Sheffield Hallam University Formula Student Virtual Lecture by  R Harris MSc, BEng, CEng, MIET
Lecture Objectives <ul><li>To understand the design of vehicle to meet a particular specification; Formula Student </li></...
What is Formula Student ? <ul><li>&quot;  While ostensibly about the design and production of a single-seater racing car, ...
How does it relate to Formula SAE* ? <ul><li>A British version of Formula SAE using the same rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Ther...
Basic Rules <ul><li>The design must conform to the 119 page SAE rule book </li></ul><ul><li>A completely new car must be b...
Basic Design <ul><li>Open cockpit </li></ul><ul><li>Must have 4 wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Brakes must operate on all 4 whee...
Typical Designs <ul><li>The next slides give examples of vehicles that have previously been constructed </li></ul>
India – Delhi College of Engineering,
Canada – University of Toronto
Sheffield Hallam’s  Formula Student car
Key Design Decisions Needed <ul><li>type of engine – petrol, diesel, no of cylinders, turbo or supercharged, engine manage...
Design Constraints <ul><li>physical resources - machine shops, welding facilities, modelling software etc </li></ul><ul><l...
Analysis of Spaceframe Design
Solid Model of Baseline Chassis
Driver Size Relative to Chassis
Does the Rollbar Meet the specificatioin?
Check with a Real Person
Suspension <ul><li>Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>need to leave space for driver </li></ul><ul><li>mounting points availab...
Front Suspension and Steering An initial Proposal
Front Suspension As implemented
Rear Suspension
Rear Suspension
Complete Chassis
Engine and Transmission <ul><li>Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>physical size to fit frame </li></ul><ul><li>capacity allow...
Decisions Made <ul><li>commercially available motorcycle engine </li></ul><ul><li>use liquid cooling as more flexible </li...
Issues to Resolve <ul><li>torque/speed characteristics need modifying to achieve low speed torque </li></ul><ul><li>need a...
Dynamometer Engine Testing
Engine in Frame
Front Suspension and Steering
SHU Racing Team <ul><li>SHU Racing team students who work on the car have individual projects  </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew R...
SHU RACING 2007 PETROL TANK MATTHEW ROSS
MY PROFILE <ul><li>MATTHEW ROSS </li></ul><ul><li>19 YEARS OLD </li></ul><ul><li>FROM LINCOLNSHIRE </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST...
FUEL PUMP <ul><li>SUZUKI GSX MOTORBIKE </li></ul><ul><li>FUEL FILTER </li></ul><ul><li>FUEL PRESSURE REGULATOR </li></ul><...
PROBLEMS WITH OLD TANK <ul><li>DESIGNED FOR USE WITH PREVIOUS CAR </li></ul><ul><li>PUMP COULD  NOT  BE SUBMERGED INSIDE T...
 
 
<ul><li>MUST ACCOMMODATE FUEL PUMP </li></ul><ul><li>MUST FIT INTO CHASSIS CAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>MUST HAVE SUFFICIENT C...
<ul><li>INTERNAL VOLUME CAN BE CALCULATED </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING PLANS CAN BE CREATED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERFERE...
<ul><li>MUST ACCOMMODATE FUEL PUMP </li></ul><ul><li>MUST FIT INTO CHASSIS CAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>MUST HAVE SUFFICIENT C...
<ul><li>INTERNAL VOLUME CAN BE CALCULATED </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING PLANS CAN BE CREATED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERFERE...
MIG WELDS ON NEW PETROL TANK
5 LITRE 4 LITRE NEW PETROL TANK OFFERS: 20%  WEIGHT REDUCTION INCREASED CAPACITY FROM 4 TO  5 LITRES
Initial Design for the Electrical System Circuit diagram
 
Body Work - Design Options
Bodywork designs and ideas
CAD drawings of body on frame
Profile Image of Car
Actual bodywork
Track testing
Initial Testing
At the Event
Each team car goes though rigorous testing process <ul><li>Static Events: </li></ul><ul><li>Design, Cost & Presentation Ju...
