Apartheid in South Africa

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  • A poster issued during the 1961 referendum when white voters were asked if they wished to make South Africa a republic or not. The poster made the issue at stake very plain: either stay in the British-led Commonwealth and be forced to accept black rule, or break away and become a white-ruled republic. A slim majority of voters chose the white republic option. The government and its supporters simply ignored the fact that the vast majority of the population was already nonwhite. Above left: Dr. H.F. Verwoerd, the Dutch-born National Party Prime Minister, who is widely, but incorrectly, credited with creating apartheid. In reality, the groundwork for the policy of segregation had been laid more than a century before the advent of the NP. Verwoerd was regarded as white South Africa’s greatest prime minister, and was twice a target for leftist assassins. The first assassination attempt, in which he was shot in the face, failed, but the second, carried out by a mixed-race orderly working in the South African parliament, was successful. Verwoerd was stabbed to death at his seat in the parliamentary building in September 1966.
  • The word means “apartness” or “separateness”
    Defined as a complete separation of the races
    Separated whites from blacks in all public places, schools, and housing
    Blacks and whites could not marry
    Blacks couldn’t own land or have good jobs
    Enforced by the police, if violated, one could go to jail
  • In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes; the government declared a state of emergency. The emergency lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded.
  • Formed the Black Consciousness Group:
    He provided legal aid and medical clinics, as well as helping to develop cottage industries for disadvantaged black communities.
    Banned from South Africa for his protests, arrested four times and made to follow restrictions of travel and public appearances.
  • Biko was beaten by the police and had slipped into a continual, semi-conscious state. The police physician recommended a transfer to the hospital and Biko was transported 1,200 km to Pretoria – a 12-hour journey which he made lying naked in the back of a Land Rover. A few hours later, on September 12, 1977 alone and still naked, lying on the floor of a cell in the Pretoria Central Prison, Biko died from brain damage.
  • In 1991 he was elected President of the ANC. In the first democratic elections in 1994, Nelson Mandela was voted state President of South Africa. He served as President until June, 1999, at which time he retired from public life.
  • Apartheid in South Africa

    1. 1. ENDING APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA
    2. 2. South African UnionSouth African Union With the founding of the South African Union in 1910, the British colony and the independent Boer Republics were united. With the founding of the South African Union in 1910, the British colony and the independent Boer Republics were united.
    3. 3. South African Union Due to harsh treatment of the Boers during the Anglo-Boer War, the British granted internal political control to the Boer minority. South Africa had gained self-rule under the British Empire. First Prime Minister, Louis Botha (Afrikaner) A modern "democratic" state was formed, in which only the white population could execute the right to vote. A modern "democratic" state was formed, in which only the white population could execute the right to vote.
    4. 4. The founding members of the SANNC, from left to right, Dr W. Rubusana, T. Mapikela, Rev. J. L. Dube, Sol Plaatje and S. Msane AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANC) • Formed by Black South Africans in 1912 •Organized strikes and boycotts to protest racist policies • Formed by Black South Africans in 1912 •Organized strikes and boycotts to protest racist policies
    5. 5. The National PartyThe National Party In 1948, the National Party came to power in South Africa. Promoted Afrikaner, or Dutch South African, nationalism. In 1961, South Africa was granted total independence from Great Britain. In 1948, the National Party came to power in South Africa. Promoted Afrikaner, or Dutch South African, nationalism. In 1961, South Africa was granted total independence from Great Britain.
    6. 6. Decolonization South Africa was a settler colony with larger European population than most settler colonies. Afrikaners were distinct from the Dutch - had no European homeland to return to if ousted. Afrikaners shared ideology of white supremacy and limited the education, opportunities, and rights of the black Africans – policy of apartheid Why was South African Decolonization led and controlled by the white Afrikaner minority?
    7. 7. Apartheid “[Apartheid] is the only basis on which the character and the future of each race can be protected and made secure…” Hendrik Verwoerd, Prime Minister 1958- 1966
    8. 8. System of ApartheidSystem of Apartheid The system of segregation between races. The system of Apartheid was created to make the whites more powerful and to keep the races separated. The system of segregation between races. The system of Apartheid was created to make the whites more powerful and to keep the races separated. Whites Non-Whites
    9. 9. Ethnic Composition Of South Africa 14% 75% 9% 2% White Black Colored Indian
    10. 10. Classified population by four racial categories: White, Bantu (black African), Colored (of mixed race) Asian (Indians and Pakistanis) Classified population by four racial categories: White, Bantu (black African), Colored (of mixed race) Asian (Indians and Pakistanis)
    11. 11. Required non-whites to carry a "pass" to prove they had permission to travel in white areas. Required non-whites to carry a "pass" to prove they had permission to travel in white areas.
