Skeletal System
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Skeletal System

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Skeletal System Skeletal System Presentation Transcript

  • Parts of the skeletal system: • Bones (skeleton) • Joints • Cartilages • Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) Divided into two sections • Axial skeleton- skull, spinal column, and rib cage • Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • Functions of Bones • Support of the body • Protection of soft organs • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • Bones of the Human Body • The skeleton has 206 bones • Two basic types of bone tissue • Compact bone • Homogeneous • Spongy bone • Small needle-like pieces of bone • Many open spaces Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.2b
  • Bones are classified by their shape: 1.Long- bones are longer than they are wide (arms, legs) 2.Short- usually square in shape, cube like (wrist, ankle) 3.Flat- flat , curved (skull, Sternum) 4.Irregular- odd shapes (vertebrae, pelvis)
  • Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Figure 5.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • Types of Bone Cells • Osteocytes • Mature bone cells • Osteoblasts • Bone-forming cells • Osteoclasts • Bone-destroying cells • Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium • Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • Changes in the Human Skeleton • In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage • During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone • Cartilage remains in isolated areas • Bridge of the nose • Parts of ribs • Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • The Human Skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton Axial Skeleton
  • The Axial Skeleton • Forms the longitudinal part of the body • Divided into three parts • Skull • Vertebral Column • Rib Cage • Supports and protects organs of head, neck and trunk. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • The Axial Skeleton Figure 5.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide
  • Appendicular skeleton includes bones of limbs and bones that anchor them to the axial skeleton. Appendicular skeleton: pectoral girdle (clavicle, scapula) upper limbs (arms) pelvic girdle (sacrum, coccyx) lower limbs (legs) Articulation- where joints meet, connect, and are formed.
  • Joints A joint, or articulation, is the place where two bones come together. • Fibrous- Immovable:connect bones, no movement. (skull and pelvis). • Cartilaginous- slightly movable, bones are attached by cartilage, a little movement (spine or ribs). • Synovial- freely movable, much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones.
  • The Synovial Joint Figure 5.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 5.51
  • Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Figure 5.29a–c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide
  • Types of Joints based on Movement Hinge- A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an appendage. (Elbow, Knee)
  • Ball and Socket- A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Hip, Shoulder)
  • Gliding- In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Mid-carpal and midtarsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands, Feet)
  • Saddle- This type of joint occurs when the touching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the shapes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of movement. (Thumb)