APARTHEIDINSOUTH AFRICAObjective: To understand the events that led to the creationof an independent South Africa.To understand the policy of apartheid and its impact.To understand what caused the end of apartheid and thechallenges that remain.
The Population of South AfricaBlack Africans, Zuluand Xhosa had beenliving in the area forcenturies.The Dutch arrived inthe 17th century andstayed. (Boers/Afrikaners)The British claimed itand developeddiamond mines.
South African UnionWith the founding of the South AfricanUnion in 1910, the British colony and theindependent Boer Republics were united.Due to harsh treatment of the Boersduring the Anglo-Boer War, the Britishgranted internal political control to theBoer minority. South Africa had gainedself-rule under the British Empire.A modern "democratic" state was formed,in which only the white population couldexecute the right to vote.First Prime Minister,Louis Botha (Afrikaner)
National Party (1948)In 1948, the National Party came topower in South Africa.Promoted Afrikaner, or Dutch SouthAfrican, nationalism.Instituted a strict racial segregationpolicy called apartheid.In 1961, South Africa was granted totalindependence from Great Britain.National Party PrimeMinister (1948-1954),Daniel Malan (Afrikaner)
DecolonizationSouth Africa was a settler colony with larger Europeanpopulation than most settler colonies.Afrikaners had long heritage of living in South Africa – aslong as some Europeans in North America.Afrikaners were distinct from the Dutch - had no Europeanhomeland to return to if ousted.Afrikaners shared ideology of white supremacy and limitedthe education, opportunities, and rights of the blackAfricans – policy of apartheidWhy was South African Decolonization led andcontrolled by the white Afrikaner minority?“[Apartheid] is “the only basis on which the character and the futureof each race can be protected and made secure…”- Hendrik Verwoerd, Prime Minister 1958-1966
What is Apartheid?The word means “apartness” or “separateness”Defined as a complete separation of the racesSeparated whites fromblacks in all public places,schools, and housingBlacks and whites couldnot marryBlacks couldn’t own landor have good jobsEnforced by the police, ifviolated, one could go toJail Segregated stands atSouth African stadium
Laws Instituted By TheSouth AfricanGovernmentThe Population Registration ActThe Group Areas ActPass LawsBantu Homelands Citizenship Act
Population RegistrationAct (1950)Classified population by race.It put all South Africans intothree racial categories: Bantu (black African), White, Or Colored (of mixed race) A fourth category, Asian(Indians and Pakistanis), wasadded later.
The Group Areas Act (1950)Assigned races to different residential andbusiness sections in urban areas.Members of other races were forbidden to live,work or own land in areas belonging to otherraces.
Pass LawsRequired non-whites tocarry a "pass" to provethey had permission totravel in white areas.
Bantu HomelandsCitizenship Act (1959)Created tenAfrican"homelands" orsmall nations.Made every blackSouth African acitizen of one ofthe homelands,effectivelyexcluding blacksfrom SouthAfrican politics.
Black Township in South Africa13% of South Africas total area for almost 75% of its population!
The HomelandsAgriculturalproduction wasnot sufficient tosupport thepopulations ofthe homelands.The homelands were not developed industrially. This led to a situation inwhich working men would migrate into white South Africa, work there for11 months and return once a year to their families for four weeks.
Violence in the HomelandsThe governments in thehomelands were mostlymade up of the black eliteand were often authoritarianregimes, which found littleacceptance among thepeople.
How Was Apartheid Enforced?In 1953, the Public Safety Act and theCriminal Law Amendment Act were passed:
Enforcing Apartheid•Empowered the government to declare states of emergency•Increased penalties for protesting against the law.•Penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings.
Questions and Predictions1. In 6 words (no more, no less) define apartheid.2. Under the rule of the National Party, doesSouth Africa have a democracy? Why or whynot?3. What would the country need in order toachieve democracy?4. Compare and contrast decolonization of SouthAfrica to India, Egypt, Kenya, or Algeria.(Nationalist movement, goals, methods, majorproblems, etc.)
