Human evolution javier caro

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Human evolution javier caro

  1. 1. Human evolutionHuman evolution
  2. 2. Human evolutionHuman evolution Human evolutionHuman evolution, is the origin and, is the origin and evolution ofevolution of Homo sapiensHomo sapiens as a distinctas a distinct species from other hominids, great apesspecies from other hominids, great apes and placental mammals. The study ofand placental mammals. The study of human evolution encompasses manyhuman evolution encompasses many scientific disciplines, including physicalscientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology,anthropology, primatology, archaeology, linguistics and genetics.linguistics and genetics.
  3. 3. From primate to hominidFrom primate to hominid  The main characteristics of the hominids are:The main characteristics of the hominids are:  Always moving biped upright. This position determines the situationAlways moving biped upright. This position determines the situation of the foramen magnum at the base of the skull. On each side andof the foramen magnum at the base of the skull. On each side and pointing down, are the occipital condyles. The spine is sooo morepointing down, are the occipital condyles. The spine is sooo more circular than in other antropooides, po the best weight-bearingcircular than in other antropooides, po the best weight-bearing vertical. The spine has three bends, the pelvis widens and shortens,vertical. The spine has three bends, the pelvis widens and shortens, there is a gradual lengthening of the leg bones and the thumb of thethere is a gradual lengthening of the leg bones and the thumb of the lower extremitieslower extremities  Your palate is U-shaped with rounded dental arch and small teethYour palate is U-shaped with rounded dental arch and small teeth  His skull houses a large brain. This increase brain is in relation to aHis skull houses a large brain. This increase brain is in relation to a diet of high energy content, since the brain is an organ that muchdiet of high energy content, since the brain is an organ that much energyenergy
  4. 4. ArdipithecusArdipithecus  ArdipithecusArdipithecus is a very early homininis a very early hominin genus. Two species are described in thegenus. Two species are described in the literature:literature: A. ramidusA. ramidus, which lived about, which lived about 4.4 million years ago during the early4.4 million years ago during the early Pliocene, andPliocene, and A. kadabbaA. kadabba, dated to, dated to approximately 5.6 million years ago (lateapproximately 5.6 million years ago (late Miocene).Miocene).
  5. 5. AustralopithecusAustralopithecus  is a genus of hominids that are now extinct.is a genus of hominids that are now extinct. From the evidence gathered by palaeontologistsFrom the evidence gathered by palaeontologists and archaeologists, it appears that theand archaeologists, it appears that the AustralopithecusAustralopithecus genus evolved in eastern Africagenus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreadingaround 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventuallythroughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago. During thisbecoming extinct 2 million years ago. During this time period various different forms oftime period various different forms of australopiths existed, includingaustralopiths existed, including AustralopithecusAustralopithecus anamensisanamensis,, A. afarensisA. afarensis,, A. sedibaA. sediba, and, and A.A. africanusafricanus..
  6. 6. AustralopithecusAustralopithecus
  7. 7. Australopithecus afarensisAustralopithecus afarensis  Australopithecus afarensisAustralopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominidis an extinct hominid which lived between 3.7 and 2.9 million years ago.which lived between 3.7 and 2.9 million years ago.  A. afarensisA. afarensis was slenderly built, like the youngerwas slenderly built, like the younger Australopithecus africanusAustralopithecus africanus. It is thought that. It is thought that A. afarensisA. afarensis was ancestral to both the genuswas ancestral to both the genus AustralopithecusAustralopithecus andand the genusthe genus HomoHomo, which includes the modern human, which includes the modern human species,species, Homo sapiensHomo sapiens. The most famous fossil is the. The most famous fossil is the partial skeleton named Lucy (3.2 million years old) bypartial skeleton named Lucy (3.2 million years old) by Donald Johanson and colleagues, after they played theDonald Johanson and colleagues, after they played the Beatles songBeatles song Lucy in the Sky with DiamondsLucy in the Sky with Diamonds over andover and over in celebration of their find.over in celebration of their find.
