The universe isThe sum of all that exist, this
includes the time, the space, the matter and
2- HISTORY OF OUR VISION OF THE
2.1 1st Hypothesis. the universe is formed just by
“The Milky Way”.
The geocentric model: Aristotle established that the
Earth was located in the centre of the universe and
everything revolve around the Earth
The heliocentric model: Copernicus said that the sun was
located in the centre of the Universe and everything
revolve around the sun.
2.2 the discovery the Andromeda
Hubble found this Galaxy using the greast
HookerTelescope.Thanks to this discovery
was probed that the universe isn’t formed just
for our Galaxy.
2.3- The Big Bang theory
In 1929 Hubble discovered that the galaxies move.Thanks to
this phenomenon Hubble realized that the universe is in
expansion, in the past it was smaller and compacted.
The expansion not only affect to the matter it also affect to
After the Big Bang the universe was very hot, it was formed by
a plasma of protons and electrons particles. Light interacted
with this plasma. Nuclear reactions were produce and atomic
nuclei were formed.
As the atomic nuclei were formed light didn’t interacted with
El universo empezó a expandirse tras el Big Bang.
La gravedad es la única fuerza que actúa y provoca que los
cuerpos se atraigan.
Los astrónomos piensan que a causa de la gravedad (si es muy
fuerte) la expansión frenara, pero si la fuerza de la gravedad es
débil el universo seguirá expandiéndose.
La gravedad esta relacionada con la densidad y esta se puede
medir de varias formas: medir la cantidad de materia brillante
y medir la masa dinámica. sumando la m. brillante y la masa
dinámica no se puede frenar la expansión. Aun considerando
la materia oscura no se podría parar la expansión.
El universo acelerado
Es posible estudiar el futuro del universo
midiendo la variación de velocidad de
expansión. Con esto también podemos
estudiar la velocidad del pasado.
Gracias a un estudio sabemos que la
velocidad de expansión era mas lenta en el
“El universo esta acelerando” ya que hay una
fuerza actuando sobre él que nosotros
3- Big structures of the
Galaxies are huge groups of stars, gas and
dust.There are different types:
1. Spiral galaxies
2. Elliptical galaxies
3. Irregular galaxies
The galaxies are grouped to form even large
structures, called “Cumulus”.
Our galaxy is part of a cumulus called “The
Local Group”. It is composed of 3 big spiral
galaxies (MilkyWay, Andromeda and M33)
and 30 small galaxies
Are giant clouds of gas and dust with
different shapes.They are the result of big
explosions that occur at the end of the life of
very massive stars.
Quasars and Black Holes
Are stellar objects that emit a large amount of energy as
radio waves. It could be nuclei of galaxy information
Are objects in which the light can’t escape because of the
enormous gravitational attraction.
The stars are huge of spheres of H and He
gas.They are formed in a nebulae and thy get
old an die.The hottest stars are blue, and the
coldest are red.
Energy of a star
The stages of the life of a star depend on the
amount of energy that is capable of
generating at all times. Inside the stars are
produced nuclear reaction that emit energy.
The stars are in a continuous state of nuclear
Vital cycle of a star
Stars are born in a galactic nebulae which are
composed mainly of H and He.
1- Protostar: are produced by the contraction
of the nebula. Are formed by H.
2-Young star: protostar became a star when
H transformed into He trough nuclear fusion.
It take places in the core.
3-Red giant star:
is the final stage of the life o a star.They are formed by He.
Nuclear reaction take places outside the core.
Due the increased of density, the core begins to shrink becoming
denser and an increase of temperature is also produced.The
nuclear reactions accelerated.
the production of energy increased and therefore the thermal
pressures and radiation pressures increased.The star becomes
bigger, the out layers cool-down and the star gets red.
When the H is consumed the star contract and reduce it sides
formed white dwarf star.
4- Red Supergiant Star:
It’s a different final of a star life.
Due the high temperatures He is going to produce elements
like carbon an oxygen by nuclear fusion.
Now the star has two areas of energy production: the core
where the He is converted into O and C; and the outer layers
where H is converted into He.
When the nuclear reactions stop the star becomes aWhite
Juan Carlos Salinas
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