Aircraft tyre technology

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This presentation give the total overview of aircraft tyre from manufacturing to storage to basic design criteria and selection of main wheel, nose wheel. This ppt gives brief view into manufacturing process, precaution in storage and types of wear occurring in tire

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Aircraft tyre technology

  1. 1. •Mar 16, 2014 11 AIR CRAFT TYRE TECHNOLOGY Presented By GN Sanga
  2. 2. An Aircraft tyre carries 250 to 1,000 timesAn Aircraft tyre carries 250 to 1,000 times its mass compared to 50 times for aits mass compared to 50 times for a passenger car tyre, while aircraft tyrepassenger car tyre, while aircraft tyre temperatures can fall to -50 ˚ duringtemperatures can fall to -50 ˚ during flight and reach + 60 ˚ on the runwayflight and reach + 60 ˚ on the runway 22
  3. 3. To bring out the salientTo bring out the salient features of aircraft tyrefeatures of aircraft tyre technologytechnology 33 AIM
  4. 4. 44 Tyre classification Tyre construction Radial Vs Cross ply Aircraft tyre operating characteristics Design criteria SCOPE
  5. 5. 55 Tyre manufacturing techniques Tyre testing Tyre storage Maintenance practices Conclusion SCOPE
  6. 6. 66 TYRE CLASSIFICATION
  7. 7. 77 Type I Type II Type III Type IV Type V AIRCRAFT TYRE CLASSIFICATION
  8. 8. 88 Type V Type VI Type VII Type VIII New design AIRCRAFT TYRE CLASSIFICATION
  9. 9. 99 TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  10. 10. Automobile and truck tyreAutomobile and truck tyre Long operationLong operation Relatively large loadRelatively large load Reasonably high speedReasonably high speed Deflection 12-14%Deflection 12-14% Aircraft tyreAircraft tyre Tremendous loadTremendous load Very high speedsVery high speeds Deflection 32-35%Deflection 32-35% 1010 TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  11. 11. 1111 TreadTread Removes waterRemoves water Increases tractionIncreases traction Inter Tread FabricInter Tread Fabric Reinforcement layerReinforcement layer Stable and distortion freeStable and distortion free Protection to casing pliesProtection to casing plies TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  12. 12. •TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  13. 13. CasingCasing Layer of high modulus cordLayer of high modulus cord Installed around bed coilsInstalled around bed coils BreakersBreakers Added layer of fabricAdded layer of fabric Part of tyre casingPart of tyre casing 1313 TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  14. 14. BeadsBeads Holds tyre on wheelHolds tyre on wheel High tensile wireHigh tensile wire Held by apexHeld by apex Filler gives strengthFiller gives strength ChaffersChaffers Prevents chaffing damagePrevents chaffing damage Reduces brake heatReduces brake heat Nylon material coated with rubberNylon material coated with rubber 1414 TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  15. 15. Side wallSide wall Special rubber with anti oxidantsSpecial rubber with anti oxidants Protection against weatheringProtection against weathering Resistant toResistant to ContaminationContamination CutsCuts FlexingFlexing 1515 TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  16. 16. Inner linerInner liner Inner face of tyreInner face of tyre Attached to first casing plyAttached to first casing ply Prevents leakage of inflation gasPrevents leakage of inflation gas Chined tyresChined tyres Type of nose wheel tyreType of nose wheel tyre Deflects water awayDeflects water away 1616 TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  17. 17. 1717 Breaker packageBreaker package For radial tyresFor radial tyres Below treadBelow tread Gives stiffnessGives stiffness Keep circumference constantKeep circumference constant CasingCasing Ply of fabric with rubber coated cordPly of fabric with rubber coated cord Cord direction 90 degree to bed directionCord direction 90 degree to bed direction TYRE CONSTRUCTION
  18. 18. PROPERTIESPROPERTIES Cross-ply Radial Cut Resistance - Tread NONO YESYES Cut Resistance - Sidewall YESYES NONO Repairability YESYES NONO Traction NONO YESYES Heat Resistance NONO YESYES Wear Resistance NONO YESYES Flotation NONO YESYES 1818 CROSS-PLY Vs RADIAL
  19. 19. •CROSS PLY / BIAS TYRE •RADIAL TYRE