Engine testing
Scruitneering
The Noise Test
Tilt test
The brake test
Practice
The BIG event! <ul><li>Average speed should be 48 km/hr (29.8 mph) to 57 km/hr (35.4 mph) with top speeds of approximately...
Starting grid
Video of the Race
The finishing line
<ul><li>On the podium </li></ul>
The team
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Other Subject Related Lecture Formula Student Sheffield Hallam University

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  • Lecture is an example of the applied and industrially relevant type of teaching SHU is famous for
  • The concept is US in origin, the Formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) being the original competition. Purpose is as described on the slide
  • Self explanatory
  • Lots of rules! Rules and regulations are real world constraints for an engineer and so working within them to maximise your results is a great skill to acquire Can only refine a car for one year after its initial entry so each time a new design is needed Most teams have one car running and another under development for next year – just like the real world No professional input apart from academics and academic facilities
  • Self explanatory Most use a motorcycle engine Some add turbo or supercharging Safety is a key design requirement
  • Truly international
  • Truly international
  • And Sheffield Hallams 2007 entry Notice the safety marshalls with fire extinguishers Last year one car (not Hallam’s) sprang an oil leak onto the hot exhaust and there was an instant fire – fire extinguishers are needed The driver must under the rules (and this is checked) be able to get out from being strapped in within 5 seconds. When the car caught fire it was more like 0.5 seconds!
  • A screenshot of the analysis of the stresses on the space frame
  • A 3D model of the space frame chassis The space near the rear is where the engine goes – it is an integral part of the chassis
  • Some early checking on whether the driver will fit in
  • More checking on the driver’s fit
  • He really does fit! Tested with the largest of the drivers Car in our automotive workshop Engine testing bays with dynamometers are adjacent
  • Self explanatory Check clearances etc
  • Front suspension arrangement showing the various linkages and the damper positioning
  • Rear suspension Drive shafts not fitted
  • Note the mandatory brake light Silver box is the fuel tank
  • Note the spray can of black paint
  • We have engine testing bays with dynamometers to allow us to optimise the engine performance Significant work is needed generate more torque at low speeds, the event requires repeated acceleration from low speed Different type of use the engine was designed for Many teams have overheating problems due to the low speeds leading to inadequate cooling
  • More detail Notice the racing slick tyres in the background
  • Steering rack and front end detail
  • This presentation was part of his final year project He was assessed on it As an engineer you need to be able to communicate and discuss your ideas
  • Not yet been drawn up fully Fairly simple We have concentrate on simplicity and reliability rather than unnecessary complexity and sophistication This solution is appropriate to this vehicle, complexity will not bring any benefits
  • Circuit diagram On the white board
  • First part of the process is to do some careful thinking about the design This is an example of the thinking, in this case about the body shell
  • As usual we use CAD to determine the actual shape
  • This is not a photo it is an impression of what the car could look like
  • Now painted – This is the 2008 car
  • Initial complete testing Note use of PC to tune the engine
  • 2007 car during testing
  • Three purposes Firstly judging on the technical merits of the car Secondly safety related testing Thirdly judging on performance
  • Note the fuel tank in use
  • Must not tip over Must not leak fuel People in shot are members of last years SHU team
  • Must be able to lock all 4 wheels No ABS! Note the multinational sponsors
  • These are rules from the Formula Student handbook
  • Hallam Car ready to go
  • We made it – many don’t!
