Digital Educational Games: JustFor Fun or Cognitive LearningTools? G E RALDINE S H I KORA C I T Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E W YO R K AT QUEENS COLLEGE PROFESSOR MURFIN S E YS 7 7 7 DECEMBER 11, 2012 G S HIKORA@GMAIL.COM
The research in this project will serve atwofold purpose:• It will provide a literature review of the significance of incorporating digital games and digital simulation games, as educational teaching tools into the science classroom.• It will provide the theoretical framework for an action research study to investigate the use of a specific web based game, The Blood Typing Game, as a teaching tool.
Questions for Investigation .• Can educational digital games and digital simulations be incorporated into a lesson, as useful teaching tools, when teaching science content?• Can these tools be useful for teaching 21st Century skills in the science classroom?• Does playing such educational digital games and digital simulations foster the cognitive skills students need in an inquiry based science classroom?
Conclusions from Literature Search on the Blood Typing Game
Conclusions from Literature Search on theDigital Games & Digital Simulations
Digital Natives &21st Century Learning SkillsT O C A P T I VAT E T H E AT T E N T I O N , M O T I VAT E A N DE D U C AT E T H E S E D I G I TA L N AT I V E S W E M U S TC O M M U N I C AT E W I T H T H E M I N T H E I R O W NL A N G U A G E . ( P R E N S K Y, 2 0 0 5 ; S P I R E S , 2 0 0 8 )PEOPLE ACQUIRE NEW KNOWLEDGE AN D THEC O M P L E X S K I L L S R E Q U I R E D O F G A M E P L AY W H I C HS U G G E S T S T H AT G A M I N G C O U L D H E L PS T R E N G T H E N O U R S Y S T E M O F E D U C AT I O N A N DP R E PA R E W O R K E R S F O R 2 1 S T C E N T U R Y J O B S .N O R T O N , & H AT H A W AY ( 2 0 1 2 ) ,
Digital GamesGAME “ A G A M E I S A N A R T I F I C I A L LY C O N S T R U C T E D ,COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY WITH A SPECIFIC GOAL, A SETO F R U L E S A N D C O N S T R A I N T S T H AT I S L O C AT E D I N AS P E C I F I C C O N T E X T. ”H AY S ( 2 0 0 5 , P 1 5 ) D I G I TA L G A M E“ R E F E R S T O A N Y T Y P E O F G A M E P L AY E D O N L I N E , O N ACOMPUTER, CONSOLE, OR VIA A HANDHELD DEVICE”(SARDONE & DEVLIN-SCHERER,2009,P48)
Digital Simulations T H E D E F I N I T I O N O F S C I E N C E - S I M U L AT I O N S O F T W A R E C A N B ED I V I D E D I N T O T W O C AT E G O R I E S : V I R T U A L L A B O R AT O R I E S & S I M U L AT I O N S O F S C I E N T I F I C P H E N O M E N A . SCALISE, TIMMS, MOORJANI, CLARK, HOLTERMANN, & IRVIN (2011)
Science Literacy and the Science Classroom• It is essential to engage and enable students to act as real –world scientists do, by giving them the opportunity to learn technological skills.• It is the ultimate mission of the educator to provide a learning environment which allows students to feel like scientists and to learn by doing(Gabric et al., 2005)• In designing and managing the learning, environment, teachers must make available science tools, materials media and technological resources to their students. (Olson & Loucks- Horsley, 2000)
What should teachers look forwhen selecting a digital game as a teaching tool? • CONTENT WHICH ALIGNS WITH THE CURRICULUM • COGNITIVE SKILL BUILDING THEORIES WHICH SUPPORT THE UTILIZATION OF SUCH DIGITAL GAMES AND DIGITAL SIMULATIONS IN THE CLASSROOM. • GAME DESIGN
Game DesignFormal methods are employed by gamedesigners when planning the content andfeatures of a game. The ultimate objectiveof game design is to produce an immersiveand entertaining game (Gunter, Kenny, &Vick, 2008).
Game Design Models Game Design Model Author(Year)Relevance Embedding Translation Adaptation Immersion & Gunter, Kenny, & Vick, ( 2008)Naturalization (RETAIN) modelAn Action Plan: Design Principles Framework for Simulations and Scalise, Timms, Moorjani, Clark,Virtual Laboratories Holtermann, & Irvin (2011)Computer Games and Literacy Integrated with Content Norton & Hathaway (2012)Knowledge, (CLICK) is a model which emphasizes game play,complex text and game design to promote student learningAk, (2012) develops an educational game design model which Ak (2012)consists of learning inputs, game cycles and learning outcomes todetermine what aspects of games make them effective learningtools. Ak synthesizes his model by combining the Input- Process-Outcome structure designed by Garris, Ahlers, and Driskell,(2012) with the elements of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle(Kolb, Boyatzis, & Mainemelis, 1999)Paras and Bizzocchi (2005) explain how games can act as effective Paras and Bizzocchi (2005)learning environments by creating a model which integratesgame, motivation and effective learning into the educational gamedesign.
ConclusionEducators of the 21st Centurycan now ease their concernsbecause students are having funwhile receiving a qualityeducational experience.
HandoutsThe following slides will serve assupplemental handouts to thepresentation.They are not intended to be part of thePowerPoint presentation.
