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Day2 Elearning Africa
 

Day2 Elearning Africa

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Presentation delivered to workshop for Elearning Africa, 2009. Dakar, Senegal

Presentation delivered to workshop for Elearning Africa, 2009. Dakar, Senegal

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Day2 Elearning Africa Day2 Elearning Africa Presentation Transcript

  • Social Networking Technologies for Teaching and Learning Transformation May 27, 2009 Dakar, Senegal
  • Review of Day One
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Information and Society’s Institutions
  • Institutions mirror information McNeely & Wolverton
    • Universities map reality
    Frank & Gabler
  • What happens when the primary elements of education change?
  • The gatekeepers
    • Institutions
    • Curriculum designers, educators
    • Assume to know what learners will need later
  • We fundamentally relate to information differently
  • Not created by select few
    • Learn lesson from news, media, music industry
  • Not controlled by select few
    • Learn lessons from PR, marketing, and politics
  • What are information trends?
    • Intuitive
    • Growth
    • Fluidity
    • Impact on authority
    • Impact on certainty
    • Technology
  •  
  • Big changes change big institutions
  • Participatory sense making
    • Our world makes sense through our interaction with information and others
    • ....(and in turn, their interactions with information and others)
    De Jaegher, Di Paolo, 2007
  • Requires new approaches to making sense of abundance
    • “ Significant attainments become lost in the mass of the inconsequential”
    • Vannevar Bush, 1945
  • Associative trails between information
  • Associative trails between people
    • “ All the knowledge is in the connections ”
    • David Rumelhart
  • Information becomes knowledge through connections
  • Undiscovered public knowledge
    • When connections are weak…not more research, but better connections
    • Undiscovered public knowledge
    • systems of information that are similar but distinct or not normally connected
    • (Don Swanson)
  • By design, today’s institutions & systems serve to handle information of a different nature
    • “ What we have here is a transition from a stable , settled world of knowledge produced by authority/authors, to a world of instability , flux, of knowledge produced by the individual...”
    • Institute of Education, London, 2007
  •  
  • Emergence and tradition
  • Social Learning
    • “ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat for lucidity”
    • Morin, p 12, 13, 1999
    • New challenge: sensemaking & wayfinding in abundance
  • What is our mind like?
    • Black box
    • Computer
    • Social, cultural
    • Modular
    • Ecology…and a network
    • “ What aspects of learning are obscured by one theory may be illuminated by another”
    • (Driscoll)
  • Behaviourism
    • Concept: Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box
    • Figures: Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner
    B.F. Skinner
  • Cognitivism
    • Concept: information processing, metacognition, thought process, knowledge is organized
    • Figures: Bruner, Ausubel, Gagne, Piaget, Vygotsky
  • Cognitivism
    • Motivation
      • Attribution
      • ARCS
        • Attention
        • Relevance
        • Confidence
        • Satisfaction
  • Constructivism
    • Multiple camps: cognition, interaction, context
    • Broad influence: Dewey, Von Glasersfeld, Kuhn
    • “ Knowledge constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences” (Driscoll)
  • Piaget
    • Piaget:
      • Process of development
      • Stages of development
    “ I think that all structures are constructed and that the fundamental feature is the course of this construction: Nothing is given at the start, except some limiting points on which all the rest is based. The structures are neither given in advance in the human mind nor in the external world, as we perceive or organize it.”
  • Social Constructivism
    • Vygotsky
      • Language
      • Social and cultural context
  • Constructionism
    • Concept: people learn through making things – “creative experimentation”
    • Learning vs. Teaching
    • “ find ways in which the technology enables children to use knowledge”
    • Seymour Papert
  • Connectionism
    • Concept: Learning - neural networks, not symbol processing
    • Figures:
      • Early: Thorndike (behaviourist)
      • More recently modular models of learning (Minsky), Bechtel, Abrahamsen, Pinker, Churchland, Hebb
