Joseph Stalin Visario Novic Djugashvala Stalin was born in the city of "Gori" in the Republic of Georgia to a shoemaker called "pesos" . The "pesos" Stalin brutally beaten in his childhood beatings harsh note that in that period it was common for boys "for the education of boys." Left the "pesos" and his family has gone and without a breadwinner or Stalin
Stalin said on that point :«I was one of the millions who have lived poverty and deprivation, because the father gave up his house, and because the mother did not find what you are blocking by the breath of their children only tales and dreams ..»
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) He was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953.He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953.
While formally the office of theGeneral Secretary was elective and was not initially regarded as the top position in the Soviet state,after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924, Stalin managed to consolidate more and more power in his hands, gradually putting down all opposition groups within the party.
The initial upheaval in the changing agricultural sector disrupted food production in the early 1930s, contributing to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933, one of the last major famines in Russia.In 1937–38, a campaign against former members of the communist opposition, potential rivals in the party, and other alleged enemies of the regime culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repression in which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including Red Army leaders convicted in coup détat plots.
In August 1939, after the failure to establish an Anglo-Franco-Soviet Alliance, Stalins USSR entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, dividing their spheres of influence in Eastern Europe.This pact allowed the Soviet Union to regain some of theformer territories of the Russian Empire in Poland, Finland,the Baltics, Bessarabia and northern Bukovina during theearly period of World War II.After Germany violated the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941 and thus opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history, the Soviet Union joined the Allies.
Despite heavy human and territorial losses in the initial period of war, the Soviet Union managed to stop the Axis advance in the battles of Moscow and Stalingrad.Eventually, the Red Army drove through Eastern Europe in 1944– 45 and captured Berlin in May 1945.Having played the decisive role in the Allied victory, the USSR emerged a recognized superpower after the war.
Stalin headed the Soviet delegations at theYalta and Potsdam Conferences, which defined the map of post-war Europe.Communist-dominated leftist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states as the USSR entered a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the United States and NATO.In Asia, Stalin established good relations with Mao Zedong and Kim Il-sung, and the Stalin-era Soviet Union in various ways served as a model for the newly formed Peoples Republic of China and Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea).
In power until his death in 1953, Stalin led the USSR during the period of post-war reconstruction, marked by the dominance of Stalinist architecture (most famously represented by the Stalin skyscrapers).The successful development of the Soviet nuclear program enabled the country to become the worlds second nuclear weapons power; the Soviet space program was started as spin- off of the nuclear project. In his last years, Stalin also launched the so-called Great Construction Projects of Communism and the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature.
Following his death, Stalin and his regime have both been questioned on numerous occasions, the most significant of these being the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, when Stalins successor, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced his legacy and drove the process of de- Stalinization of the Soviet Union.Modern views of Stalin in the Russian Federation remain mixed, with some viewing him as a tyrant while others consider him a capable leader.
1- Early life2- Revolution, Civil War, and Polish-Soviet War3- Rise to power4- Changes to Soviet society, 1927–19395- Calculating the number of victims6- how did he control his country
At ten, he began attending church school where the Georgian children were forced to speak Russian.By the age of twelve, two horse-drawn carriage accidents left his left arm permanently damaged.At sixteen, he received a scholarship to a Georgian Orthodox seminary, where he rebelled against the imperialist and religious order. Though he performed well there, he was expelled in 1899 after missing his final exams. The seminarys records suggest he was unable to pay his tuition fees.
Shortly after leaving the seminary, Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary, eventually joining Lenins Bolsheviks in 1903.After being marked by the Korana (the Tsars secret police) for his activities, he became a full-time revolutionary and outlaw.He became one of the Bolsheviks chief operatives in the Caucasus, organizing paramilitaries, inciting strikes, spreading propaganda and raising money through bank robberies, ransom kidnappings and
In the summer of 1906, Stalin married Ekaterina Svanidze, who later gave birth to Stalins first child,Yakov. A year later she died of typhus in Baku.Stalin was captured and sent to Siberia seven times, but escaped most of these exiles.He eventually adopted the name "Stalin", from the Russian word for steel, which he used as an alias and pen name in his published works.During his last exile, Stalin was conscripted by the Russian army to fight in World War I, but was deemed unfit for service because of his damaged left arm.
