Day2 Elearning Africa


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Presentation delivered to workshop for Elearning Africa, 2009. Dakar, Senegal

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  • Day2 Elearning Africa

    1. 1. Social Networking Technologies for Teaching and Learning Transformation May 27, 2009 Dakar, Senegal
    2. 2. Review of Day One
    3. 6. Information and Society’s Institutions
    4. 7. Institutions mirror information McNeely & Wolverton
    5. 8. <ul><li>Universities map reality </li></ul>Frank & Gabler
    6. 9. What happens when the primary elements of education change?
    7. 10. The gatekeepers <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum designers, educators </li></ul><ul><li>Assume to know what learners will need later </li></ul>
    8. 11. We fundamentally relate to information differently
    9. 12. Not created by select few <ul><li>Learn lesson from news, media, music industry </li></ul>
    10. 13. Not controlled by select few <ul><li>Learn lessons from PR, marketing, and politics </li></ul>
    11. 14. What are information trends? <ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on authority </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
    12. 16. Big changes change big institutions
    13. 17. Participatory sense making <ul><li>Our world makes sense through our interaction with information and others </li></ul><ul><li>....(and in turn, their interactions with information and others) </li></ul>De Jaegher, Di Paolo, 2007
    14. 18. Requires new approaches to making sense of abundance <ul><li>“ Significant attainments become lost in the mass of the inconsequential” </li></ul><ul><li>Vannevar Bush, 1945 </li></ul>
    15. 19. Associative trails between information
    16. 20. Associative trails between people
    17. 21. <ul><li>“ All the knowledge is in the connections ” </li></ul><ul><li>David Rumelhart </li></ul>
    18. 22. Information becomes knowledge through connections
    19. 23. Undiscovered public knowledge <ul><li>When connections are weak…not more research, but better connections </li></ul><ul><li>Undiscovered public knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>systems of information that are similar but distinct or not normally connected </li></ul><ul><li>(Don Swanson) </li></ul>
    20. 24. By design, today’s institutions & systems serve to handle information of a different nature
    21. 25. <ul><li>“ What we have here is a transition from a stable , settled world of knowledge produced by authority/authors, to a world of instability , flux, of knowledge produced by the individual...” </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Education, London, 2007 </li></ul>
    22. 27. Emergence and tradition
    23. 28. Social Learning
    24. 29. <ul><li>“ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat for lucidity” </li></ul><ul><li>Morin, p 12, 13, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>New challenge: sensemaking & wayfinding in abundance </li></ul>
    25. 30. What is our mind like? <ul><li>Black box </li></ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Social, cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Modular </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology…and a network </li></ul>
    26. 31. <ul><li>“ What aspects of learning are obscured by one theory may be illuminated by another” </li></ul><ul><li>(Driscoll) </li></ul>
    27. 32. Behaviourism <ul><li>Concept: Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner </li></ul>B.F. Skinner
    28. 33. Cognitivism <ul><li>Concept: information processing, metacognition, thought process, knowledge is organized </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Bruner, Ausubel, Gagne, Piaget, Vygotsky </li></ul>
    29. 34. Cognitivism <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 35. Constructivism <ul><li>Multiple camps: cognition, interaction, context </li></ul><ul><li>Broad influence: Dewey, Von Glasersfeld, Kuhn </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowledge constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences” (Driscoll) </li></ul>
    31. 36. Piaget <ul><li>Piaget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li></ul></ul>“ I think that all structures are constructed and that the fundamental feature is the course of this construction: Nothing is given at the start, except some limiting points on which all the rest is based. The structures are neither given in advance in the human mind nor in the external world, as we perceive or organize it.”
    32. 37. Social Constructivism <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cultural context </li></ul></ul>
    33. 38. Constructionism <ul><li>Concept: people learn through making things – “creative experimentation” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning vs. Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>“ find ways in which the technology enables children to use knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>Seymour Papert </li></ul>
    34. 39. Connectionism <ul><li>Concept: Learning - neural networks, not symbol processing </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early: Thorndike (behaviourist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More recently modular models of learning (Minsky), Bechtel, Abrahamsen, Pinker, Churchland, Hebb </li></ul></ul>
    35. 40. Situated Learning <ul><li>Concept: “learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs” </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Lave, Wenger </li></ul>
    36. 41. Activity Theory <ul><li>Concept: “More than ever there is a need for an approach that can dialectically link the individual and the social structure” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transcending Context” </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Leont’ev (based on Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Engeström (in current iteration – expansive learning) </li></ul>
