Social Networking Technologies for Teaching and Learning  Transformation May 27, 2009 Dakar, Senegal
Review of Day One
 
 
 
Information and Society’s Institutions
Institutions  mirror  information McNeely & Wolverton
<ul><li>Universities  map reality </li></ul>Frank & Gabler
What happens when the  primary elements  of education change?
The gatekeepers <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum designers, educators </li></ul><ul><li>Assume to know wh...
We fundamentally  relate to information  differently
Not  created  by select few <ul><li>Learn lesson from news, media, music industry </li></ul>
Not  controlled  by select few <ul><li>Learn lessons from PR, marketing, and politics </li></ul>
What are information trends? <ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Growth  </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity  </li></ul><ul><li>Imp...
 
Big changes  change  big institutions
Participatory sense making <ul><li>Our world makes sense through  our interaction  with information and others  </li></ul>...
Requires  new approaches  to making sense of abundance <ul><li>“ Significant attainments become lost in the mass of the in...
Associative trails between information
Associative trails between people
<ul><li>“ All the knowledge is in the  connections ” </li></ul><ul><li>David Rumelhart </li></ul>
Information becomes knowledge through connections
Undiscovered public knowledge <ul><li>When connections are weak…not more research, but better connections </li></ul><ul><l...
By design, today’s institutions & systems serve to handle  information of a different nature
<ul><li>“ What we have here is a  transition  from a  stable , settled world of knowledge produced by authority/authors, t...
 
Emergence  and  tradition
Social Learning
<ul><li>“ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the  vital combat for lucidity” </li></u...
What is our mind like? <ul><li>Black box </li></ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Social, cultural </li></ul><ul><li>M...
<ul><li>“ What aspects of learning are obscured by one theory may be illuminated by another”  </li></ul><ul><li>(Driscoll)...
Behaviourism <ul><li>Concept:  Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Pavlov, Th...
Cognitivism <ul><li>Concept:  information processing, metacognition, thought process, knowledge is organized </li></ul><ul...
Cognitivism <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Constructivism <ul><li>Multiple camps: cognition, interaction, context </li></ul><ul><li>Broad influence: Dewey, Von Glase...
Piaget <ul><li>Piaget:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li...
Social Constructivism <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cultural conte...
Constructionism <ul><li>Concept:  people learn through making things – “creative experimentation” </li></ul><ul><li>Learni...
Connectionism <ul><li>Concept:  Learning - neural networks, not symbol processing </li></ul><ul><li>Figures:  </li></ul><u...
Situated Learning <ul><li>Concept:  “learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in ...
Activity Theory <ul><li>Concept:  “More than ever there is a need for an approach that can dialectically link the individu...
Biological views of learning <ul><li>“ It appears that complex and distributed systems of neurons are implicated in learni...
Biological views of learning <ul><li>Brain-based learning approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Neural architecture & neuroscience ...
<ul><li>“ To the neuroscientist, learning is a  whole-person/whole-brain activity  what confounds received organizations” ...
Learning in relationship to knowledge and mind <ul><li>Distributed  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchins – Not “in skull” </li><...
<ul><li>Cognition and mind  as social phenomenon: </li></ul><ul><li>Mind/self  created  through social participation </li>...
<ul><li>“ The intelligences…are  distributed …across minds, persons, and the symbolic and physical environments”  </li></u...
<ul><li>Fifth Estate:  </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping “ communicative powers  of individuals and groups” </li></ul><ul><li>W....
<ul><li>Complexification  of knowledge reduces individual capacity to apprehend its unity </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the  vital combat of lucidity ” </li></u...
<ul><li>New media  adds  new opportunities  for connections/relations, enacting latent ties </li></ul><ul><li>Haythornthwa...
<ul><li>“ Gossip, people-curiosity, and small talk...are in essence the human version of  social grooming ” </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Individual knowledge possible due to  social practices  of engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Tsoukas, 1996 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Participatory  Pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>(Collis & Moonen, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Askins, 2008) </li></ul><ul...
Networked Learning
<ul><li>Co-evolution  of individual and related network </li></ul><ul><li>Lazer, 2000 </li></ul>
Stages of development: networks in education
1. Physical infrastructure
2. Merging with other fields
3. Theoretical and  transformative  views of learning, cognition, knowledge
4. Popularization of networks
5. Integrated learning/knowledge/education networks
<ul><li>Depth  and  diversity  of connections determines understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency  of exposure </li></ul>...
How  attributes of connections  reflect learning
The primacy of the connection
Framework of Emerging Technologies
What do different technologies do?
 