Video Footage Time!
Struggle For Democracyin South Africa
Development of NationalismNelson Mandela joined theANC at the age of 24During the Second World WarMandela, along with other youngAfricans set about taking theANC message to the millions oflower class black people aroundSouth Africa. These youngliberals set about firing up theconservative, conciliatorymethods of the ANC old guard infavor of a radical form ofNationalism based on theprinciple of national selfdetermination.Nelson, inspired youare to use non-violence!Freedom, you will gainone day!
THE ANC YOUTH LEAGUEThe ANC Youth League wasformed in 1947. They vigorouslyopposed the apartheid policies ofthe ruling National Party, usingthe tools of boycott, strike andcivil disobedience. In 1952Mandela led the defiancecampaign which involved non-violent resistance to unjust laws.Nelson Mandela, a leader of theANC, burns pass.
Sharpeville Massacre (1960)In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpevillerefused to carry their passes; the governmentdeclared a state of emergency. The emergencylasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and187 people wounded.
Sharpeville MassacreThe Sharpeville Massacresignaled the start of armedresistance in South Africa,and prompted worldwidecondemnation of SouthAfricas Apartheid policies.
After the Sharpeville Massacre the ANC wasofficially banned. A guerrilla arm of the ANCwas then formed called Spear of the Nation.Spear of the Nation engaged in Governmentalsabotage, with Mandela at the forefront. Inmid 1962 he was jailed for five years forencouraging strike action. While serving thissentence he was charged with sabotage..Spear of the NationSpear of the Nationwas a militant wing ofthe ANC, similar to theMau Mau rebels inKenya.
“There are many people who feel that it isuseless and futile for us to continue talkingpeace and nonviolence against a governmentwhose reply is only savage attacks on anunarmed and defenseless people.”"Each disturbance … showed that a Government which usesforce to maintain its rule teaches the oppressed to use force tooppose it.*""Sabotage did not involve loss of life, and it offered the besthope for future race relations. Bitterness would be kept to aminimum and, if the policy bore fruit, democratic governmentcould become a reality.”Mandela’s Defense
Mandela ImprisonedIn 1962 Mandela was convictedof sabotage and conspiracy tooverthrow the government. Hewas sentenced to lifeimprisonment on the RobbenIsland Maximum Security PrisonIn 1962 Mandela was convictedof sabotage and conspiracy tooverthrow the government. Hewas sentenced to lifeimprisonment on the RobbenIsland Maximum Security PrisonFilm Clip
Nelson Mandela inPrisonMandela was Imprisoned from 1964-1990
Rally CryThroughout the 70s and 80s his imprisonment became a rallyingpoint for black resistance. Throughout the 80s he rejectedseveral offers of release, all conditional on his renouncing certainbeliefs. He would not be released until February 11, 1990, after27 years in prison.Film Clip
Other Leaders oftheAnti-ApartheidMovement
Steve Biko: Anti-Apartheid MartyrFormed the Black Consciousness Group:He provided legal aid and medicalclinics, as well as helping to developcottage industries for disadvantagedblack communities.Banned from South Africa for hisprotests, arrested four times and madeto follow restrictions of travel and publicappearances.His philosophy that political freedom could only be achievedif blacks stopped feeling inferior to whites attractedenormous international attention, and is considered by manyto be the turning point in the demise of apartheid.