    12. 12.  Assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areas.  Non-whites were forbidden to live, work or own land in areas belonging to whites  Assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areas.  Non-whites were forbidden to live, work or own land in areas belonging to whites
    13. 13. •Created ten African "homelands" or small nations. •Made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands, effectively excluding blacks from South African politics. •Created ten African "homelands" or small nations. •Made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands, effectively excluding blacks from South African politics.
    14. 14. 13% of South Africa's total area for almost 75% of its population! The homelands were not developed industrially. This led to a situation in which working men would migrate into white South Africa, work there for 11 months and return once a year to their families for four weeks. The homelands were not developed industrially. This led to a situation in which working men would migrate into white South Africa, work there for 11 months and return once a year to their families for four weeks.
    15. 15. How Was Apartheid Enforced? 1953, the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed: •Empowered the government to declare states of emergency •Increased penalties for protesting against the law. •Penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings. •Empowered the government to declare states of emergency •Increased penalties for protesting against the law. •Penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings.
    16. 16. Anti-Apartheid Movement •Led by Nelson Mandela •The ANC vigorously opposed the apartheid policies of the ruling National Party. •They used boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience. •Led by Nelson Mandela •The ANC vigorously opposed the apartheid policies of the ruling National Party. •They used boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience. Nelson Mandela, a leader of the ANC, burns pass. Nelson, inspired you are to use non-violence! Freedom, you will gain one day!
    17. 17. 1960: Sharpeville Massacre The Sharpeville Massacre signaled the start of armed resistance in South Africa, and prompted worldwide condemnation of South Africa's Apartheid policies. The Sharpeville Massacre signaled the start of armed resistance in South Africa, and prompted worldwide condemnation of South Africa's Apartheid policies. In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes. The government declared a state of emergency that lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded. In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes. The government declared a state of emergency that lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded.
    18. 18. Spear of the Nation After the Sharpeville Massacre the ANC was officially banned. A guerrilla arm of the ANC was then formed called Spear of the Nation. After the Sharpeville Massacre the ANC was officially banned. A guerrilla arm of the ANC was then formed called Spear of the Nation.
    19. 19. Nelson Mandela Arrested! Nelson Mandela was arrested many times, but in 1962 when the ANC (African National Congress) was banned, he was found guilty of sabotage and bombing of government buildings. Nelson Mandela was arrested many times, but in 1962 when the ANC (African National Congress) was banned, he was found guilty of sabotage and bombing of government buildings. "Sabotage did not involve loss of life, and it offered the best hope for future race relations. Bitterness would be kept to a minimum and, if the policy bore fruit, democratic government could become a reality.” Film ClipFilm Clip
    20. 20. Mandela Imprisoned In 1962 Mandela was convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Robben Island Maximum Security Prison In 1962 Mandela was convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Robben Island Maximum Security Prison Film Clip start at 2:16 “To be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.”
    21. 21. Film Clip Throughout the 70s and 80s his imprisonment became a rallying point for black resistance. Throughout the 80s he rejected several offers of release, all conditional on his renouncing certain beliefs. He would not be released until February 11, 1990, after 27 years in prison. Throughout the 70s and 80s his imprisonment became a rallying point for black resistance. Throughout the 80s he rejected several offers of release, all conditional on his renouncing certain beliefs. He would not be released until February 11, 1990, after 27 years in prison.
    22. 22. •Formed the Black Consciousness Group: •Believed freedom could only be achieved if blacks stopped feeling inferior to whites •Attracted enormous international attention, and is considered by many to be the turning point in the demise of apartheid.
    23. 23. Biko was jailed and beaten into a semi-conscious state. He was kept chained and naked for hours and then sent to a hospital 12 hours away. Biko was jailed and beaten into a semi-conscious state. He was kept chained and naked for hours and then sent to a hospital 12 hours away. Biko Imprisoned September 12, 1977 – Steven Biko died. He was 30 years old. In announcing his death, South African authorities claimed Biko died after refusing food and water for a week in a hunger strike. September 12, 1977 – Steven Biko died. He was 30 years old. In announcing his death, South African authorities claimed Biko died after refusing food and water for a week in a hunger strike.