1. Access
 
2. Presence
 
3. Expression
 
4. Creation
 
5. Interaction/co-creation
 
6. Aggregate our fragmentation
 
Thinking about tomorrow
Where are we going?
<ul><li>Given the changes in  how we interact  with content and each other, how should we  change  the educational process...
Open Teaching Alec Couros Stephen Downes Leigh Blackall David Wiley
Learning design?
Thin  walls
 
<ul><li>“ by  creating space  and place, we  create ourselves ” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannatella, 2007, p. 632 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Spaces are themselves agents for change.  Changed spaces  will  change practice   </li></ul><ul><li>(JISC, 2006) <...
Away from hierarchies and classrooms
To
Networks and ecologies...
Schools as a single node in  networks of learning
<ul><li>Bigger shift than that from a Ptolmeic to Copernican view of the solar system… </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organization...
<ul><li>Architecture of participation  powered by network effects </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Roads no longer merely lead to places; they are places”  </li></ul><ul><li>John Brinckerhoff Jackson   </li></ul>
 
 
 
<ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletter:  www.elearnspace.org </li></ul>
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Day2 Elearning Africa

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Presentation delivered to workshop for Elearning Africa, 2009. Dakar, Senegal

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  • Day2 Elearning Africa

    1. 1. Social Networking Technologies for Teaching and Learning Transformation May 27, 2009 Dakar, Senegal
    2. 2. Review of Day One
    3. 6. Information and Society’s Institutions
    4. 7. Institutions mirror information McNeely & Wolverton
    5. 8. <ul><li>Universities map reality </li></ul>Frank & Gabler
    6. 9. What happens when the primary elements of education change?
    7. 10. The gatekeepers <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum designers, educators </li></ul><ul><li>Assume to know what learners will need later </li></ul>
    8. 11. We fundamentally relate to information differently
    9. 12. Not created by select few <ul><li>Learn lesson from news, media, music industry </li></ul>
    10. 13. Not controlled by select few <ul><li>Learn lessons from PR, marketing, and politics </li></ul>
    11. 14. What are information trends? <ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on authority </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
    12. 16. Big changes change big institutions
    13. 17. Participatory sense making <ul><li>Our world makes sense through our interaction with information and others </li></ul><ul><li>....(and in turn, their interactions with information and others) </li></ul>De Jaegher, Di Paolo, 2007
    14. 18. Requires new approaches to making sense of abundance <ul><li>“ Significant attainments become lost in the mass of the inconsequential” </li></ul><ul><li>Vannevar Bush, 1945 </li></ul>
    15. 19. Associative trails between information
    16. 20. Associative trails between people
    17. 21. <ul><li>“ All the knowledge is in the connections ” </li></ul><ul><li>David Rumelhart </li></ul>
    18. 22. Information becomes knowledge through connections
    19. 23. Undiscovered public knowledge <ul><li>When connections are weak…not more research, but better connections </li></ul><ul><li>Undiscovered public knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>systems of information that are similar but distinct or not normally connected </li></ul><ul><li>(Don Swanson) </li></ul>
    20. 24. By design, today’s institutions & systems serve to handle information of a different nature
    21. 25. <ul><li>“ What we have here is a transition from a stable , settled world of knowledge produced by authority/authors, to a world of instability , flux, of knowledge produced by the individual...” </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Education, London, 2007 </li></ul>
    22. 27. Emergence and tradition
    23. 28. Social Learning
    24. 29. <ul><li>“ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat for lucidity” </li></ul><ul><li>Morin, p 12, 13, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>New challenge: sensemaking & wayfinding in abundance </li></ul>
    25. 30. What is our mind like? <ul><li>Black box </li></ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Social, cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Modular </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology…and a network </li></ul>
    26. 31. <ul><li>“ What aspects of learning are obscured by one theory may be illuminated by another” </li></ul><ul><li>(Driscoll) </li></ul>
    27. 32. Behaviourism <ul><li>Concept: Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner </li></ul>B.F. Skinner
    28. 33. Cognitivism <ul><li>Concept: information processing, metacognition, thought process, knowledge is organized </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Bruner, Ausubel, Gagne, Piaget, Vygotsky </li></ul>
    29. 34. Cognitivism <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 35. Constructivism <ul><li>Multiple camps: cognition, interaction, context </li></ul><ul><li>Broad influence: Dewey, Von Glasersfeld, Kuhn </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowledge constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences” (Driscoll) </li></ul>
    31. 36. Piaget <ul><li>Piaget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li></ul></ul>“ I think that all structures are constructed and that the fundamental feature is the course of this construction: Nothing is given at the start, except some limiting points on which all the rest is based. The structures are neither given in advance in the human mind nor in the external world, as we perceive or organize it.”
    32. 37. Social Constructivism <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cultural context </li></ul></ul>
    33. 38. Constructionism <ul><li>Concept: people learn through making things – “creative experimentation” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning vs. Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>“ find ways in which the technology enables children to use knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>Seymour Papert </li></ul>
    34. 39. Connectionism <ul><li>Concept: Learning - neural networks, not symbol processing </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early: Thorndike (behaviourist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More recently modular models of learning (Minsky), Bechtel, Abrahamsen, Pinker, Churchland, Hebb </li></ul></ul>
