Background:•Congress of Vienna had restored themonarchy (after Napoleon)•Louis XVIII became king•A constitution was put into place: Charterof French Liberties. •2 house legislature •Limited freedom of press•When Louis XVIII died his brother Charles Xinherited the throne.•Charles supported absolutism.
July 1830Charles suspends the Charterof French Liberties;Limits the right to vote;Restricts press. Liberals and radicals throw up barricades in the streets; they fire on soldiers and throw rocks. Within days they control Paris. Charles abdicates and flees to England.
“Citizen King” Louis Philippe Owed throne to the people•Cousin of Charles X•Had supported 1789 revolution•Ruled under a constitutional monarchy
BUT over time… •Extended vote to only the wealthy •Working people grew poorer; middle class and aristocracy wealthierOnce again, discontent with leadership ofcountry would lead to yet another revolution
Some reformers were planning a banquet… …the government said LA LA LA. Protestors took to the streets!Louis Philippe abdicated (gave up the throne)… …say good bye to the monarchy.
Louis Napoleon for President! (N’s nephew)Second Republic (First between Revolution and Napoleon):•All adult men received right to vote•Fueled women’s rights movement•Inspired other revolutions in Europe
But then… Louis Napoleon wanted to stay past his 4 year term…•Arrested members of National Assembly who opposed him;•Called for a vote on whether he could write a new constitution;•Voters said YES•Louis Napoleon became EMPEROR NAPOLEON II•The SECOND EMPIRE begins.
The Second Empire• Increased voting rights;• Many new railroads;• Increased trade & improved communications.BUT…• 1870 began a war with Prussia: Franco- Prussian War.• Napoleon captured; surrenders to Prussians.
The Third Republic•Primary education for children 6-13;•Trade unions legalized;•By 1900 working hours reduced;•1906 act requiring employers to give workersone day off a week.
The rest of the story…well, in a nutshell…Early governments of the Third Republic consideredre-establishing the monarchy, but confusion of thenature of that monarchy, and who among the variousdeposed royal families would be awarded the thronecaused those talks to stall and made the ThirdRepublic, originally intended to be a transitionalgovernment, to become the permanent governmentof France.The Third Republic lasted until 1940 when Germanyinvaded at the beginning of WWII.