  8. 8. Australopithecus afarensisAustralopithecus afarensis
  9. 9. ParanthropusParanthropus TheThe robust australopithecinesrobust australopithecines ,, members of the extinct hominin genusmembers of the extinct hominin genus ParanthropusParanthropus (Greek para "beside",(Greek para "beside", Greek anthropos "human"), were bipedalGreek anthropos "human"), were bipedal hominids that probably descended fromhominids that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominidsthe gracile australopithecine hominids ((AustralopithecusAustralopithecus))
  10. 10. ParanthropusParanthropus
  11. 11. HOMO HABILISHOMO HABILIS  Homo habilisHomo habilis lived from about 2.4 to 1.4 Ma.lived from about 2.4 to 1.4 Ma. HomoHomo habilishabilis, the first species of the genus, the first species of the genus HomoHomo, evolved in, evolved in South and East Africa in the late Pliocene or earlySouth and East Africa in the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene, 2.5–2 Ma, when it diverged from thePleistocene, 2.5–2 Ma, when it diverged from the Australopithecines.Australopithecines. Homo habilisHomo habilis had smaller molars andhad smaller molars and larger brains than the Australopithecines, and made toolslarger brains than the Australopithecines, and made tools from stone and perhaps animal bones. One of the firstfrom stone and perhaps animal bones. One of the first known hominids, it was nicknamed 'handy man' by itsknown hominids, it was nicknamed 'handy man' by its discoverer, Louis Leakey due to its association withdiscoverer, Louis Leakey due to its association with stone tools. Some scientists have proposed moving thisstone tools. Some scientists have proposed moving this species out ofspecies out of HomoHomo and intoand into AustralopithecusAustralopithecus due todue to the morphology of its skeleton being more adapted tothe morphology of its skeleton being more adapted to living on trees rather than to moving on two legs likeliving on trees rather than to moving on two legs like Homo sapiensHomo sapiens..
  12. 12. HOMO HABILISHOMO HABILIS
  13. 13. Homo ergasterHomo ergaster  Homo ergasterHomo ergaster is an extinct chronospecies ofis an extinct chronospecies of HomoHomo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the earlythat lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, about 1.7- 2.5 million years ago. There isPleistocene, about 1.7- 2.5 million years ago. There is still disagreement on the subject of the classification,still disagreement on the subject of the classification, ancestry, and progeny ofancestry, and progeny of H. ergasterH. ergaster, but it is now widely, but it is now widely accepted to be the direct ancestor of later hominids suchaccepted to be the direct ancestor of later hominids such asas Homo heidelbergensisHomo heidelbergensis,, Homo sapiensHomo sapiens, and, and HomoHomo neanderthalensisneanderthalensis rather than Asianrather than Asian Homo erectusHomo erectus. It is. It is one of the earliest members of the genusone of the earliest members of the genus HomoHomo,, possibly descended from, or sharing a common ancestorpossibly descended from, or sharing a common ancestor with,with, Homo habilisHomo habilis..  The binomial name published in 1975 by Groves andThe binomial name published in 1975 by Groves and Mazák is derived from the Ancient GreekMazák is derived from the Ancient Greek ἐργαστήρἐργαστήρ "workman", in reference to the comparatively advanced"workman", in reference to the comparatively advanced lithic technology developed by the species, introducinglithic technology developed by the species, introducing the Acheulean industry.the Acheulean industry.