After returning to Saint Petersburg from exile, Stalin ousted Vyacheslav Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov as editors of Pravda.He then took a position in favor of supporting Alexander Kerenskys provisional government.However, after Lenin prevailed at the April 1917 Party conference, Stalin and Pravda supported overthrowing the provisional government.At this conference, Stalin was elected to the Bolshevik Central Committee.After Kerensky ordered the arrest of Lenin following the July Days, Stalin helped Lenin evade capture.
After the jailed Bolsheviks were freed to help defend Saint Petersburg, in October 1917, the Bolshevik Central Committee voted in favor of an insurrection.On 7 November, from the Smolny Institute, Stalin, Lenin and the rest of the Central Committee coordinated the insurrection against Kerensky in the 1917 October Revolution.By 8 November, the Bolsheviks had stormed the Winter Palace and Kerenskys Cabinet had been arrested.
Prior to revolution Stalin played an active role in fighting the tsarist government.Here, he is shown on a 1911 information card from the files of the Tsarist secret police in Saint Petersburg
Upon seizing Petrograd, Stalin was appointed Peoples Commissar forNationalities Affairs.Thereafter, civil war broke out in Russia, pitting Lenins Red Armyagainst the White Army, a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces.Lenin formed a five member Politburo which included Stalin andTrotsky.In May 1918, Lenin dispatched Stalin to the city of Tsarist. Through his new allies, Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny, Stalin imposed his influence on the military.
A group of participants in the 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party, 1919. In the middle are Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin.
Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky, orderedthe killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Armyand counter-revolutionaries and burned villages in order tointimidate the peasantry into submission and discouragebandit raids on food shipments.In May 1919, in order to stem mass desertions on the Western front, Stalin had deserters and renegades publicly executed as traitors.
After their Russian Civil War victory, the Bolsheviks moved to establish a sphere of influence in Central Europe, starting with what became the Polish–Soviet War. As commander of the southern front, Stalin was determined to take the Polish-held city of Lviv. This conflicted with general strategy set by Lenin and Trotsky, which focused upon the capture of Warsaw further north.
Trotskys forces engaged with those of Polish commander Władysław Sikorski at the Battle of Warsaw, but Stalin refused to redirect his troops from Lviv to help. Consequently, the battles for both Lviv and Warsaw were lost, for which Stalin was blamed. Stalin returned to Moscow in August 1920, where he defended himself and resigned his military commission. At the Ninth Party Conference on 22 September, Trotsky openly criticized Stalins behavior.
Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia, following which he adopted particularly hard-line, centralist policies towards Soviet Georgia, which included the Georgian Affair of 1922 and other repressions This created a rift with Lenin, who believed that all the Soviet states should stand equal.
Lenin still considered Stalin to be a loyal ally, and when he got mired in squabbles with Trotsky and other politicians, he decided to give Stalin more power.With the help of Lev Kamenev, Lenin had Stalinappointed as General Secretary in 1922. This postallowed Stalin to appoint many of his allies togovernment positions.
Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922, forcing him intosemi-retirement in Gorki. Stalin visited him often, acting as his intermediary with the outside world. The pair quarreled and their relationship deteriorated. Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament.
He criticized Stalins rude manners, excessive power, ambition and politics, and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary. During Lenins semi-retirement, Stalin forged an alliance with Kamenev and Gregory Zinoviev against Leon Trotsky.These allies prevented Lenins Testament from being revealed to the Twelfth Party Congress in April 1923.
Lenin died of a heart attack on 21 January 1924. Again, Kamenev and Zinoviev helped to keep Lenins Testament from going public. Thereafter, Stalins disputes with Lev Kamenev and Zinoviev intensified. Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev grew increasingly isolated, and were eventually ejected from the Central Committee and then from the Party itself. Kamenev and Zinoviev were later readmitted, but Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet Union.