    24. 24. September '77 Port Elizabeth weather fine It was business as usual In police room 619 Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead When I try and sleep at night I can only dream in red The outside world is black and white With only one colour dead Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead September '77 Port Elizabeth weather fine It was business as usual In police room 619 Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead When I try and sleep at night I can only dream in red The outside world is black and white With only one colour dead Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead You can blow out a candle But you can't blow out a fire Once the flames begin to catch The wind will blow it higher Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead And the eyes of the world are watching now watching now You can blow out a candle But you can't blow out a fire Once the flames begin to catch The wind will blow it higher Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead And the eyes of the world are watching now watching now Biko – Peter Gabriel Biko – Peter Gabriel Song (Descending Spirit)
    25. 25. Steve Biko "One People One Nation" was written on Biko’s coffin "We have set on a quest for true humanity, and somewhere on the distant horizon we can see the glittering prize. Let us march forth with courage and determination, drawing strength from our common plight and brotherhood. In time we shall be in a position to bestow upon South Africa the greatest gift possible - a more human face". -- Steve Biko
    26. 26. Spent his life speaking out against injustice and oppression. Led a worldwide economic campaign against apartheid. He asked foreign nations not to do business with South Africa.  Many nations imposed trade restrictions on South Africa.  UN condemned the South African government on human rights violations.  Since the 1960s, South Africa was not allowed to join the Olympic games. Spent his life speaking out against injustice and oppression. Led a worldwide economic campaign against apartheid. He asked foreign nations not to do business with South Africa.  Many nations imposed trade restrictions on South Africa.  UN condemned the South African government on human rights violations.  Since the 1960s, South Africa was not allowed to join the Olympic games.
    27. 27. -- Desmond Tutu "My vision is of a South Africa that is totally non-racial...a new South Africa, a free South Africa, where all of us, black and white together, will walk tall; where all of us, black and white together, will hold hands as we stride forth on the Freedom March to usher in the new South Africa where people will matter because they are human beings made in the image of God."
    28. 28. Elected by white South Africans as the new president in 1989. He legalized the ANC and released Nelson Mandela from prison. Apartheid laws were repealed. Agreed to hold elections in 1994 in which people of all races could vote. Elected by white South Africans as the new president in 1989. He legalized the ANC and released Nelson Mandela from prison. Apartheid laws were repealed. Agreed to hold elections in 1994 in which people of all races could vote.
    29. 29. “The season of violence is over. The time for reconstruction and reconciliation has arrived.” “The season of violence is over. The time for reconstruction and reconciliation has arrived.” In 1990, the president of South Africa, F.W. de Klerk, legalized the ANC and released Mandela from prison after serving 27 years!! In 1990, the president of South Africa, F.W. de Klerk, legalized the ANC and released Mandela from prison after serving 27 years!!
    30. 30. On February 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison!
    31. 31. “As I walked out the door toward the gate that would lead to my freedom, I knew if I didn't leave my bitterness and hatred behind, I'd still be in prison.”
    32. 32. Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk won the Noble Peace Prize in 1993 for ending apartheid and creating a new democratic and free South Africa! Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk won the Noble Peace Prize in 1993 for ending apartheid and creating a new democratic and free South Africa!
    33. 33. Mandela Becomes President In 1994, Mandela was elected president of South Africa. Nelson Mandela was the first black president of South Africa! “We shall build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity – a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world."
    34. 34. “Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.” “Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.”
    35. 35. South Africa Under Mandela Nelson Mandela created a non-racial democracy and created a new flag that represented all the people! Once Mandela was president, he ended apartheid and created a new constitution!
    36. 36. Thabo Mbeki  In June 1996, Thabo Mbeki became the Deputy President of the new Government of National Unity.  In December 1997, Thabo Mbeki became the new President of the African National Congress.  Thabo Mbeki was elected President of South Africa in June of 1999.
    37. 37. Jacob Zuma Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma is the current President of the African National Congress (ANC), the governing political party, and was Deputy President of South Africa from 1999 to 2005. Zuma is also referred to by his initials JZ and his clan name Msholozi. Zuma became the President of the ANC on December 18 2007 after defeating incumbent Thabo Mbeki at the ANC conference in Polokwane. Zuma is the ANC's presidential candidate in the general election held on 22 April 2009. "Never did I think as I was growing up here that one day I would cast my vote here as I am doing," said Zuma, a 67-year-old veteran of the struggle against apartheid. "It must be great, feeling the difference from the olden days to where we are today, when we can decide our own fate."

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