    37. 42. Biological views of learning <ul><li>“ It appears that complex and distributed systems of neurons are implicated in learning, with some systems centrally involved with the development and representation of a memory trace, and others peripherally involved in the expression of learned behaviour” </li></ul><ul><li>(Donegan & Thompson) </li></ul>
    38. 43. Biological views of learning <ul><li>Brain-based learning approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Neural architecture & neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Consciousness turns out to consist of a maelstrom of events distributed across the brain.” (Time Magazine) </li></ul>
    39. 44. <ul><li>“ To the neuroscientist, learning is a whole-person/whole-brain activity what confounds received organizations” </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Marchese </li></ul>
    40. 45. Learning in relationship to knowledge and mind <ul><li>Distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchins – Not “in skull” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spivey et. al. – “not always inside brain” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bereiter – “knowing outside the mind” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Externalization – Wittgenstein, Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization – Papert, Piaget, Bruner, Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical/moral obligations…structures – Freire, Illich, Papert, Dewey </li></ul>
    41. 46. <ul><li>Cognition and mind as social phenomenon: </li></ul><ul><li>Mind/self created through social participation </li></ul><ul><li>Practices/tools/language are social constructions </li></ul><ul><li>Power fashions practices/tools </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, 1995, p. 737 </li></ul>
    42. 47. <ul><li>“ The intelligences…are distributed …across minds, persons, and the symbolic and physical environments” </li></ul><ul><li>Roy Pea </li></ul>
    43. 48. <ul><li>Fifth Estate: </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping “ communicative powers of individuals and groups” </li></ul><ul><li>W. H. Dutton, Oxford, 2007 </li></ul>
    44. 49. <ul><li>Complexification of knowledge reduces individual capacity to apprehend its unity </li></ul>
    45. 50. <ul><li>“ The major responsibility of education is to arm every single person for the vital combat of lucidity ” </li></ul><ul><li>...New problem: access to info, skills to organize info </li></ul><ul><li>Morin, p 12, 13, 1999 </li></ul>
    46. 51. <ul><li>New media adds new opportunities for connections/relations, enacting latent ties </li></ul><ul><li>Haythornthwaite, 2002 </li></ul>
    47. 52. <ul><li>“ Gossip, people-curiosity, and small talk...are in essence the human version of social grooming ” </li></ul><ul><li>Zufekci, 2008 </li></ul>
    48. 53. <ul><li>Individual knowledge possible due to social practices of engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Tsoukas, 1996 </li></ul>
    49. 54. <ul><li>Participatory Pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>(Collis & Moonen, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Askins, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Harvard Law School, 2008) </li></ul>
    50. 55. Networked Learning
    51. 56. <ul><li>Co-evolution of individual and related network </li></ul><ul><li>Lazer, 2000 </li></ul>
    52. 57. Stages of development: networks in education
    53. 58. 1. Physical infrastructure
    54. 59. 2. Merging with other fields
    55. 60. 3. Theoretical and transformative views of learning, cognition, knowledge
    56. 61. 4. Popularization of networks
    57. 62. 5. Integrated learning/knowledge/education networks
    58. 63. <ul><li>Depth and diversity of connections determines understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with existing ideas/concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and Weak Ties </li></ul>Determining understanding
    59. 64. How attributes of connections reflect learning
    60. 65. The primacy of the connection
    61. 66. Framework of Emerging Technologies
    62. 67. What do different technologies do?
    63. 69. 1. Access
    64. 71. 2. Presence
    65. 73. 3. Expression
    66. 75. 4. Creation
    67. 77. 5. Interaction/co-creation
    68. 79. 6. Aggregate our fragmentation
    69. 81. Thinking about tomorrow
    70. 82. Where are we going?
    71. 83. <ul><li>Given the changes in how we interact with content and each other, how should we change the educational process? </li></ul>
    72. 84. Open Teaching Alec Couros Stephen Downes Leigh Blackall David Wiley
    73. 85. Learning design?
    74. 86. Thin walls
    75. 88. <ul><li>“ by creating space and place, we create ourselves ” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannatella, 2007, p. 632 </li></ul>
    76. 89. <ul><li>Spaces are themselves agents for change. Changed spaces will change practice </li></ul><ul><li>(JISC, 2006) </li></ul>
    77. 90. Away from hierarchies and classrooms
    78. 91. To
    79. 92. Networks and ecologies...
    80. 93. Schools as a single node in networks of learning
    81. 94. <ul><li>Bigger shift than that from a Ptolmeic to Copernican view of the solar system… </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organization is the way the relevant sciences are heading. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Bereiter (2002) </li></ul>
    82. 95. <ul><li>Architecture of participation powered by network effects </li></ul>
    83. 96. <ul><li>“ Roads no longer merely lead to places; they are places” </li></ul><ul><li>John Brinckerhoff Jackson </li></ul>
    84. 100. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletter: </li></ul>