Stalin pushed for more rapid industrialization and centralcontrol of the economy, contravening Lenins New EconomicPolicy (NEP). At the end of 1927, a critical shortfall in grain supplies prompted Stalin to push for collectivization of agriculture and order the seizures of grain hoards from kulak farmers. Bukharin and Premier Alexey Rykov opposed these policies and advocated a return to the NEP, but the rest of the Politburo sided with Stalin and removed Bukharin from the Politburo in November 1929. Rykov was fired the following year, and was replaced by Vyacheslav Molotov on Stalins recommendation.
In December 1934, the popular Sergei Kirov was murdered. Stalin blamed Kirovs murder on a vast conspiracy of saboteurs and Trotskyites.He launched a massive purge against these internal enemies, putting them on rigged show trials and then having them executed or imprisoned in Siberian gulags. Among these victims were old enemies, including Bukharin, Rykov, Kamenev and Zinoviev.Stalin made the loyal Nikolai Yezhov head of the secret police, the NKVD, and had him purge the NKVD of veteran Bolsheviks.With no serious opponents left in power, Stalin ended the purges in 1938.Yezhov was held to blame for the excesses of the Great Terror, and was dismissed and later executed.
Stalin vastly increased the scope and power of the states secret police and intelligence agencies.Under his guiding hand, Soviet intelligence forces began to set up intelligence networks in most of the major nations of the world, including Germany (the famous Rote Kappelle spy ring), Great Britain, France, Japan, and the United States.Stalin made considerable use of the Communist International movement in order to infiltrate agents and to ensure that foreign Communist parties remained pro-Soviet and pro- Stalin.One of the best examples of Stalins ability to integrate secret police and foreign espionage came in 1940, when he gave approval to the secret police to have Leon Trotsky assassinated in Mexico.
Shortly before, during and immediately after World War II, Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union. It is estimated that between 1941 and 1949 nearly 3.3 million were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. By some estimates up to 43% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition.As a result of Stalins lack of trust in the loyalty of particular ethnicities, such ethnic groupsas the Soviet Koreans, the Volga Germans, theCrimean Tatars, the Chechens, andmany Poles were forcibly moved out of strategic areas and relocated to places in the centralSoviet Union, especially Kazakhstan in Soviet Central Asia. By some estimates, hundreds ofthousands of deportees may have died en route.According to official Soviet estimates, more than 14 million people passed throughthe Gulag from 1929 to 1953, with a further 7 to 8 million being deported and exiled toremote areas of the Soviet Union (including the entire nationalities in several cases).In February 1956, Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violationof Leninism, and reversed most of them, although it was not until 1991 that theTatars, Meskhetians and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to theirhomelands. The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union. Thememory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the BalticStates, Tatarstan and Chechnya, even today.
Stalins regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture. This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, to bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and to make tax collection more efficient. Collectivization meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienation from control of the land and its produce. Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, and it faced violent reaction among the peasantry.In the first years of collectivization it was estimated that industrial production would rise by 200% and agricultural production by 50%, but these estimates were not met. Stalin blamed this unanticipated failure on kulaks (rich peasants), who resisted collectivization. (However, kulaks proper made up only 4% of the peasant population; the "kulaks" that Stalin targeted included the slightly better-off peasants who took the brunt of violence from the OGPU and the Komsomol. These peasants were about 60% of the population). Those officially defined as "kulaks," "kulak helpers," and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot, placed into Gulag labor camps, or deported to remote areas of the country, depending on the charge. Archival data indicates that 20,201 people were executed during 1930, the year of Dekulakization.The two-stage progress of collectivization—interrupted for a year by Stalins famous editorials, "Dizzy with success’ and "Reply to Collective Farm Comrades"is a prime example of his capacity for tactical political withdrawal followed by intensification of initial strategies.
Famine affected other parts of the USSR. The death toll from famine in the Soviet Union at this time is estimated at between five and ten million people. The worst crop failure of late tsarist Russia, in 1892, had caused 375,000 to 400,000 deaths.Most modern scholars agree that the famine was caused by the policies of the government of the Soviet Union under Stalin, rather than by natural reasons.According to Alan Bullock, "the total Soviet grain crop was no worse than that of 1931 ... it was not a crop failure but the excessive demands of the state, ruthlessly enforced, that cost the lives of as many as five million Ukrainian peasants." Stalin refused to release large grain reserves that could have alleviated the famine, while continuing to export grain; he was convinced that the Ukrainian peasants had hidden grain away, and strictly enforced draconian new collective- farm theft laws in response.