Biko was beaten by the police and hadslipped into a continual, semi-consciousstate. The police physician recommendeda transfer to the hospital and Biko wastransported 1,200 km to Pretoria – a 12-hour journey which he made lying nakedin the back of a Land Rover. A few hourslater, on September 12, 1977 alone andstill naked, lying on the floor of a cell inthe Pretoria Central Prison, Biko diedfrom brain damage.Biko was imprisoned where he was kept chained and nakedBiko Imprisoned
September 77Port Elizabeth weather fineIt was business as usualIn police room 619Oh Biko, Biko, because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihla Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is deadWhen I try and sleep at nightI can only dream in redThe outside world is black and whiteWith only one colour deadOh Biko, Biko, because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihla Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is deadYou can blow out a candleBut you cant blow out a fireOnce the flames begin to catchThe wind will blow it higherOh Biko, Biko, because Bikooh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihla Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is deadAnd the eyes of the world arewatching nowwatching nowBiko – PeterGabrielSong(Descending Spirit)
Steve Biko"We have set on a quest fortrue humanity, and somewhereon the distant horizon we cansee the glittering prize. Let usmarch forth with courage anddetermination, drawingstrength from our commonplight and brotherhood. In timewe shall be in a position tobestow upon South Africa thegreatest gift possible - a morehuman face".-- Steve Biko"One People One Nation" was written on Biko’s coffin
Bishop Desmond TutuSpent his life speaking out againstinjustice and oppression.Led a worldwide economic campaignagainst apartheid. He asked foreignnations not to do business with SouthAfrica. Many nations imposed traderestrictions on South Africa. UN condemned the South Africangovernment on human rightsviolations. Since the 1960s, South Africa was notallowed to join the Olympic games.
"My vision is of a South Africathat is totally non-racial...a newSouth Africa, a free SouthAfrica, where all of us, blackand white together, will walktall; where all of us, black andwhite together, will hold handsas we stride forth on theFreedom March to usher in thenew South Africa where peoplewill matter because they arehuman beings made in theimage of God."-- Desmond TutuBishop Desmond Tutu
F.W. De KlerkElected by white South Africans asthe new president in 1989.He legalized the ANC and releasedNelson Mandela from prison.Apartheid laws were repealed.Agreed to hold elections in 1994 inwhich people of all races could vote.
F.W. De Klerk"Let us tackle the problem of world peace by going to the rootcause for the lack of world peace. It is in many instances thetyranny of the majority. It is the alienation of important minoritygroups. It is suppression of specific languages and cultures. Weneed to come to grips with the management and accommodationof diversity in a just and equitable way."
Mandela is Free!On February 11, 1990, NelsonMandela was released from prison!Mandela now set out with determinedzeal to overthrow apartheid.In 1991 he was elected President of theANC. In the first democratic electionsin 1994, Nelson Mandela was votedstate President of South Africa. Heserved as President until June, 1999, atwhich time he retired from public life.
Mandela ElectedPresidentMandela and then-President F. W. de Klerk of South Africawon the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. They were honored for theirwork to end apartheid and to enable the countrys nonwhitesto fully participate in the South African government.
Nelson Mandela“Out of the experience of an extraordinary humandisaster that lasted too long, must be born asociety of which all humanity will be proud.Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans mustproduce an actual South African reality that willreinforce humanitys belief in justice, strengthen itsconfidence in the nobility of the human soul andsustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all. Wethank all our distinguished international guests forhaving come to take possession with the people ofour country of what is, after all, a common victoryfor justice, for peace, for human dignity.We trust that you will continue to stand by us as wetackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity,non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy.”
South Africa Under Mandela1994 – Adopted a new flag1996 – Wrote a new constitution Guarantees equal rights for all citizens Forbids discrimination and protects the rights ofminorities Guarantees the right to travel freely
Thabo MbekiIn June 1996, Thabo Mbeki becamethe Deputy President of the newGovernment of National Unity.In December 1997, Thabo Mbekibecame the new President of theAfrican National Congress.Thabo Mbeki was elected Presidentof South Africa in June of 1999.
Jacob ZumaJacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma is the currentPresident of the African National Congress(ANC), the governing political party, and wasDeputy President of South Africa from 1999 to2005. Zuma is also referred to by his initials JZand his clan name Msholozi. Zuma became thePresident of the ANC on December 18 2007after defeating incumbent Thabo Mbeki at theANC conference in Polokwane. Zuma is theANCs presidential candidate in the generalelection held on 22 April 2009."Never did I think as I was growing up here that one day I wouldcast my vote here as I am doing," said Zuma, a 67-year-oldveteran of the struggle against apartheid. "It must be great,feeling the difference from the olden days to where we are today,when we can decide our own fate."