This first part of this literature review will define and discussthe implementation of such digital games in the scienceclassroom:• Provide definitions of digital games and digital simulation games.• Discuss science literacy in the science classroom.• 21st century learning skills.• Cognitive skill building theories which support the utilization of such digital games and digital simulations in the classroom.• The design of such games.• Limitations of their implementation.
The second part of this study will be an action research study which will investigate the use of The Blood Typing Game, a Web-Based Educational simulation game found on the Nobelprize.org website, in a high school Living Environment educational setting.• The Blood Typing Game-Literature Search• Nobelprize.org• The Blood Typing Game-Historical background.• The Blood Typing Game –Playing the Game.
Methods used for The Blood Typing Game-Literature SearchThe following databases from the Queens College Library were utilized; ERIC, GoogleScholar, PsychInfo and Teacher Reference Center. SEARCH LITERATURE GOAL DESCRIPTORS RESULTS 1 Any games from nobel.org Virtual and simulations and Nobel Prize, Lennon, 2010/ & Virtual and games and Nobel Prize. Article on The Blood Typing Game Nobleprize.Org Immune System EXPANDED TO INCLUDE 3RD game. DESCRIPTOR Nobelprize.org, high school education, science education, and virtual technology The Blood Typing Game Digital games and blood typing Sardone, 2009 & 2 Sardone, 2010 MODIFIED SEARCH The descriptor blood typing was replaced Both articles include The Blood with the descriptors blood, blood groups, Typing Game as part of reference list and blood transfusions. with minimal discussion. The Blood Typing Game Nobel Prize and educational games and No Results 3 & blood typing. Teaching Blood Groups MODIFIED SEARCH Repeated using the descriptors games and blood groups, games and blood transfusions, games and blood, games and the circulatory system. and education. 4 The Blood Typing Game Producers of the game, Lina Goransson, No Results & Mirek Labedzki and Karin Svaholm were searched. The Designer of the Game MODIFIED SEARCH Lina Goransson and the Blood Typing Game and Nobel Prize MODIFIED SEARCH 2012 best game category by Swedish learning Awards and Blood typing
Methods used for Literature Search on Digital Games & Digital SimulationsThe following databases from the Queens College Library wereutilized; ERIC, Google Scholar, PsychInfo and Teacher ReferenceCenter. SEARCH LITERATURE GOAL DESCRIPTORS 1 Virtual Games and Science Education Digital Games & Digital Simulations Virtual simulation Games and Science Education Modified to include third Descriptor High School 2 Technology and 21st Century Skills 21ST Century Skills Partnership for 21st Century Skills 3 Virtual Games and Science Education and Cognitive Skills Cognitive Skills Virtual simulation and Science Education and Cognitive Skills Modified to include third Descriptor High School or Learning or Learning Theories or Instructional Games
Instruction should include four elements:(1) Instruction must be designed to support specific instructionalobjectives, which are determined by job requirements.(2) Instruction must include the opportunity for a learner to interactwith the instructional content in a meaningful way.(3) The students performance must be assessed to determine if heor she has learned what was intended. (4) Finally, the results of the assessment must be presented to thestudent in a relevant and timely manner to either reinforce correctactions or to provide remediation for incorrect actions.If these four elements are not present, we are not dealing withinstruction (Hays, 2005).
Games from Nobelprize.orgName of Game Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930 Nobel Prize for the discovery of human blood groups.Blood Typing The 2001 Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning the controlControl of the Cell cycle of the cell cycle. The 1923 Nobel Prize for the discovery of the hormoneDiabetes and Insulin insulin. The discovery made it possible to treat people suffering from diabetes. Information not provided.DNA-RNA-Protein The 1962 Nobel Prize awarded for the discovery of theDNA The Double Helix molecular structure of DNA – the double helix. The 1961 Nobel Prize awarded for the discovery of howEar Pages sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea in the inner ear. The 1924 Nobel Prize was awarded for the discovery of theECG/Electrocardiogram electrocardiogram, ECG. The 1908 Nobel Prize awarded for identifying certain bodyImmune System cells engulfing bacteria and for work on trying to explain how antibodies are formed in the body.
The Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine haveImmune Responses rewarded several achievements that helped to reveal the mysterious complexities of the immune system. The 1902 Nobel Prize awarded for the discovery of the 1907Malaria causing malaria and the 1907 Nobel Prize for finding the parasite in human blood. The 2003 Nobel Prize awarded for discoveries concerning MRI -MRI magnetic resonance imaging. The Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have rewardedNerve Signaling several achievements that helped to reveal the mysterious complexities of the nervous system. The 1904 Nobel Prize explores the scientific achievements ofPavlov’s Dog Ivan Pavlov, awarded with for his pioneering studies of how the digestive system works. The 1981 Nobel Prize awarded for discoveries in the 1960sSplit Brain Experiments concerning differences in the right and left brain hemispheres. The 1974 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine developedThe Cell and its Organelles methods that made it possible to see and identify organelles, the specialized compartments inside all our cells. The 1968 Nobel Prize for work on the genetic code and its role inThe Genetic Code protein production. The 1905 Nobel Prize awarded for investigations and discoveriesTuberculosis concerning the disease tuberculosis, or "TB". The 1929 Nobel Prize awarded for pointing out a substance inVitaminB1 rice skin, which was later discovered to be vitamin B1.