The Russian Civil War and wartime communism had a devastating effect on the countrys economy. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. A recovery followed under the New Economic Policy, which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism. Under Stalins direction, this was replaced by a system of centrally ordained "Five-Year Plans" in the late 1920s. These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture.
In 1933 workers real earnings sank to about one- tenth of the 1926 level. Common and political prisoners in labor camps were forced to do unpaid labor, and communists and Komsomol members were frequently "mobilized" for various construction projects. The Soviet Union used numerous foreign experts, to design new factories, supervise construction, instruct workers and improve manufacturing processes. The most notable foreign contractor was Albert Kahns firm that designed and built 521 factories between 1930 and 1932. As a rule, factories were supplied with imported equipment.
According to Robert Lewis the Five-Year Plan substantially helped to modernize the previously backward Soviet economy. New products were developed, and the scale and efficiency of existing production greatly increased. Some innovations were based on indigenous technical developments, others on imported foreign technology. Despite its costs, the industrialization effort allowed the Soviet Union to fight, and ultimately win, World War II.
Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control by Stalin and his government, along with art and literature. There was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains, owing to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research.However, the most notable legacy duringStalins time was his public endorsement ofthe Agronomist Trofim Lysenko whorejected Mendelian genetics as "bourgeoispseudosciences" and instead supportedHybridization theories that causedwidespread agricultural destruction andmajor setbacks in Soviet knowledge inbiology.Although many scientists opposed hisviews, those who publicly came out wereimprisoned and denounced. Some areas ofphysics were criticized.
Stalin followed the position adopted by Lenin that religion was an opiate that needed to be removed in order to construct the ideal communist society. To this end, his government promoted atheism through special atheistic education in schools, massive amounts of anti-religious propaganda, the antireligious work of public institutions (especially the Society of the Godless), discriminatory laws, and also a terror campaign against religious believers. By the late 1930s it had become dangerous to be publicly associated with religion.
Stalin and his supporters have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated by a country as underdeveloped as Russia during the 1920s. Indeed this might be the only means in which it could be built in a hostile environment. In 1933, Stalin put forward the theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism, arguing that the further the country would move forward, the more acute forms of struggle will be used by the doomed remnants of exploiter classes in their last desperate efforts – and that, therefore, political repression was necessary.
Researchers before the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union attempting to count the number of people killed under Stalins regime produced estimates ranging from 3 to 60 million. After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives also became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement – for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.
The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensivefigures for some categories of victims, such as the those of ethnicdeportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath ofWorld War II.Eric D. Weitz wrote, "By 1948, according to Nicolas Werth, the mortality rate of the 600,000 people deported from the Caucasus between 1943 and 1944 had reached 25%.“ Other notable exclusions from NKVD data on repression deaths include the Katyn massacre, other killings in the newly occupied areas, and the mass shootings of Red Army personnel (deserters and so-called deserters) in 1941. The Soviets executed 158,000 soldiers for desertion during the war, and the "blocking detachments" of the NKVD shot thousands more.
The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensivefigures for some categories of victims, such as the those of ethnicdeportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath ofWorld War II. Also, the official statistics on Gulag mortality exclude deaths of prisoners taking place shortly after their release but which resulted from the harsh treatment in the camps. Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete. In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings, as one additional example, Robert Gellately and Simon Sebag-Montefiore argue the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed.
Joseph Salin controlled Russia by forcing the people to worship him secretavley. He also used the secret police to spread important news and lies about the country, the countrys government and Stalin. Stalin would say that Russia was a democratic government, so the people would vote, but there would only be one party to vote for. Communists.
Soviet Life under Stalins Government! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhEFyqz1 6p0Private life of Starin http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ko4_Ep0Y CJ8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=70clQ4Bk 0xY&feature=related