  20. 20. 2020 TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICSOPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  21. 21. Heat GenerationHeat Generation Heavy loads cause heat generationHeavy loads cause heat generation Heat DissipationHeat Dissipation Internal Heat generationInternal Heat generation Centrifugal ForcesCentrifugal Forces Heavy load and high speedHeavy load and high speed Onset of traction waveOnset of traction wave Traction wave lead to groove crackingTraction wave lead to groove cracking 2121 TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  22. 22. Tensile, compression and Shear forceTensile, compression and Shear force Internal Tensile ForceInternal Tensile Force Tensile force on outer layer / Inner layerTensile force on outer layer / Inner layer Shear force are developedShear force are developed Under inflationUnder inflation 2222 TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  23. 23. Tread wearTread wear High operation temperatureHigh operation temperature High Speed BrakingHigh Speed Braking Sharp and Fast turnsSharp and Fast turns 2323 TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  24. 24. •TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  25. 25. Tyre Size selectionTyre Size selection Main wheelMain wheel Loading capabilityLoading capability Most aft Centre of GravityMost aft Centre of Gravity Nose WheelNose Wheel Static LoadStatic Load Dynamic Braking conditionDynamic Braking condition Most forward aft Centre of GravityMost forward aft Centre of Gravity 2525 TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  26. 26. Number of TyresNumber of Tyres Tyre SizeTyre Size Inflation Pressure of the TyreInflation Pressure of the Tyre 2626 TYRE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
  27. 27. Based on static loadingBased on static loading Total main gear load Fm is calculatedTotal main gear load Fm is calculated Fm =Fm = ln * Wln * W lm+ lnlm+ ln Where lm & ln = distance measuredWhere lm & ln = distance measured from the aircraft Cg at its aft limitfrom the aircraft Cg at its aft limit W= Weight of AircraftW= Weight of Aircraft 2727 CHOICE OF MAIN WHEEL
  28. 28. 2828 TYRE DESIGN CHOICE OF MAINCHOICE OF MAIN WHEELWHEEL
  29. 29. 2929 CHOICE OF MAINCHOICE OF MAIN WHEELWHEEL
  30. 30. 3030 CHOICE OF NOSECHOICE OF NOSE WHEELWHEEL
  31. 31. Based on Nose wheel load Fn during braking atBased on Nose wheel load Fn during braking at maximum effortmaximum effort Fn =Fn = lmlm (W-L) +(W-L) + hhcgcg (( axax W - D+T)W - D+T) lm+lnlm+ln lm+ln glm+ln g 3131 CHOICE OF NOSE WHEEL WhereWhere L = liftL = lift D = DragD = Drag T = ThrustT = Thrust Hcg = Height of aircraft cgHcg = Height of aircraft cg axax = Constant= Constant gg
  32. 32. Factor of safetyFactor of safety - 7%- 7% Future weight increaseFuture weight increase - 25 %- 25 % 3232 ADDITIONAL DESIGN CRITERIA
  33. 33. 3333 AIR CRAFT TYRE MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  34. 34. 3434
  35. 35. Raw materialsRaw materials Natural rubber or polyisopreneNatural rubber or polyisoprene Styrene-butadiene co-polymerStyrene-butadiene co-polymer PolybutadienePolybutadiene Halobutyl rubberHalobutyl rubber Carbon blackCarbon black SilicaSilica 3535 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  36. 36. 3636 MANUFACTURING PROCESS Raw materialsRaw materials SulphurSulphur Complex organic compoundsComplex organic compounds ActivatorsActivators Anti oxidantsAnti oxidants Textile fabricTextile fabric
  37. 37. •STEPS IN MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  38. 38. Rubber (natural or synthetic)Rubber (natural or synthetic) -- 38%38% FillerFiller (carbon black, silica,(carbon black, silica, carbon chalk)carbon chalk) -- 30%30% Reinforcement materialsReinforcement materials -- 16%16% PlasticizersPlasticizers -- 10%10% ChemicalsChemicals -- 4%4% Anti-oxidantsAnti-oxidants -- 1%1% MiscMisc -- 1%1% 3838 MANUFACTURING PROCESS Typical tyre
  39. 39. Compounding & MixingCompounding & Mixing Homogeneous mixtureHomogeneous mixture Two counter rotating rotors employedTwo counter rotating rotors employed Sheet comes out in the form of stripSheet comes out in the form of strip Non-uniform distribution of carbon blackNon-uniform distribution of carbon black 3939 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  40. 40. •BANBURY MIXING
  41. 41. Component preparationComponent preparation CalenderingCalendering Produce body pliesProduce body plies Large dia rolls squeeze rubber intoLarge dia rolls squeeze rubber into thin sheetthin sheet Fabric (Textile) CalenderFabric (Textile) Calender Steel CalenderSteel Calender 4141 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  42. 42. 4242 MANUFACTURING PROCESS Component preparationComponent preparation ExtrusionExtrusion Contains a screw , barrel, drive heater & dieContains a screw , barrel, drive heater & die Compound is pushed thro’ a dieCompound is pushed thro’ a die Can be rolled on spool or cut thro’ lengthCan be rolled on spool or cut thro’ length
  43. 43. •EXTRUSION – PREPARATION •OF TREADS AND SIDEWALLS
  44. 44. 4444 Component preparationComponent preparation Bead buildingBead building Single StrandSingle Strand Multi StrandMulti Strand MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  45. 45. •BEAD PRODUCTION
  46. 46. •STEEL CALENDERING