    35. 40. Situated Learning <ul><li>Concept: “learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs” </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Lave, Wenger </li></ul>
    36. 41. Activity Theory <ul><li>Concept: “More than ever there is a need for an approach that can dialectically link the individual and the social structure” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transcending Context” </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Leont’ev (based on Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Engeström (in current iteration – expansive learning) </li></ul>
    37. 42. Biological views of learning <ul><li>“ It appears that complex and distributed systems of neurons are implicated in learning, with some systems centrally involved with the development and representation of a memory trace, and others peripherally involved in the expression of learned behaviour” </li></ul><ul><li>(Donegan & Thompson) </li></ul>
    38. 43. Biological views of learning <ul><li>Brain-based learning approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Neural architecture & neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Consciousness turns out to consist of a maelstrom of events distributed across the brain.” (Time Magazine) </li></ul>
    39. 44. <ul><li>“ To the neuroscientist, learning is a whole-person/whole-brain activity what confounds received organizations” </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Marchese </li></ul>
    40. 45. Learning in relationship to knowledge and mind <ul><li>Distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchins – Not “in skull” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spivey et. al. – “not always inside brain” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bereiter – “knowing outside the mind” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Externalization – Wittgenstein, Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization – Papert, Piaget, Bruner, Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical/moral obligations…structures – Freire, Illich, Papert, Dewey </li></ul>
    41. 46. <ul><li>Cognition and mind as social phenomenon: </li></ul><ul><li>Mind/self created through social participation </li></ul><ul><li>Practices/tools/language are social constructions </li></ul><ul><li>Power fashions practices/tools </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, 1995, p. 737 </li></ul>
    42. 47. <ul><li>“ The intelligences…are distributed …across minds, persons, and the symbolic and physical environments” </li></ul><ul><li>Roy Pea </li></ul>
    43. 48. <ul><li>Fifth Estate: </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping “ communicative powers of individuals and groups” </li></ul><ul><li>W. H. Dutton, Oxford, 2007 </li></ul>
    44. 49. <ul><li>Complexification of knowledge reduces individual capacity to apprehend its unity </li></ul>
    45. 50. <ul><li>“ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat of lucidity ” </li></ul><ul><li>...New problem: access to info, skills to organize info </li></ul><ul><li>Morin, p 12, 13, 1999 </li></ul>
    46. 51. <ul><li>New media adds new opportunities for connections/relations, enacting latent ties </li></ul><ul><li>Haythornthwaite, 2002 </li></ul>
    47. 52. <ul><li>“ Gossip, people-curiosity, and small talk...are in essence the human version of social grooming ” </li></ul><ul><li>Zufekci, 2008 </li></ul>
    48. 53. <ul><li>Individual knowledge possible due to social practices of engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Tsoukas, 1996 </li></ul>
    49. 54. <ul><li>Participatory Pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>(Collis & Moonen, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Askins, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Harvard Law School, 2008) </li></ul>
    50. 55. Networked Learning
    51. 56. <ul><li>Co-evolution of individual and related network </li></ul><ul><li>Lazer, 2000 </li></ul>
    52. 57. Stages of development: networks in education
    53. 58. 1. Physical infrastructure
    54. 59. 2. Merging with other fields
    55. 60. 3. Theoretical and transformative views of learning, cognition, knowledge
    56. 61. 4. Popularization of networks
    57. 62. 5. Integrated learning/knowledge/education networks
    58. 63. <ul><li>Depth and diversity of connections determines understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with existing ideas/concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and Weak Ties </li></ul>Determining understanding
    59. 64. How attributes of connections reflect learning
    60. 65. The primacy of the connection
    61. 66. Framework of Emerging Technologies
    62. 67. What do different technologies do?
    63. 69. 1. Access
    64. 71. 2. Presence
    65. 73. 3. Expression
    66. 75. 4. Creation
    67. 77. 5. Interaction/co-creation
    68. 79. 6. Aggregate our fragmentation
    69. 81. Thinking about tomorrow
    70. 82. Where are we going?
    71. 83. <ul><li>Given the changes in how we interact with content and each other, how should we change the educational process? </li></ul>
    72. 84. Open Teaching Alec Couros Stephen Downes Leigh Blackall David Wiley
    73. 85. Learning design?
    74. 86. Thin walls
    75. 88. <ul><li>“ by creating space and place, we create ourselves ” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannatella, 2007, p. 632 </li></ul>
    76. 89. <ul><li>Spaces are themselves agents for change. Changed spaces will change practice </li></ul><ul><li>(JISC, 2006) </li></ul>
    77. 90. Away from hierarchies and classrooms
    78. 91. To
    79. 92. Networks and ecologies...
    80. 93. Schools as a single node in networks of learning
    81. 94. <ul><li>Bigger shift than that from a Ptolmeic to Copernican view of the solar system… </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organization is the way the relevant sciences are heading. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Bereiter (2002) </li></ul>
    82. 95. <ul><li>Architecture of participation powered by network effects </li></ul>
    83. 96. <ul><li>“ Roads no longer merely lead to places; they are places” </li></ul><ul><li>John Brinckerhoff Jackson </li></ul>
    84. 100. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletter: www.elearnspace.org </li></ul>
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