  • Other Subject Related Lecture Formula Student Sheffield Hallam University

    1. 1. Sheffield Hallam University Formula Student Virtual Lecture by R Harris MSc, BEng, CEng, MIET
    2. 2. Lecture Objectives <ul><li>To understand the design of vehicle to meet a particular specification; Formula Student </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the design process </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the engineering decisions made </li></ul><ul><li>To review the final product </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Formula Student ? <ul><li>&quot; While ostensibly about the design and production of a single-seater racing car, Formula Student is actually more about building future engineering talent, not just in design and manufacture, but in many of the management, marketing and people skills so vital in the modern world, across all sectors of employment. &quot; </li></ul>Institution of Mechanical Engineers www.imeche.org
    4. 4. How does it relate to Formula SAE* ? <ul><li>A British version of Formula SAE using the same rules. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also similar events in Italy, Brazil, Australia. </li></ul>* Society of Automotive Engineers
    5. 5. Basic Rules <ul><li>The design must conform to the 119 page SAE rule book </li></ul><ul><li>A completely new car must be built every two years </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Vehicles entered into Formula SAE competitions must be conceived, designed, fabricated and maintained by the student team members without direct involvement from professional engineers, automotive engineers, racers, machinists or related professionals.&quot; </li></ul>
    6. 6. Basic Design <ul><li>Open cockpit </li></ul><ul><li>Must have 4 wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Brakes must operate on all 4 wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Max 610cc engine </li></ul><ul><li>Super or turbo charging permitted </li></ul><ul><li>Must have roll hoops for driver safety </li></ul><ul><li>Monocoque and space frame acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Seat harness mandatory </li></ul>
    7. 7. Typical Designs <ul><li>The next slides give examples of vehicles that have previously been constructed </li></ul>
    8. 8. India – Delhi College of Engineering,
    9. 9. Canada – University of Toronto
    10. 10. Sheffield Hallam’s Formula Student car
    11. 11. Key Design Decisions Needed <ul><li>type of engine – petrol, diesel, no of cylinders, turbo or supercharged, engine management </li></ul><ul><li>drive train – shaft drive, chain drive, transmission type </li></ul><ul><li>frame – monocoque or space frame </li></ul><ul><li>frame material(s) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Design Constraints <ul><li>physical resources - machine shops, welding facilities, modelling software etc </li></ul><ul><li>intellectual resources – student and staff experience and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>students skill set </li></ul><ul><li>time, people and finance available </li></ul><ul><li>cost </li></ul>
    13. 13. Analysis of Spaceframe Design
    14. 14. Solid Model of Baseline Chassis
    15. 15. Driver Size Relative to Chassis
    16. 16. Does the Rollbar Meet the specificatioin?
    17. 17. Check with a Real Person
    18. 18. Suspension <ul><li>Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>need to leave space for driver </li></ul><ul><li>mounting points available on frame </li></ul><ul><li>need to minimise weight of components </li></ul><ul><li>need to used commercially available components </li></ul>
    19. 19. Front Suspension and Steering An initial Proposal
    20. 20. Front Suspension As implemented
    21. 21. Rear Suspension
    22. 22. Rear Suspension
    23. 23. Complete Chassis
    24. 24. Engine and Transmission <ul><li>Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>physical size to fit frame </li></ul><ul><li>capacity allowed </li></ul><ul><li>expertise available </li></ul><ul><li>finance available </li></ul><ul><li>development time available </li></ul>
    25. 25. Decisions Made <ul><li>commercially available motorcycle engine </li></ul><ul><li>use liquid cooling as more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>normally aspirated due to limited time and expertise develop forced induction </li></ul><ul><li>use existing engine management system initially </li></ul><ul><li>optimise on dynamometer </li></ul><ul><li>use existing gearbox </li></ul>
