Space-based High-powerGeneration SystemsFor Space-based Strategic DefenseInitiative (SDI) Anti-ballistic MissileSystem
Overview• Background• Closed-cycle Nuclear Power System Concept• Open-cycle Nuclear Power System Concept• Conventional Ope...
Background• Several SDI scenarios called for space-basedmulti-megawatt power systems• Not need frequent resupply• Go from ...
Options• No one concept satisfied all conditions• Three concepts satisfied most• Closed-cycle Nuclear Power System• Open-c...
Closed-cycle Nuclear Power System• Nuclear reactor energy source• Electrical power generation techniques– Dynamic: Brayton...
Open-cycle Nuclear System Operation• Nuclear reactor provides heatenergy for power generationsystem to drive turbines or d...
Closed-cycle Nuclear SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• No exhaust gases tointerfere with sensors orcause undesir...
Open-cycle Nuclear Power System• Nuclear reactor energy source• Hydrogen stored on space platform– Stored as a liquid (LH2...
Open-cycle Nuclear System Operation• Pump increases the pressure of thehydrogen and provides the energy tomove it through ...
Open-cycle Nuclear SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• ~1/10 Weight of closed-cycle nuclear concept• No products o...
Open-cycle Chemical Power System• Chemical Energy (Combustion) Power Source• Hydrogen (LH2) stored on platform, coolant fo...
Open-cycle Chemical SystemOperation• Pump increases the pressure of the hydrogenand provides the energy to move it through...
Open-cycle Chemical SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• ~1/10 Weight of closed-cyclenuclear concept• Does not have...
Hybrid Chemical Power System• Chemical Energy (Combustion) Power Source• Hydrogen (LH2) stored on space platform, coolant ...
Hybrid Chemical System Operation• Pump increases the pressure of the hydrogen andprovides the energy to move it through th...
Hybrid Chemical SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• No products of combustionin exhaust plume• Does not have the s...
System of Choice• Open-cycle Chemical Power Systems– Minimum mass– Minimum system complexity– Rapid start capability– Lowe...
Additional Contributions• Power generation system required large 24 stageaxial flow turbines– Weight of axial turbine stag...
Solution to Turbine Size and Weight• Ljungström Turbine• Gasses flow through stagesradially from the center of thedisks• C...
Solution to Power Conditioning Issues• Teamed with electricalengineer coworkers toconfigure:– Four 25 kV generatorsconnect...
Conclusions• Developed or employed enabling technologies for the customer• Devised chemical energy power source with no pr...
References1. Open-Cycle Chemical Power and Thermal ManagementSystem With Combustion Product-free Effluent, G. S.Hosford, K...
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Space-based high-power generation systems

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Space-based Hydrogen-Oxygen Hybrid Open/Closed Cycle Integrated Power and Thermal Management System

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Transcript of "Space-based high-power generation systems"

  1. 1. Space-based High-powerGeneration SystemsFor Space-based Strategic DefenseInitiative (SDI) Anti-ballistic MissileSystem
  2. 2. Overview• Background• Closed-cycle Nuclear Power System Concept• Open-cycle Nuclear Power System Concept• Conventional Open-cycle Chemical Power SystemConcept• Hybrid-cycle Chemical Power System Concept• Integrated Power –Thermal Management System• High-power Density Turbogenerators• Integrated generator-power conditioning system
  3. 3. Background• Several SDI scenarios called for space-basedmulti-megawatt power systems• Not need frequent resupply• Go from idle to full power very quickly• Minimal impact on other platform systems• Compact• Lightweight• Reliable• Hardened from natural and artificial threats
  4. 4. Options• No one concept satisfied all conditions• Three concepts satisfied most• Closed-cycle Nuclear Power System• Open-cycle Nuclear Power System• Open-cycle Chemical Power System
  5. 5. Closed-cycle Nuclear Power System• Nuclear reactor energy source• Electrical power generation techniques– Dynamic: Brayton, Stirling, Rankine…Cycles– Direct: Thermionic, Thermoelectric, AMTEC…• Radiate waste heat to space– Waste heat from power generation system– Waste heat from mission-critical components(sensors, computers and equipment)
  6. 6. Open-cycle Nuclear System Operation• Nuclear reactor provides heatenergy for power generationsystem to drive turbines or directenergy conversion system• Electricity from power generationsystem powers equipment toaccomplish platform mission• Power generation system radiateswaste heat to space attemperature that will givemaximum efficiency• Platform electrical equipmentradiates waste heat to space attemperatures that will maximizetheir efficiencyNuclearReactorPowerGenerationSystemRadiateHeat toSpaceSpacePlatformElectricalLoadsRadiateHeat toSpaceHeatElectricityHeatHeat