  • Situated Learning
    • Concept: “learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs”
    • Figures: Lave, Wenger
  • Activity Theory
    • Concept: “More than ever there is a need for an approach that can dialectically link the individual and the social structure”
    • “ Transcending Context”
    • Figures: Leont’ev (based on Vygotsky)
    • Engeström (in current iteration – expansive learning)
  • Biological views of learning
    • “ It appears that complex and distributed systems of neurons are implicated in learning, with some systems centrally involved with the development and representation of a memory trace, and others peripherally involved in the expression of learned behaviour”
    • (Donegan & Thompson)
  • Biological views of learning
    • Brain-based learning approaches
    • Neural architecture & neuroscience
    • Emotions
    • “ Consciousness turns out to consist of a maelstrom of events distributed across the brain.” (Time Magazine)
    • “ To the neuroscientist, learning is a whole-person/whole-brain activity what confounds received organizations”
    • Theodore Marchese
  • Learning in relationship to knowledge and mind
    • Distributed
      • Hutchins – Not “in skull”
      • Spivey et. al. – “not always inside brain”
      • Bereiter – “knowing outside the mind”
    • Externalization – Wittgenstein, Vygotsky
    • Socialization – Papert, Piaget, Bruner, Bandura
    • Ethical/moral obligations…structures – Freire, Illich, Papert, Dewey
    • Cognition and mind as social phenomenon:
    • Mind/self created through social participation
    • Practices/tools/language are social constructions
    • Power fashions practices/tools
    • Garrison, 1995, p. 737
    • “ The intelligences…are distributed …across minds, persons, and the symbolic and physical environments”
    • Roy Pea
    • Fifth Estate:
    • Reshaping “ communicative powers of individuals and groups”
    • W. H. Dutton, Oxford, 2007
    • Complexification of knowledge reduces individual capacity to apprehend its unity
    • “ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat of lucidity ”
    • ...New problem: access to info, skills to organize info
    • Morin, p 12, 13, 1999
    • New media adds new opportunities for connections/relations, enacting latent ties
    • Haythornthwaite, 2002
    • “ Gossip, people-curiosity, and small talk...are in essence the human version of social grooming ”
    • Zufekci, 2008
    • Individual knowledge possible due to social practices of engagement
    • Tsoukas, 1996
    • Participatory Pedagogies
    • (Collis & Moonen, 2008)
    • (Askins, 2008)
    • (Harvard Law School, 2008)
  • Networked Learning
    • Co-evolution of individual and related network
    • Lazer, 2000
  • Stages of development: networks in education
  • 1. Physical infrastructure
  • 2. Merging with other fields
  • 3. Theoretical and transformative views of learning, cognition, knowledge
  • 4. Popularization of networks
  • 5. Integrated learning/knowledge/education networks
    • Depth and diversity of connections determines understanding
    • Frequency of exposure
    • Integration with existing ideas/concepts
    • Strong and Weak Ties
    Determining understanding
  • How attributes of connections reflect learning
  • The primacy of the connection
  • Framework of Emerging Technologies
  • What do different technologies do?
  •  
  • 1. Access
  •  
  • 2. Presence
  •  
  • 3. Expression
  •  
  • 4. Creation
  •  
  • 5. Interaction/co-creation
  •  
  • 6. Aggregate our fragmentation
  •  
  • Thinking about tomorrow
  • Where are we going?
    • Given the changes in how we interact with content and each other, how should we change the educational process?
  • Open Teaching Alec Couros Stephen Downes Leigh Blackall David Wiley
  • Learning design?
  • Thin walls
  •  
    • “ by creating space and place, we create ourselves ”
    • Cannatella, 2007, p. 632
    • Spaces are themselves agents for change. Changed spaces will change practice
    • (JISC, 2006)
  • Away from hierarchies and classrooms
  • To
  • Networks and ecologies...
  • Schools as a single node in networks of learning
    • Bigger shift than that from a Ptolmeic to Copernican view of the solar system…
    • Self-organization is the way the relevant sciences are heading.
    • Carl Bereiter (2002)
    • Architecture of participation powered by network effects
    • “ Roads no longer merely lead to places; they are places”
    • John Brinckerhoff Jackson
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    • [email_address]
    • Newsletter: www.elearnspace.org