The Space Race was a mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union(USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in space exploration.Between 1957 and 1975, Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority.
• The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon.
• In 1955, with both the United States and the Soviet Union building ballistic missiles that could be utilized to launch objects into space, the "starting line" was drawn for the Space Race.• In separate announcements, just four days apart, both nations publicly announced that they would launch artificial Earth satellites by 1957 or 1958.• On 29 July 1955, James C. Hagerty, president Dwight D. Eisenhowers press secretary, announced that the United States intended to launch "small Earth circling satellites" between 1 July 1957 and 31 December 1958 as part of their contribution to the International Geophysical Year (IGY).
• Four days later, at the Sixth Congress of International Astronautical Federation in Copenhagen, scientist Leonid I. Sedov spoke to international reporters at the Soviet embassy, and announced his countrys intention to launch a satellite as well, in the "near future".• On 30 August 1955, Korolev managed to get the Soviet Academy of Sciences to create a commission whose purpose was to beat the Americans into Earth orbit: this was the defacto start date for the Space Race.
It effectively began with the Soviet launch of the Sputnik 1artificial satellite on 4 October 1957.It concluded with the co-operative Apollo-Soyuz Test Project human spaceflight mission in July 1975. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project came to symbolize détente, a partial easing of strained relations between the USSR and the US.
Timeline of the Space Race • http://www.history.com/topics/space- race/videos#the-space-race
Timeline of the Space Race Date Significance Country Mission Name Intercontinental ballistic R-7 Semyorka SS-6August 21, 1957 USSR missile (ICBM) SapwoodOctober 4, 1957 First artificial satellite USSR Sputnik 1November 3, 1957 First animal in orbit (Dog) USSR Sputnik 2 First US satellite;January 31, 1958 detection ofVan Allen USA-ABMA Explorer 1 belts First communicationsDecember 18, 1958 USA-ABMA Project SCORE satellite
Artificial satelliteJanuary 4, 1959 USSR Luna 1 (Suns)February 17, 1959 Weather satellite USA-NASA(NRL)1 Vanguard 2 ReconnaissanceJune 1959 USA-Air Force Discover 4 satellite Photo of Earth fromAugust 7, 1959 USA-NASA Explorer 6 spaceSeptember 14, 1959 Probe to Moon USSR Luna 2 Photo of the far side ofOctober 7, 1959 USSR Luna 3 the Moon
April 12, 1961 Human in orbit USSR Vostok 1 FirstJuly 10, 1962 active communications USA-AT&T Telstar satellite Artificial satellite by aSeptember 29, 1962 Canada Alouette 1 non-superpowerJune 16, 1963 Woman in orbit USSR Vostok 6March 18, 1965 Extra-vehicular activity USSR Voskhod 2December 15, 1965 Orbital rendezvous2 USA-NASA Gemini 6A/Gemini 7
Probe lands on anotherMarch 1, 1966 USSR Venera 3 planet - Venus In-orbit rendezvous andMarch 16, 1966 USA-NASA Gemini 8 dockingDecember 24, 1968 Manned Lunar orbit USA-NASA Apollo 8July 20, 1969 Human on the Moon USA-NASA Apollo 11April 23, 1971 Space station USSR Salyut 1 Satellite orbits anotherNovember 14, 1971 USA-NASA Mariner 9 planet -Mars GeostationarycommunicatioNovember 9, 1972 Canada-BCE Anik A1 ns satelliteJuly 15, 1975 First U.S.-USSR joint mission USSR USA-NASA Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
• The Space Race sparked unprecedented increases in spending on education and pure research, which accelerated scientific advancements and led to beneficial spin-off technologies. An unforeseen effect was that the Space Race contributed to the birth of the environmental movement; the first color pictures of Earth taken from deep space were used as icons by the movement to show the planet as a fragile "blue marble" surrounded by the blackness of space.
Advances in technology and educationTechnology—especially in aerospace engineering, electronics and telecommunicati onfields—advanced greatly during this period. However, the effects of the Space Race went far beyond rocketry, physics, and astronomy. "Space age technology" extended to fields as diverse as home economics and forest defoliation studies, and the push to win the race changed the very nature of science education.
• American concerns that they had fallen behind the Soviet Union in the race to space led quickly to a push by legislators and educators for greater emphasis on mathematics and the physical sciences in American schools. The United States National Defense Education Act of 1958 increased funding for these goals from childhood education through the post-graduate level. To this day over 1,200 American high schools retain their own planetarium installations, a situation unparalleled in any other country and a direct consequence of the Space Race
Today over a thousand artificial satellites orbit earth, relaying communications data around the planet and facilitating remote sensing of data on weather, vegetation, and human movements for the nations who employ them. In addition, much of the micro-technology that fuels everyday activities, from time-keeping to enjoying music, derives from research initially driven by the Space Race.
The Environment• An unintended consequence of the Space Race is that it facilitated the environmental movement, as this was the first time in history that humans could see their home-world as it really appears-–the first color pictures from space showed a fragile blue planet bordered by the blackness of space.• Pictures such as Apollo 8s Earthrise, which showed a crescent Earth peeking over the lunar surface, and Apollo 17s The Blue Marble, which for the first-time-ever showed a full circular earth, became iconic to the environmental movement.• The first Earth Day was partially triggered by the Apollo 8 photo. Astronauts returning from space missions also commented on how fragile the Earth looked from space, further fueling calls for better stewardship of the only home humans have—for now.
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