    26. 26. Issues to Resolve <ul><li>torque/speed characteristics need modifying to achieve low speed torque </li></ul><ul><li>need additional cooling to cope with low air velocity </li></ul><ul><li>gear selection </li></ul>
    27. 27. Dynamometer Engine Testing
    28. 28. Engine in Frame
    29. 29. Front Suspension and Steering
    30. 30. SHU Racing Team <ul><li>SHU Racing team students who work on the car have individual projects </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew Ross is a current student </li></ul><ul><li>He has kindly provided his presentation to show his project of improving the petrol tank for the car </li></ul>
    31. 31. SHU RACING 2007 PETROL TANK MATTHEW ROSS
    32. 32. MY PROFILE <ul><li>MATTHEW ROSS </li></ul><ul><li>19 YEARS OLD </li></ul><ul><li>FROM LINCOLNSHIRE </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST YEAR STUDENT </li></ul><ul><li>AT SHEFFIELD HALLAM </li></ul><ul><li>STUDYING COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN TECH </li></ul>
    33. 33. FUEL PUMP <ul><li>SUZUKI GSX MOTORBIKE </li></ul><ul><li>FUEL FILTER </li></ul><ul><li>FUEL PRESSURE REGULATOR </li></ul><ul><li>FUEL PUMP </li></ul><ul><li>UNIT MUST BE SUBMERGED </li></ul><ul><li>MUST REMAIN VERTICAL DURING OPERATION </li></ul>
    34. 34. PROBLEMS WITH OLD TANK <ul><li>DESIGNED FOR USE WITH PREVIOUS CAR </li></ul><ul><li>PUMP COULD NOT BE SUBMERGED INSIDE TANK </li></ul><ul><li>TANK WAS LOCATED NEAR EXHAUST MANIFOLD </li></ul><ul><li>FUEL FILLER NECK WAS ILLEGAL (FIA / SAE RULES) </li></ul>
    35. 37. <ul><li>MUST ACCOMMODATE FUEL PUMP </li></ul><ul><li>MUST FIT INTO CHASSIS CAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>MUST HAVE SUFFICIENT CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>FILLER NECK MUST COMPLY WITH REGULATIONS </li></ul>
    36. 38. <ul><li>INTERNAL VOLUME CAN BE CALCULATED </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING PLANS CAN BE CREATED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERFERENCE FITS CAN BE IDENTIFIED </li></ul>
    37. 39. <ul><li>MUST ACCOMMODATE FUEL PUMP </li></ul><ul><li>MUST FIT INTO CHASSIS CAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>MUST HAVE SUFFICIENT CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>FILLER NECK MUST COMPLY WITH REGULATIONS </li></ul>
    38. 40. <ul><li>INTERNAL VOLUME CAN BE CALCULATED </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING PLANS CAN BE CREATED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERFERENCE FITS CAN BE IDENTIFIED </li></ul>
    39. 41. MIG WELDS ON NEW PETROL TANK
    40. 42. 5 LITRE 4 LITRE NEW PETROL TANK OFFERS: 20% WEIGHT REDUCTION INCREASED CAPACITY FROM 4 TO 5 LITRES
    41. 43. Initial Design for the Electrical System Circuit diagram
    42. 45. Body Work - Design Options
    43. 46. Bodywork designs and ideas
    44. 47. CAD drawings of body on frame
    45. 48. Profile Image of Car
    46. 49. Actual bodywork
    47. 50. Track testing
    48. 51. Initial Testing
    49. 52. At the Event
    50. 53. Each team car goes though rigorous testing process <ul><li>Static Events: </li></ul><ul><li>Design, Cost & Presentation Judging - High scoring part of competition Technical & Safety Scrutineering Tilt Test Brake & Noise Test </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Events </li></ul><ul><li>Skid Pan (Figure of 8) Sprint Acceleration Endurance & Fuel Economy </li></ul>
    51. 54. Engine testing
    52. 55. Scruitneering
    53. 56. The Noise Test
    54. 57. Tilt test
    55. 58. The brake test
    56. 59. Practice
    57. 60. The BIG event! <ul><li>Average speed should be 48 km/hr (29.8 mph) to 57 km/hr (35.4 mph) with top speeds of approximately 105 km/hr (65.2 mph). </li></ul><ul><li>The event will be run as a single heat approximately 22 km (13.66 miles) long. Teams are not allowed to work on their vehicles during the heat. </li></ul><ul><li>A driver change must be made during a 3minute period at the mid point of the heat. </li></ul>
    58. 61. Starting grid
    59. 62. Video of the Race
    60. 63. The finishing line
    61. 64. <ul><li>On the podium </li></ul>
    62. 65. The team

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