  7. 7. Closed-cycle Nuclear SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• No exhaust gases tointerfere with sensors orcause undesired platformmotion• Only reaction controlsystem (RCS) thrustersneed resupply• Involves developing highthermal capacitysurvivable radiators forapplications in spaceDisadvantages• ~ 10 times heavier thanopen-cycle concepts• Safety and security issuesinvolved in launchingnuclear reactors intospace• Safety and security issuesinvolved with reentry oforbiting nuclear reactors
  8. 8. Open-cycle Nuclear Power System• Nuclear reactor energy source• Hydrogen stored on space platform– Stored as a liquid (LH2) at about -420 F (-250 C)• Minimize size of storage containers• Maximize cooling capacity of hydrogen– Coolant for mission-critical sensors, computersand equipment on space platform– Heated hydrogen powers turbines• Exhaust hydrogen from turbines to space
  9. 9. Open-cycle Nuclear System Operation• Pump increases the pressure of thehydrogen and provides the energy tomove it through the rest of the system• The temperature of the hydrogenincreases as it flows through thePlatform thermal Management Systemcooling the Platform Electrical Loadsand the Generators.• The hydrogen then flows through theNuclear Reactor further increasing itstemperature.• The high temperature, high pressurehydrogen then expands through theTurbines providing the mechanicalenergy to drive the Generators• The Generators provide the electricalenergy for the Platform Electrical andElectronic Components• The hydrogen then exhausts to spacethrough thrust-cancelling nozzles.NuclearReactorPlatformThermalManagementSystemPlatformElectrical andElectronicComponentsElectricityExhaustto spaceHeatLH2PumpGenerators Turbines
  10. 10. Open-cycle Nuclear SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• ~1/10 Weight of closed-cycle nuclear concept• No products ofcombustion in gasesexhausted to space• Based on 1960s NuclearEngine for RocketVehicular Application(NERVA) technologyDisadvantages• Resupply LH2 due to boil-off and periodic systemreadiness checks• Hydrogen cloud caninterfere with somesensors and systems• Thrust imbalances fromnozzles can affectplatform stability andcontrol requiring morereactants for RCSthrusters
  11. 11. Open-cycle Chemical Power System• Chemical Energy (Combustion) Power Source• Hydrogen (LH2) stored on platform, coolant formission-critical components• Liquid oxygen (LOX) stored on platform at about -300 F (-180 C)• Fuel-rich H2-O2 combustion provides hothydrogen and water-vapor to power turbines andgenerators• Exhaust hydrogen and water vapor from turbinesto space
  12. 12. Open-cycle Chemical SystemOperation• Pump increases the pressure of the hydrogenand provides the energy to move it through therest of the system• The temperature of the hydrogen increases as itflows through the Platform ThermalManagement System cooling the PlatformElectrical Loads and the Generators.• The hydrogen then flows into the Combustorwhere hydrogen-rich combustion provides theadditional heat necessary to power the turbinesand generators.• The high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogenand steam then expand through the Turbinesproviding the mechanical energy to drive theGenerators• The Generators provide the electrical energy forthe Platform Electrical and ElectronicComponents• The hydrogen and steam then exhaust to spacethrough thrust-cancelling nozzles.CombustorPlatformThermalManagementSystemPlatformElectrical andElectronicComponentsElectricityExhaustto spaceHeatLH2PumpGenerators TurbinesPumpLOX
  13. 13. Open-cycle Chemical SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• ~1/10 Weight of closed-cyclenuclear concept• Does not have the safety andsecurity issues associated withnuclear power systemconceptsDisadvantages• Resupply LH2 and LOX due toboil-off and periodic systemreadiness checks• Hydrogen and water vaporcloud can interfere with somesensors and systems• Water vapor can damagesome mission-critical systems• Thrust imbalances fromnozzles can affect platformstability and control requiringmore reactants for RCSthrusters
  14. 14. Hybrid Chemical Power System• Chemical Energy (Combustion) Power Source• Hydrogen (LH2) stored on space platform, coolant for mission-critical components• Liquid oxygen (LOX) stored on platform at about -300 F (-180 C)• ~10% of H2 from thermal management system diverted tocombustor/heat exchanger• Ideally stoichiometric H2-O2 combustion heats pure hydrogen topower turbines and generators• Exhaust pure hydrogen from turbines to space• Pure hydrogen to power turbines condenses water vapor from H2-O2 combustion• Condensed water stored as a liquid on the space platform