  14. 14. Homo ergasterHomo ergaster
  15. 15. Homo erectusHomo erectus  Homo erectusHomo erectus (from the Latin(from the Latin ērĭgĕreērĭgĕre, "to put up, set upright") is, "to put up, set upright") is an extinct species of hominid that originated in Africa and spread asan extinct species of hominid that originated in Africa and spread as far as China and Java from the end of the Pliocene epoch to thefar as China and Java from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the later Pleistocene, about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago. There is stilllater Pleistocene, about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago. There is still disagreement on the subject of the classification, ancestry, anddisagreement on the subject of the classification, ancestry, and progeny ofprogeny of H. erectusH. erectus, with two major alternative hypotheses:, with two major alternative hypotheses: erectuserectus may be another name formay be another name for Homo ergasterHomo ergaster, and therefore the, and therefore the direct ancestor of later hominids such asdirect ancestor of later hominids such as Homo heidelbergensisHomo heidelbergensis,, Homo neanderthalensisHomo neanderthalensis, and, and Homo sapiensHomo sapiens; or it may be an Asian; or it may be an Asian species distinct from Africanspecies distinct from African ergasterergaster..  H. erectusH. erectus originally migrated from Africa during the Earlyoriginally migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the SaharanPleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the Saharan pump, around 2.0 million years ago, and dispersed throughout muchpump, around 2.0 million years ago, and dispersed throughout much of the Old World.of the Old World.
  16. 16. Homo erectusHomo erectus
  17. 17. Homo antecessorHomo antecessor  Homo antecessorHomo antecessor is an extinct human species (oris an extinct human species (or subspecies) dating from 1.2 million to 800,000 yearssubspecies) dating from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luisago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro.Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro. H. antecessorH. antecessor is one of the earliest known human varieties in Europe.is one of the earliest known human varieties in Europe. Various archaeologists and anthropologists haveVarious archaeologists and anthropologists have debated howdebated how H. antecessorH. antecessor related to otherrelated to other HomoHomo species in Europe, with suggestions that it was anspecies in Europe, with suggestions that it was an evolutionary link betweenevolutionary link between H. ergasterH. ergaster andand H.H. heidelbergensisheidelbergensis, although Richard Klein believes that it, although Richard Klein believes that it was instead a separate species that evolved fromwas instead a separate species that evolved from H.H. ergaster.ergaster. Others believe thatOthers believe that H. antecessorH. antecessor is in fact theis in fact the same species assame species as H. heidelbergensisH. heidelbergensis, who inhabited, who inhabited Europe from 600,000 to 250,000 years ago in theEurope from 600,000 to 250,000 years ago in the Pleistocene.Pleistocene.
  18. 18. Homo antecessorHomo antecessor
  19. 19. NeanderthalNeanderthal TheThe NeanderthalNeanderthal (short for(short for Neanderthal ManNeanderthal Man ,, in modern orthographyin modern orthography NeandertalNeandertal) is an) is an extinct member of theextinct member of the HomoHomo genus that isgenus that is known from Pleistocene specimens found inknown from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia.Europe and parts of western and central Asia. Neanderthals are either classified as aNeanderthals are either classified as a subspecies (or race) of modern humans (subspecies (or race) of modern humans (HomoHomo sapiens neanderthalensissapiens neanderthalensis ) or as a separate) or as a separate human species (human species (Homo neanderthalensisHomo neanderthalensis ).).
  20. 20. NeanderthalNeanderthal
  21. 21. HumansHumans  HumansHumans, known taxonomically as, known taxonomically as Homo sapiensHomo sapiens, are, are the only living species in thethe only living species in the HomoHomo genus of bipedalgenus of bipedal primates in Hominidae, the great ape family.primates in Hominidae, the great ape family. Anatomically modern humans originated in Africa aboutAnatomically modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago, reaching full behavioral modernity200,000 years ago, reaching full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago.around 50,000 years ago.  Humans have a highly developed brain, capable ofHumans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and problemabstract reasoning, language, introspection, and problem solving. This mental capability, combined with an erectsolving. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the hands for manipulatingbody carriage that frees the hands for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use ofobjects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other living species on Earth. Othertools than any other living species on Earth. Other higher-level thought processes of humans, such as self-higher-level thought processes of humans, such as self- awareness, rationality and sapience, are considered toawareness, rationality and sapience, are considered to be defining features of what constitutes a "person".be defining features of what constitutes a "person".
  22. 22. HumansHumans
  23. 23. Made byMade by Javier Caro Baños y Javier HernándezJavier Caro Baños y Javier Hernández CortésCortés

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