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