  47. 47. 4747 Tyre Building Assembling process Manual or Automatic “Green Tyre” Robot employment MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  48. 48. •Inner Liner •Body Ply: Mounting •Tread Mounting •TYRE ASSEMBLING PROCESS •Green Tyre
  49. 49. 4949 Curing Final shape Tread patter and engraving Typical curing time Car tyre 15min Air craft tyre 10 – 20 Hrs MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  50. 50. •CURING PRESS/MOULD
  51. 51. •Tyre Mould •Tyre Press •TYRE MOULD & PRESS
  52. 52. 5252 Final product Operations performed Uniformity measurement Balance measurement X-ray inspection Visual inspection MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  53. 53. •Tyre Balance •Visual Inspection •TYRE MANUFACTURING
  54. 54. 5454 AIR CRAFT TYRE TESTING
  55. 55. 5555 AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING Dynamic Testing on Dynamometers Tread Wear Testing Physical Properties Testing Non-Destructive evaluation Hydrostatic Burst Testing Static Testing
  56. 56. AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING MACHINE
  57. 57. 5757 Dynamic Testing on Dynamometers Taxi Takeoff Landing Taxi Cross-wind Landing Rejected Takeoff Taxi Durability Double Overload Takeoff Flat Spot Decay Cornering Force AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING
  58. 58. 5858 Tread Wear Testing Taxi Takeoff Landing Taxi Camber Taxi µ-slip with braking Runway Simulation AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING
  59. 59. 5959 Physical Properties Testing Vertical Load Deflection Lateral Load Deflection Fore/Aft Load Deflection Tread Force Measurement Tread Pressure Measurement Tread Slip Measurement AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING
  60. 60. 6060 Non-Destructive evaluation Separations Looseness (Fatigue) Low Inter ply Adhesion Porosity and Voids Trapped Air and Bubbles Poor Cord Adhesion Broken Cords AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING
  61. 61. 6161 Hydrostatic Burst Testing 10,000 psi Maximum Capacity Variable Pressure Rate Computer Generated Plots AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING
  62. 62. 6262 Static Testing Vertical Load Deflection Lateral Load Deflection Torsional Load Deflection Combined Load Bead Break Resistance Bottoming Load Deflection AIRCRAFT TYRE TESTING
  63. 63. 6363 AIR CRAFT TYRE STORAGE
  64. 64. 6464 AIRCRAFT TYRE STORAGE Handling of tyreHandling of tyre Two prong fork/ sharp equipmentsTwo prong fork/ sharp equipments Wide & flat fork truckWide & flat fork truck Rounded bar through centreRounded bar through centre
  65. 65. •TYRE HANDLING
  66. 66. 6666 AIRCRAFT TYRE STORAGE Ozone EffectOzone Effect Atmosphere ozoneAtmosphere ozone Ozone by industriesOzone by industries Ozone and organic materialsOzone and organic materials
  67. 67. •OZONE EFFECT
  68. 68. 6868 AIRCRAFT TYRE STORAGE Avoiding OzoneAvoiding Ozone Avoid strong air currentsAvoid strong air currents Avoid electric devicesAvoid electric devices Protective chemicalsProtective chemicals
  69. 69. 6969 AIRCRAFT TYRE STORAGE Ideal StorageIdeal Storage Cool, dry & no direct sunlightCool, dry & no direct sunlight No fluorescent lamps, electric devicesNo fluorescent lamps, electric devices No contact with POLNo contact with POL
  70. 70. 7070 AIRCRAFT TYRE STORAGE Ideal StorageIdeal Storage Stored verticallyStored vertically Flat and wide surfaceFlat and wide surface First in-first outFirst in-first out Lightly lubricated with talc powderLightly lubricated with talc powder
  71. 71. •TYRE STORAGE
  72. 72. •TYRE STACKING
  73. 73. 7373 AIRCRAFT TYRE STORAGE StackingStacking Stacking permissibleStacking permissible Up to 40 Inches - 5Up to 40 Inches - 5 Between 40 and 49 inches - 4Between 40 and 49 inches - 4 Over 49 inches - 3Over 49 inches - 3
  74. 74. 7474 AIRCRAFT TYRE MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
  75. 75. 7575 INFLATION PRESSURE MAINTENANCE Under inflated Tyre External Heat Internal Heat Over inflated Tyre
  76. 76. PERIODICITYPERIODICITY OF PRESSURE CHECKOF PRESSURE CHECK 7676 Every 24 HoursEvery 24 Hours Before every flightBefore every flight
  77. 77. IDEAL WAY TO CHECK TYRE PRESSUREIDEAL WAY TO CHECK TYRE PRESSURE 7777 Use of calibrated pressure gauge Ambient Temperature
  78. 78. Sl No. Measured pressure range (% of Operational pr.) Tyre status 01 More than 105 % Over inflated 02 From 105 to 100 % Correct pressure 03 From 100 to 95 % Permitted pressure decrease per day 04 From 95 to 80 % Under inflated 05 Less than 80 % Flat tyre 7878 RECOMMENDED TYRE PRESSURES
  79. 79. WEAR LIMITSWEAR LIMITS 7979 Retreadable Tyres Non Retreadable Tyres Wet Surfaces Dimpled Tyres
  80. 80. 8080 DAMAGE LIMITS Chevron cutting Tread chunking Cut damage Casing plies cut Tread Cut more than 50% deep Tread Cut more than 50% across Shoulder wear Side Wall Cracking
  81. 81. •CHEVRON CUTTING •TREAD CHUNKING •SIDE WALL WEAR •TIRE BURST
  82. 82. 8282 HAPPY LANDINGS !

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