  15. 15. Hybrid Chemical System Operation• Pump increases the pressure of the hydrogen andprovides the energy to move it through the rest ofthe system• The temperature of the hydrogen increases as itflows through the Platform Thermal ManagementSystem, cooling the Platform Electrical Loads andthe Generators.• ~10% of the hydrogen then flows into the hightemperature end of a combinedcombustor/counter-flow heat exchanger whereideally stoichiometric H2-O2 combustion heats thepure hydrogen to power the turbines andgenerators.• The remaining pure hydrogen then flows into thelow temperature end of the combinedcombustor/heat exchanger absorbing heat from thestoichiometric H2-O2, as it condenses the watervapor from the combustion• The pure hydrogen at high-temperature, high-pressure then expand through the Turbinesproviding the mechanical energy to drive theGenerators• The Generators provide the electrical energy for thePlatform Electrical and Electronic Components• The pure hydrogen then exhausts to space throughthrust-cancelling nozzles.Combustor/HeatExchangerPlatformThermalManagementSystemPlatformElectrical andElectronicComponentsElectricityExhaustto spaceHeatLH2PumpGenerators TurbinesLOXPumpH2O
  16. 16. Hybrid Chemical SystemAdvantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages• No products of combustionin exhaust plume• Does not have the safetyand security issuesassociated with nuclearpower system concepts• Involves evolutionary, notrevolutionary, advances inexisting technologiesDisadvantages• Resupply LH2 and LOX dueto boil-off and periodicsystem readiness checks• Heavier than open-cyclechemical system• More complex than open-cycle chemical system• Thrust imbalances fromnozzles can affect platformstability and controlrequiring more reactants forRCS thrusters
  17. 17. System of Choice• Open-cycle Chemical Power Systems– Minimum mass– Minimum system complexity– Rapid start capability– Lowest risk technology, compared to nuclearsystems)• Hybrid Chemical Power System identified asan “enabling technology” and the system-of-choice
  18. 18. Additional Contributions• Power generation system required large 24 stageaxial flow turbines– Weight of axial turbine stages Diameter2– Turbine stage diameters increase in size with eachsuccessive stage• Key component required very high voltage DCpower (100 kVDC)• Equipment to provide 100 kVDC (transformersand power-conditioning devices) can weigh asmuch as the turbines and generators combined
  19. 19. Solution to Turbine Size and Weight• Ljungström Turbine• Gasses flow through stagesradially from the center of thedisks• Counter-rotating turbine disks• Four times the energyconversion per stage as axialturbines• Six stages instead of twenty-four• Torque from counter-rotatingdisks naturally cancel eachotherRotationRotationH2 FlowH2 Flow
  20. 20. Solution to Power Conditioning Issues• Teamed with electricalengineer coworkers toconfigure:– Four 25 kV generatorsconnected in series– Full-wave rectification to getdirect current– Arranging phases to minimizeripple < 2%• Result: US Patent 4,780,659• Satisfied electrical powerand quality requirementswithout transformers andpower conditioning3
  21. 21. Conclusions• Developed or employed enabling technologies for the customer• Devised chemical energy power source with no products ofcombustion in exhaust plume– Advantages of open-cycle nuclear system (no products of combustion)– Advantages of chemical system (non-nuclear power source)• Selected high-power density Ljungström– 4X Energy conversion per stage than axial turbines– Counter-rotating rotors naturally cancel torque• Teamed-up with electrical engineering coworkers to deviseintegrated power generation-power conditioning concept toprovide 100 kVC with less than 1% ripple– No transformers– No power conditioning equipment to provide high voltage DC with lessthan 2% ripple
  22. 22. References1. Open-Cycle Chemical Power and Thermal ManagementSystem With Combustion Product-free Effluent, G. S.Hosford, K. Weber, Sundstrand Corporation, Rockford, IL;R. Giellis, Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO. AIAAThermophysics, Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference,June 27-29, 1988, San Antonio, Texas2. Hydrogen-Oxygen Thruster With No Products ofCombustion in Exhaust Plume, Gregory S. Hosford, KenClodfelter, Sundstrand Advanced Technology Group,Rockford, IL, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 23rd Joint PropulsionConference, June 29-July 2, 1987/San Diego, Ca.3. Patent 4,780,659 - High-Power, High-Voltage DirectCurrent Power Source, Madan L. Bansal, AlexanderKrinickas, Jr., Figure 2

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